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WC.1 T 

Insures against fire, 

destructive insects and 

dishonest borrower 










Presented to 




Leslie G. Kilborn 










SHANGHAI, MAY 720, 1890. 








miiE GENERAL CONFERENCE of Missionaries to China, which 
i- was held in Shanghai in May, 1890, appointed a Committee 
of three of its Secretaries to publish a record of its proceed 
ings. The enterprise and energy of the Presbyterian Mission 
Press removed all financial difficulties, and the result is the 
issue of this volume before the end of the same year. The dis 
tances intervening between the homes of the three editors have 
materially increased the labour and difficulty of decision on 
points of detail, and the result has been that an undue share 
of the burden has fallen on the shoulders of the only one 
resident in Shanghai. Should a similar Conference occur in 
the future, it would be wise to appoint a Committee residing 
in the place of publication. 

The Essays had been previously issued in pamphlet form, 
but, to secure greater correctness anol elegance, the stereotypes 
have been broken up, the pages carefully revised throughout, 
and inlet headings inserted to facilitate reference. The Record 
will be found to be complete, as all important discussions, 
taken down in shorthand, by the senior Secretary, are full} 
reported. To the Rev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tung- 
chow, we owe the preparation of the Introduction, and to the 
Rev. G. F. Fitch, of Shanghai, the arrangement of the List 
of the members of the Conference. 

The few months that have intervened since the Conference 
broke up, have been singularly fatal to health, and not fin- 
short of a score of missionaries have gone to the reward of 
their faith. We cannot do otherwise than briefly refer to 
the loss to China in the unexpected death of the Rev. Dr. 
Williamson, to whom more than any other the meeting of the 
Conference was due, and who acted as the Treasurer of the 
whole undertaking. 


The work now completed is sent forth to the world as 
the crystallised memory of a most exhilarating and successful 
gathering, with thanks to Him who blessed it for the impetus 
given to hundreds of workers in all parts of the empire. 

WUCHANG, November ktli, 1890. 

W. J. LEWIS, Shanc/hai, \ r 

W. T. A. BARBER, Wnchw,y, [ J*!; 

JT> ry T 7 " 1 V V>UJIM I i I LL, 

. K. HYKES, Aiulaang, ) 





List of Members ... ... ... ... ,,, xv 

Analysis of List of Members ... ... ... ... _ xxiii 

Rules of Procedure ... ... ... ... xxiv 

Abstract of Proceedings ......... tt< xxv 

Committees appointed to act during the Conference... xxxvi 

Reports of Committees ... ... ... x j 

Permanent Committees ... ... ] x 

Resolutions adopted by the Conference ... Ixiii 

Programme ... ... ... ... ... j xv 

Sermon ... ... ... ... ... i 

The Changed Aspect of China ......... n 

The Relation of Christian Missions to the Foi*eign Residents 23 32 

The Accelerated Momentum of Truth ...... 28 

Historical Summary of Versions, &c. ... 33 45 

Translation of the Scriptures into Chinese .., 41 

Discussion ... ... ... t-q 

Review of the various Colloquial Versions ... 62 89 

Colloquial Versions of the Chinese Scriptures 93 
On the Need of Concise, &c., Notes, also Headings to Chapters, &c. 105 

Bible Distribution in China : its methods and results 116 

The Young Men s Christian Association and Foreign Missions ... ]41 

The Missionary : his Qualification, Introduction to his Work and 

Mode of Life 

............... 145 

Lay Agency in Chinese Missions ......... 153 

Discussion ...... 

* * .I O 

Historical Review of Missionary Methods ...... 1 (;7 

Preaching to the Heathen ...... -^ Iq( . 

The Secret Sects of Shantung ......... -, f( , 

Discussion ...... 



General View of Woman s Work in China and its Results 210 

Girls Schools 216, 225 

Best Methods of reaching the Women 

\ How to reach the Women of China ... ... ... ... ... 235 

Feasibility of Unmarried Ladies engaging in General Evangelistic 

Work in New Fields 241 

The Training and Work of Native Female Evangelists 244 

The Christian Training of the Women of the Church 


Medical Work as an Evangelizing Agency ... 

Medical Missionary Work in China by Lady Physicians 279 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ^oo 

Orphanages, Asylums for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb 

Charitable Institutions ... ... ... ... ... 291 

Teaching the Chinese Blind ... ... 302 

Value and Methods of Opium Refuges ... ... ... ... 300 

Evils of the Use of Opium ... . .. ... ... 314 

Discussion ... ... ... ... ... ... 35G 

Discussion on the Report of the Bible Distribution Committee ... 3C1 

Discussion on the Report of the Committee on Vernacular Versions 370 
Method of dealing with Inquirers, Conditions of Admission to 

Church Fellowship and Best Methods of Discipline ... 

Church Discipline ... ... ... ... >> 382 

Deepening the Spiritual Lifo and stimulating the Church to 

Aggressive Work ... ... ... ... ... 389 

Service of Song in China ... ... ... - U** 

Relation of Christian Missions to the Chinese Government 401 

Methods of developing Self-support and Voluntary Effort 415 

Discussion 424, 43G 

Missionary Information and Experience ... ... ... ... 428 

History and Present Condition of Mission Schools and what further 

Plans are desirable ? ... ... ... ... - 447 

How may Educational Work be made most to advance the Cause 

of Christianity in China? 456 

The Relation of Christian Education to the Present Condition and 

Needs of China 407 


The Best Method of selecting and training Efficient Native Assist- 

ants (Preachers, School Teachers, &c.) 476, 483 

The Place of the Chinese Classics iu Christian Schools and Colleges 490 

Discussion ... ... ... 496 

Ladies Meeting ... 509 

Discussion on the Report of Committee on a Wen-li Version ... 513 

Ditto. on Mandarin Revision ... 514 

Reports of School and Text Book Committee 518 

What Books are still needed? 519 

Scientific Terminology : Present Discrepancies and Means of Securing 

Uniformity... ... ... ... ... - 531 

Discussiou ... ... ... ... "49 

Christian Literature in China: its Business Management 551 

Periodical Literature ... ... ... ... 555 

Current Chinese Literature: how far is it antagonistic to Chris 
tianity? 559 

Discussion ... ... "- t 

Discussion on Supplementary Report of Wen-li Committee ... 587 

Discussion on Report of Simple Wen-li Committee ... ... 587 

Discussion on Report of Committee on Introductions to the Scriptures 588 

An Address to Conference ... ... ... ... 501 

The Division of the Field ... 592 

Co-operation ... ... 594 


How far should Christiana be required to abandon Native Cus 
toms ? 603,009 

The Worship of Ancestors a Plea for Toleration ... ... ... C19 

The Attitude of Christianity towards Ancestral Worship ... ... 631 

Discussion 654, 690, 699 

Statistics of Protestant Mission Work ... ... 660 

TheMauchus 661 

The Aboriginal Tribes of Formosa ... ... ... ... ... 668 

The Chinese in and around the Straits Settlements ... ... ... 675 

Missionary Effort among the Chinese in Burma ... ... ... 679 

The Aboriginal Tribes of Western Yunnan ... ... 683 

The Miao-ts i and other Tribes of Western China C86 




Communications relating to the Opium Evils ... ... ... 703 

Table of Dialects and Vernacular Versions of Scripture 706 

To the Rt. Rev. Bishop Burdon s Essay on Colloquial Versions ... 707 

Lady Physicians engaged in Missionary Work in China ... ... 710 

Report of the School and Text Book Series Committee 712 

List of Periodicals iu the Chinese Lnuguago... ... r*0 

Roman Catholics in the Malay Peninsula ... 725 

Aboriginal Tribes in Kweicheo ... ... ... 7-G 

Circular Letter to Absent Missionaries 731 

f \ 


Dr. CARSTAIBS DOUGLAS adjourned the Conference of 1877, he 
announced, in accordance with a resolution previously adopted, that 
another Conference would meet in ten years. In pursuance of this idea, a 
move was made in 1885 for a Conference in 1887, and articles werO 
written in the Chinese Recorder advocating it. Other articles were 
written opposing it, and proposing to postpone it till 1890. The general 
sentiment seemed to be in favor of postponement, and the Shanghai 
Missionary Association made no move on the subject. In 1887 the 
matter was again brought up, and the Shanghai Missionary Association 
appointed a committee, consisting of the Revs. M. T. Tates, 
D.D., W. Muirhead, Archdeacon Moule, Y. J. Allen, D.D., 
LL.D. and A. Williamson, LL.D., " to invite the mission 
aries of China to meet here at such time as may be decided upon, 
and to elect members of a committee of arrangements." This com 
mittee issued a circular, asking a vote from all the missionaries in 
China, as to whether a Conference should be held, and when and 
where. Four hundred and eighty circulars were sent out, yet, after 
several months, only one hundred and fifty replies had been received. It 
was accordingly decided by the Association to send out a second circular to 
those who had not replied, asking for an immediate answer. As the result, 
it was reported to the Association in June that two hundred and thirty 
missionaries had voted in favor and only twenty-three against, and that 
nearly all were in favor of 1890. The Association at once voted that a 
General Conference be invited to meet in Shanghai in 1890, and appointed 
a committee to make the necessary arrangements. This committee con 
sisted of Revs. A. Williamson, LL.D., E. Faber, Dr. TheoL, G. F. Fitch, 
Dr. H. W. Boone and Mr. D. S. Murray. The committee at once issued a 
circular letter asking for suggestions as to subjects and writers, also divid 
ing China into seven districts, each of which was asked to select a repre 
sentative to act on the general committee of arrangements. In pur 
suance of this circular the following committee was duly elected : Revs. 
H.Blodget, D.D.,J. L. Nevius, D.D., Griffith John, D.D., E. Faber, Dr. 
Theol, J. B. Goddard, C. Hartwell and B. C. Henry, D.D. As several of 
this committee were unable to serve, it was finally constituted as follows : 
Revs. E. Faber, Dr. Tlieol., chairman ; H. Blodget, D.D., A. Williamson, 
LL.D.; C. Hartwell, J. W. Stevenson; G. F. Fitch, and J. R. Goddard, 
secretary. A meeting of this committee was held in Shanghai in Nov., 

It took in hand the matter collected by the Shanghai local com- 
mittee, and, in conjunction with material gathered by itself, drew up 
8 programme covering ten days, which was afterwards somewhat modified 
by correspondence with the parties interested. 

As the time for the Conference drew on, it became evident, from 

answers to the circulars sent out by the Shanghai local com- 

, , , X , , , , Entertainment 

mittee, that the attendance at the Conference would be large, of members 

and the question of the entertainment of members became a 



very serious one. Not only did the missionaries in Shanghai enlarge their 
hospitality to the utmost, but a large number of the mercantile com 
munity opened their doors, so that in the end all were accommodated in 
private houses, save a few who came -with families oE children. For these, 
several gentlemen offered the free use oE empty houses, which were sup- 
. plied with hired furniture by the committee, and thus accommodation 
was finally provided for all. The problem was simplified by the fact 
that the China Inland Mission provided for all its members in the fine 
new buildings just erected by it. The local committee and the committee 
of Shanghai ladiea who assisted in making arrangements for the enter 
tainment oE so many guests, are worthy oE especial praise for the time, 
labor and pains bestowed on this most difficult and embarrassing work. 
Four hundred and twenty members were present on the opening day, 

and twenty- six more arrived subsequently. The trustees of 
meeting. *^ e Union Church had generously placed their spacious 

building at the service of the Conference throughout its 
sessions ; but, lest it should not be large enough, the first day s sessions 
were held in the Lyceum Theatre, where the opening sermon was preached 
and the permanent organization effected. The subsequent sessions were 
held in the Union Church, which proved to be admirably fitted for the 

As usual on such occasions, a photograph of the Conference 
Acatastro he was P 1 " ? 036 ^ the taking of which ended in a 

tragedy. A scaffolding, supported by bamboo poles, was 
hastily coa^tructed by the photographer. It consisted of about twelve 
Beats, rising in tiers and extending to a height of about eighteen feet, 
and was large euongh to seat the whole Conference. It looked frail, 
and many were dubious of its safety, but, reassured by others, they 
ascended to their seats. As it proved, the poles were not set in the 
ground with sufficient firmness, and when nearly all were seated, the 
hinder and higher seats began to sway forward on the others, and the 
whole structure doubled up like a fan, piling men and women, young and 
old, in one mass at the foot, and catching the feet and legs of a number 
between the folding timbers. Not a scream was heard, but those who 
first got on their feet, set to instantly to lift up and drag out those who 
were piled up, seven or eight deep, before them. It was but a few minutes 
before all were released. Many received cuts, bruises or sprains, but only 
a few wounds were serious, and none of these so serious as to endanger 
life, or, we hope, involve permanent injury. Looking back at the 
accident now, it seems a wonderful providence that more serious results 
did not follow. This deliverance was not the least of the causes which 
the Conference had for thankfulness. 

An important feature of the Conference was the fact that nearly all 

the papers were printed and distributed beforehand, so that 
d. 6 mu ch time was saved which must otherwise have been spent 

in reading; moreover, in this way, the papers were more 
fully in the possession of the Conference. But for this plan it would 


have been impossible to get through so crowded a programme, and leave 
sufficient time for discussion and for business. The committee of 
arrangements is worthy of all praise for this excellent plan. 

The Conference appointed committees on a large number of impor 
tant subjects. These committees brought in carefully pre 
pared reports, which were also printed and distributed C0 mmmees. t 
before being taken up for discussion and adoption. It is 
worthy of especial remark that although these committees were large, 
consisting of twelve or more, they in nearly every case brought in 
unanimous reports, and in no case was there a minority report. Much of tho 
success? of the Conference is to be attributed to the vigorous and efficient 
work done by these bodies. The hearing and discussion of so many 
important reports consumed much time, especially during the latter half 
of the Conference, thus cutting short tho discussion of papers and giving 
rise to a feeling of hurry and crowding. Notwithatanding the fact that 
the sessions were extended two days beyond the programme, some sub 
jects failed to receive the attention their importance demanded. This, 
no doubt, gave rise to a feeling of dissatisfaction in the minds of some, 
while others were compelled to leave before the end of the Conference. 
This was an incident for which no ordinary foresight could provide. 
Moreover, tho very important practical measures set on foot more than 
compensated for these losses and inconveniences, however great they may 
have been* 

The most distinguishing feature of the Conference was the spirit of 
harmony that prevailed. This spirit not only characterized 

,, ,. . . ,, , ., ., , . ,, -, Measures ac- 

the discussions, but was especially exhibited in the unanimity c 
with which various important and delicate practical meas- 

ures were acted upon. Conspicuous amongst these was tho 
subject of Bible translation and revision. It was known beforehand 
that this subject, which had been tho source of so much discussion and 
division in the past, would como up for consideration. Much prayer had 
been offered for the Conference with reference to this especial point. 
Many felt very sceptical as to the possibility of reaching any practical 
result, and few felt sanguine of success. When tho large representative 
committees appointed to consider the subject, brought in unanimous 
reports, proposing practical schemes for realising the end desired, there 
was a general feeling of surprise; and when twenty-four hours laier, the 
Conference unanimously adopted these reports, the high-water mark of 
unanimity and of enthusiasm, was reached. This achievement was no 
doubt the great work of the Conference, tho attainment of -which alone is 
worth far more than all the Conference cost. It is hard to see how it 
could have been accomplished in any other way than by the agency of such 
a Conference, Few went home without feeling that the hand of God was 
in this thing, and thankful that by His blessing it had been accomplished. 
Another practical matter, only second in importance to this, was the 
appointment of a representative committee to prepare a 
preface and explanatory readings for the Chinese Bible, ^ibie. 
and to urge their publication by the Bible Societies. It is 


hoped that this will at length be the means of securing to the missionaries 
the kind of Bible they have been so long and so ardently desiring 
for circulation amongst the heathen. 

Another very important measure, and one which, we trust, will mark 

this Conference with a lasting remembrance, is the grand 

thousand & appeal for one thousand men in five years. The key-note of 

3rs this appeal was struck in the opening sermon by the Rev. 

J. HUDSON TAYLOR. It represents the united prayer of those in the field 

to the churches at home for help, and embodies their faith in the power 

of a risen Saviour to move the church to respond to the fall measure of 

what is asked. 

The Conference afforded an occasion of the highest social enjoyment, 
an enjoyment which brought with it both physical and intel- 
reunions. lectnal, as well as spiritual profit. These enjoyments were 
heightened not a little by the fact that many of those who 
shared in them are ordinarily deprived, by their isolation, of the privilege 
of such enjoyments. Old acquaintanceships were renewed, and many 
new ones were formed, which will yield the parties concerned enjoyment 
and inspiration for years to come, in many cases for life. Many doors 
will be opened for mutual help and co-operation, which would not other 
wise have been opened. Many sympathies will be felt which would not 
otherwise have been felt ; and many prayers will be offered which would 
not otherwise have been offered. 

One of the very pleasant incidents of the Conference was the delight 
ful social gathering on the beautiful lawn of the China Inland Mission 
premises. The extensive and admirable buildings, just completed, added 
inspiration to the occasion. It was with no ordiuary feeling that the 
members of the Conference gathered in their ample compound to bid 
God speed to the grand enterprise known as the China Inland Mission. 

Another occasion of special enjoyment was the evening given to 

denomiuational reunions. English, Americans and Germans 
Denomma- . 

tiouai united in family groups, and met together for social inter- 
gatherings. . c .. c ,1 < , i * i 

course, to cement the ties of their family relationships. 

Thus was illustrated the unity in variety, which so strongly marked the 
character and spirit of the Conference. 

The Conference of 1890 will mark an era in the history of missions 
in China. It gave to the missionary body in China new prominence and 
weight in the eyes of the Christian world. The attention of the foreign 
communities in China was drawn to missions and missionaries as it never 
was before. The daily papers in Shanghai gave up a large portion of 
their space to full and careful reports of each day s proceedings. The 
various plans adopted for the accomplishment of important practical ends 
will have a permanent influence on missionary work, and it is safe to 
say that in most cases they could have been set on foot in no other 
way. God grant that the next Conference may be able to record, at the 
same time that it gives thanks for, the successful accomplishment of all 
these plans. 


With this goodly volume the permanent records of the Conference 
pass into history. The essays and discussions contain a vast 
fund of information and instruction on all the important a Records. C8e 
questions connected with mission work in China. They 
will be circulated widely, as well as handed down to the new missionaries 
of coming years, and will add much to the great work the Conference _, 
has already accomplished. With thankfulness to God for His blessing 
in the preparation of this volume it is now committed to His gracious 
providence in the hope that it may be used for His glory. 

The following abbreviations are used in this volume : 

A. B. C. F. M. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Misakfflfl. 

A. B. M. U. American Baptist Missionary Union. 

A. B. S. American Bible Society. 

A. M. E. M. American Methodist Episcopal Mission (2V). 

A. P. E. M. American Protestant Episcopal Mission. 

A. P. M. American Presbyterian Mission (N). 

A. R. M. American Reformed Mission. 

A. S. B. M. American Southern Baptist Mission. 

A. S. M. E. M. American Southern Methodist Episcopal Mission, 

A. S. P. M. American Southern Presbyterian Mission. 

B. C. M. Bible Christian Mission. 
B. F. H. Berlin Foundling House. 
B. Mi Berlin Mission. 

B. M. S. Baptist Missionary Society (English). 

C. E. Z. M. Church of England Zenana Mission. 
C. I. M. China Inland Mission. 

C. M. S. Church Missionary Society. 
C. P. M. Canadian Presbyterian Mission. 
E. P. Mr English Presbyterian Mission. 
E. M. A. Evangelical Missionary Alliance. 

E. W, M. English Wesleyan Mission. 

F. C. M. S. Foreign Christian Missionary Society. 

G. E. P. M. General Evangelical Protestant Mission. 
I. P. M. Irish Presbyterian Mission. 

L. M. S. London Missionary Society. 

N. B. S. National Biblo Society of Scotland. 

S. D. B. M. Seventh Day Baptist Mission. 

S. M, S. Swedish Missionary Society. 

S. P. F. E. Society for Promotion of Female Education- in the East. 

S. U. P. M. Scotch United Presbyterian Mission. 

B. D. C. G. K. Society for Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge* 

S. W. P. U. Soul Winning and Prayer Union. 

U. B. United Brethren in Christ. 

U. M. F. C. United Methodist Free Church. 

W. U. M. Woman s Union Mission. 




$mrat Canfeiwe ajf th* Jjjwtetant SKssianarfes nj China, 


7-2O, 189O. 







Abbey, Eev. E-. E 


A. P. M. 





Ackerman, Miss J. ... 


Allen, Eev. Y. J., D.D., LL.D. 


A. 5. M. E. M. 


, Mrs. ... 



Anderson, Eev. D. L. 



Andrews, Miss E. C. 


W. U. M. 


Apperson, Miss 


C. E. Z. M. 


Archibald, Mr J. 


N. B. S. 


Arnold, Mr. T. 


F. C. M. S. 


Ashburner, Miss L. S. 


L. M. S. 


Ashmore, Rev. Wm., D.D. ... 


A. B. M. U. 


Atkinson, Miss A. P. 


A. S. M. E. M, 


Bailer, Kev. F. W. 


C. I. M. 


Banbury, Eev. J. J. ... 


A. 11. E. M. 





Barber, Eev. W. T. A 


E. W. M. 


Barclay, Eev. T 


E. P. M. 


Bear, liev. J. E. 


A. S. P. M. 


Beebe, Dr. E. 


A. M.E. M, 


Beauchamp, M. 


C. I. M. 


Begg, Mr. T. D 




Bergen, Rev. P. D 


A. P. M. 


Black, Miss M 


C. I. M. 

Lao-ho-k eo 

Miss J. 




,, Miss E 


E. P. M. 


Blodgefc, Eev. H., D.D 


A. B. C. F. M. 


Boileau, Miss 


C, M. S. 


Bonafield, Miss J. A. 


A. M. E. M. 


Bonnell, Eev. W. B. 


A. S. M. E. M. 





Boone, H. W., M D 


A. P. E. M. 





Bostick, Eev. G. P 


A. S. B. M. 


Brewster, Eev. W. N. 


A. M. E. M. 


Bridie, Eev. W 


E. W. M. 






Britton, Kev. T. C 


A.S. B.M. 



Broomhall, Miss G 


C. LM. 

T ai-yueu 

Mr. H 















lirowuc, . lias Emily 


L. M. S. 


Bruutou, Mies K. R. 


W. U. M. 

Bryan, Rev. H. T 


A. S. B. M. 


Bryant, Rev. E 


B. & F. B. S. 


Bryson, Rev. T. 


L. M. S. 


Burdick, Miss S. M. 


s. D. B. M. 



Burdon, Rt. Rev. Bishop 


C. M. S. 




Burke, Rev. W. B 


A. S. M. E. M. 




Burnett, Miss M. A. ... ... 




Butler, Miss A. E 


E. P. M. 


Miss E. M*. , 


A. P.M. 


Campbell, Rev. Geo. 


A. B. M. U. 


Car dwell, Rev. J. J5. ... 


C. I. M. 





Carr, Miss. J. 

U. S. A. 

Cassels, Rev. W. W. 


C. I. M. 






Chappell, Rev. L. N 


A. S. B. M. 


., Mrs. 




Clark, Miss C. P 


C. I. M. 


Collyer, Mr. C. T 


B. & F. B. S. 


Couling, Rev. S 


B. M. S. 


Cooper, Rev. W 


C. I. M. 

Gank ing 





Cooper, Mr. E. J 



Corbett, Rev. H., D.D 


A. P M. 


,, Mrs. ... ... 




Corbin, Miss H. L. .... 


A. B. M. U. 


Cort, Miss M. L 


A. P. M. 


Curtis, Rev. F. S. 



Dalziel, Mr. Jas 


A. B. S. 



Darroch, J. 


C. i! M. 

Ku-ch en 

Davis, Rev. J. W., D.D 


A. S. P. M. 






Davis, Rev. D. H 


S. D. B. M. 


,, Mrs. 




Davies, Miss M 


C. E. Z. M. 


Day, Mr. Leonard J. 


B. & F. B. & 


Dodson, Miss b. L 


A. P. E. M. 

Donald, Mr. J. S 


C. I. M. 

Gank ing 

Douthwaite, Rev. A. W, M.D. 



Du Bose, Rev. H. C. 


A. S. P. M. 


Duffy, A 


C. I. M. 

Ku-ch en 

Dyer, Mr. S. 


B. & F. B. S. 


Mrs. ... ... ... 

Dyer, Mr. A. S. 



Edkins, Rev. J.,D.D. 



Ellis, Miss ,. ... 


C. L M. 


Elwin, Rev. A. 


C. M. S. 


,, Mrs. 

Evans, Miss J. G 


A. B. C. F. M. 

T ungchow 

Evans, Mr. D. T 


B. & F. B. S, 










Evans, Mr. E. 




Mrs. ... ... .. 

i > 

Ewbank, Mr. C. A 


C. I. M. 


Eyrea, Mr. T. 




Faber, Rev. E., Dr. theol 


G.E. P. M. 


Falconer, Miss M 


E. P. M. 


Farnham, Rev. J. M. W., D.D, 


A. P. M. 


Ferguson, Rev. J. C. 





Field, Miss A. M. 


L. M.>S. 


Fitch, Rev. G. F 


A. P. M. 



Forsyth, Mr. R. C 


E. B! M. 


Foster, Rev. J. M 


A. B. M. u. 

J 1 





Foster, Mrs. A. 


L, M. S. 


French, Misa ... 


C. M. S. 


Fryer, Mr. John 




Fulton, Dr. Mary. 


A. P. M. 


Fulton, Rev. T. C 


I. P. M. 


,, Mrs. 



Funk, Miss M. A 


E. M. A. 


Funk, Miss E. C 



Gaines, Miss N. B 


A. M. E. M. 


Gale, Dr. Mary 


W. U. M. 


Garel, Miss R. 


Garritt, Rev. J. C 


A. P. M. 


Garst, Rev. Chaa. E. 

F. C M. S. 

Shonai, Japan 

Gates, Misa C. ... ... 


C.I. M. 

Fan-ch eng 

Gatrell, Mr. T. J. M 


A. B. S. 


Gibson, Rev. J. C 


E. P. M. 


Gifford, Rev. D. L.- 


A. P. M. 

Seoul, Korea 

,, Mrs. 



Gilfillan, Miss C, J. 


L. M. S. 


Goddard, Rev. J. B, 


A. B. M. U. 





Goforth, Rev. J. ... ... 


C. P. M. 

Linch I ing 

Goldie, Miss ... ... ... ... 


C. M. S. 

J5 olc * m D ^ i oo 

Goodrich, Rev. C. ... ... 


A. B. C. F. M. 

T ungchow 

Gould, Rer, L. A 


A. B, M. U. 


Graham, Miss H. ... ... 


Grant, Dr. J. B 


A. B. M. U. 


Grant, Mr. W. H 
Graves, Rev. R. H., MJ>,, D,D. 


A. S. B. M. 


Graves, Miss M. L, ... ... 


A. B. C. F. M. 


Grey, Rev. H. L 
Guinness, Misa G. 


A. S. M. E. M. 
C. I. M. 


Hail, Rev. J. P 


C. P. M. 


Hamilton, Misa D. ... ... ... 
Happer, Rev. A. P. y D,D, 


A. S. M. E. M. 
A. P. M. 


Hardman, Mr. M ... ... ... 
Harmon, Rev. P., 
Harrison, Mr. M. ... ... ... 



C. I. M. 

E. B. M. 
C. I. M. 

Gank ing 
Chou ping 

Harfcwell, Rev. 0. ... 


A, B. C. F. M. 


Mra. ... ... 


Hartmann, Rev, F. ,,, 


B. P. H. 








Harvey, Rev. T. H 


C. M. S. 


Haslep, Dr. Marie ... 


A. P. E. M. 


Hayes, Rev. J. N. ... ... 


A. P. 21. 



Haygood, Misa L. 


A. S. M. E. M. 


Hearnden, Rev. E. P. 


F. C. M. S. 


Hendry, Rev. J. L. 


A. S. M. E. M. 





Henry, Rev. B. C., D.D, 


A, P.M. 


Herring, Rev. D. W. 


A. S. B. M. 



Higginbotham, Miss .. .... 


S. P/F. E. 



Hill, Rev. D. 


E. W. M. 


Hill, Rev. M. B 


A. S. M. E. M. 


Hoag, Dr. Lucy .. 


A. M. E. M. 


Hoddle, Mr. A. 


C. I. M. 


Hodge, Rev. S. R,, M.D. ... . . 


E. W. M. 


Hopkins, Dr. N. S. 


A. M. E. M. 


., Mrs, .. ... 



Hoste, Mr. D. B 


C. I. M. 

Hung-t ung 

Howe, Miss G. ... ... . . 


A. M. E. M. 


Hubbard, Rev. G. H. 


A. B. C. F. M. 


Hubrig, Rev. F 


B. M. 


Hughes, Miss L. E. ... 


A. S. M. E. M. 


Hughesdon, Mr. E. ... 


C. I. M. 


Hunnex, Rev. W. J. 


A. S. B. M. 





Hunt, Mr. K. 


C. I. M. 

Gank ing 

Hunt, Mr. W. R 


F. C. M. S. 


Hunter, Rev. Geo 


C. I. M, 


Hunter, Rev. S. A., M.D 


A. P. M. 

Chef oo 





Huntley, Mr. G. A., 


C. L M. 


Hutton, Mr. T 




Hykes, Rev. J. R. 


A. M! E. M,. 




Inveen, Miss E. 


A. B. M. U. 


Jackson, Mr. J. A. ... ... 




James, Rev. F. H. ... 


E. B. M. 


Jellison, Dr. E. R 


A. M. E. M. 


,, Mrs. 




Jenkins, Rev. H. 


A. B. M. U. 




Johnston, Miss J. ... ... ... 


E.P. M. 


Jones, Rev. A. G. 


E. B. M. 

Chou-p ing 

Jones, Miss H. M. ... ... 


A. S. P. M. 


Judd, Miss H. A 


C. I. M. 


Judson, Rev. J..H, 


A. P. M. 






Kenmure, Mr. A. ... 


B. & F. B. S. 


Mrs. ... 

Kerr, Dr. J. G 


A. P. M. 






Key, Mr. W. 


C. I. M. 


Kinnear, Dr. H. N. ... 


A. B. C. R M^ 


Kip, Rev. L. W., D.D 


A. B. M. 


Kirkland, Misa H 


A. S. P. M. 









Knight, Miss A. E. ... 
Knox, Rev. H. C 


C. I. M. 

C. M. S. 


Lacy, Rev. W. I! 
Lainbuth, Dr. W. E. 
Lancaster, Rev. 11. V. 


A. M. E. M. 
A. S. M. E. M. 
A. S. P. M. 


Mrs. > 




j, -UJ-iO. 

Lane, Miss E. F. ... 
Laugman, Mr. A. 


A. P. M. 
C. I. M. 


,, Mrs. ... 




Leauian, Rev. C. 


A. P. M. 






5) A*A fcJ. 


L. M. S. 


AT -s 




Lewis, Rev. W. J. 
Mrs. ... 


C. 1. M. 




Little, Rev. E. S. 


A. M. E. M. 


> i 


Looinis, liev. H. 
Lowry, Rev. H. ... 



A. B. S. 
A. M. E. M. 


}> Mrs. 


, , 


Lund, Mr. F. E 


S. M.S. 


Lyall, Dr. A. 


E. P. M. 




Lyon, Rev. D. N 


A. P. M. 


MacGregor, Mr. H. N 
Macklin, Dr. W. E 


C. I. M. 
F. C. M. S, 


Macoun, Mr. T. ... ... 


C. I. M. 

Gank ing 

Main, Dr. D. 


C. M. S. 


Mrs. ... ... 


Mason, Rev. G. L 


A. B. M. U. 


,, Mrs. ... ... 



Mateer, Rev. C. W., LL.D. ... 


A. P. M. 


Mrs. ... 



, j ... 
Rev. R. 




Mathews, Dr. P, W. 


A. P. E. M. 




McCarthy, Rev. J 


C. I. M. 


McCarthy, Miss F 
McClellan, Miss M 


A. S. M. E. M. 


McDanald, Miss N 


A. P. M. 


McGillivray, Rev. D 
Mclutosh, Mr. G 


C. P. M. 
S. D. C. G. K. 


j ) 


M elver, Rev. D. 


E. P. M. 


McKee, Rev. W. J 


A. P. M. 


McMin, Miss M 


A. S. P. M. 


McMullan, Mr. J 


C. I. M. 





McNair, Mr. M 




McQuillan, Miss A ... 
Meigs, Rev F. E 


F. C. M. s. 

Fanch eng 

Miles, Miss A. 


C. I. M. 


Miller, Miss O. .. .. ... 
Wilier, Mr. G 


L. M. S. 
C. I. M. 


Milligan, Miss E. .. .. ... 


C. M. S. 


Mitchell, Miss E 


A. M. E. M, 


More, Miss A. 
Morgan, Rev. E. .. .. ... 


E. M. A. 
E. B. M. 

T aiyuufii 

Uorley, Dr. A. ,, 


&W, M, 








Mosely, Rev. C. B 
Moule, Mr. A. J. H 
Muirhead, Rev. W 
Murdock, Dr. Virginia ... ... 
Murray, Rev. W. H. 
} Mrs 


A. S. M. E. M. 
C. M. S. 
L. M. S. 

A. B. 6 . F. M. 
N. B, S. 





Murray, Mr. D. S 


B. & F. B. S. 


Murray, Miss C. K 
Miss M. ... ... 

Nsestegaard, Mr. O. S 
Nevius, Rev. J. L., D.D. ... 
Newcombe, Miss R. ... 
Miss S 
Miss ... 
Nichols, Rev. D. W 
Nickalls, Rev. E. C 





C. I. M. 

C. I. M. 
A. P. M. 
C. E. Z. M. 

A. M."E. M. 

E. B. M. 
C. E. z. M. 




Noyes, Miss H. 

Ohlinger, Rev. F 
Orr-Ewing, Mr. A^ ... 
,, Mrs 
Oshikawa, Rev. 
Ost, Rev. J. B 

Painter, Rev. G. W 
Palmer, Miss M. ... ... ... - 
Park, Dr. W. H 
Parsons, Rev. C. H 
Partch, Rev. V. P. .. ; 
Mrs. ... 






A. P. M. 

A. M. E. M. 

e. i. M. 

C. M. S. 

A. S. P. M. 
C. I. M. 
A. S. M. E. M. 
C. I. M. 
A. P. M. 


P ingyao 




Pearce, Rev. T. W 
Peters, Miss S. 
Philips, Dr. Mildred 
Philips, Miss L 
Pigott, Mr. T. W 




L. M. S. 
A.M. E. M. 
A. S. M. E. M. 

C. L M. 



Pilcher, Rev. L. W-, D.D 


A. M. E. M. 


Plumb, Rev. N. J 
Porter, Dr. H. D 


A. B. C. F. M. 

P angchuang 

Posey, Miss M. 
Pott, Rev. F. L. H 


A. P. M. 

A. P. E. M. 


Price, Rev. F. M 
Price, Rev. P. F 
Pritchard, Dr. E. T. 

Ramsay, Miss L. E 
Randolph, Rev. G. H. 
Eapalje, Rev. D 
Reagan, Miss A, ... 





A. B. C. F. M. 

A. S. P. M. 
L. M. S. 


S. D. B. M. 

A. E. M. 
A. S. M, E. M, 











Eeid, Rev. G. 


A. P. M. 


Eeid, Eev. C. F 


A. S. M. E. M. 


Mis. ... 



Rlv nd, Miss . . 


S. W. P. U. 

vr ! 

Pilchard, Eev. T 


B. M. S. 

i.N tiiiK.iDg 

Ricketts. Misa C. M 


E. P. M. 


Ridley, Misa M. L 


C. M. S. 


Righter, Misa C. E. 


A. B. M. U. 


Robbing, Eev. W. E 

A. M. E. M. 


Robertson., Miss J. D 


C. I. M. 


Roberts, Dr. F. C . 


L. M. S. 


Roberts, Misa M. .. ... 


Roberts, Miss K. R 
Ross, Rev. J. . . 


A. S. M. E. M. 
S. U. P. M. 



Ross, Eev. E. M 
Rudland, Eev. W. D. 


L. M. S. 
C. I. M. 


,, Mrs 


Redfern, Mr. F. A. 




Saw, Mr. A. F. H 


F. C. M. S. 


Schaub, Eev. M. 


Basle M. 


Schofiekl Mrs. 


C.I. M. 

o O 



fihaffner. Miss L. R. 


U. B. M. 


Shorrock, Eev. A. G. 


B. M. S. 

T aiyuanfu 

Shaw. Eev. C. 


C. M. S. 


Sheffield, Eev. D. Z. 


A, B. C. F. M. 



Sickafoose, Eev. Geo. 

U. B. 

u. k A 

Silsby, Eev. J. A 
Sites, Eev N., D.D 


A. P. M. 

A. M. E. M. 


Smalley, Mr. S. E 


A. P. E. M. 




Smith, Eev. A. H 


A. B. C. F. M. 





Smith, Eev. J. N. B. 



A. P. M. 





Smith, Miss F. ... 


W. U. M. 


Sooihill, Eev. W. E. 


U. M. F. C. 


,, Mrs. 



Sparham, Eev. C. G. 


L. M. S. 


Stenvall, Eev. A 


B. & F. B. S. 


Steven, Mr. F. A 


C. I. M. 

Takut ang 

,, Mrs. 


Stevenson, Rev. J. W 



Stevenson, Eev. T. R. 


,, Mrs 


Stewart, Misa E. ... 


A. B. M. U. 


Stooke, Mrs. J. A. ... 


C. I. M. 


Stott, Mrs. G. 



S tru tiliers, Miss M 


S. U. P. M. 


Stuart, Eev. J. L 


A, S. P. M. 



Stuart, Dr. G. A 


A. M. E. M. 


,, Mrs. 


9 9 

Stuart, Miss J. , 


E. P. M. 

? > 

Sugden, Miss L. S. ... ... ... 


E. W. M. 


Swinney, Dr. Ella ... .., 
Sydenstricker, Rev. A. S 


S. D. B. M. 
A. S. P. M. 










Talmage, Miss C. M. 


A. P. M. 


Talmage, Miss M. E. 
Tatum, Rev. E- F 



A. S. B. M. 






Taylor, Rev J. Hudson 
Taylor, Dr. F. H 
Taylor, Dr. G. Y 
Thomson, Dr. J. C 
Thorne, llev. S. F 


C. I. M. 
A. P. M. 

c. I . M. 

Chaot ung 



J J 


Thwing, Prof E. P., uD 
Tomaliu, Rev. E 


C. I. M. 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 




Underwood, Miss M. J 


C. I, M. 

Ch ichowfu 

Vaughau, Miss M 


C. M. S. 


Walker, llev. W. F 



A. M. E. M. 
A. B. C. F. M. 


Walley, Rev Jno 




Ware, Mr. Jas. ... 


A. B. S. 




Watson, Dr. J. R 


B.M. S. 


Watson, Rev. W. H.... 
Wheatlcy, Rev. E. P 


E. W. M. 

C. M. S. 






Well s, Mr. U.R 


A. B. S. 
A. P. M. 
C. I. M. 

A. B. C. F. M. 
F. C. M. S. 
S. U. P. M. 
C. I. M. 

A. S/P. M. 
S. U. P. M. 


Whitchurch, Miss ... 
Whitehouse, Mr. S. F. 
Whitney, H. T M M.D. 
Williams, Rev. E. T. 
Williamson, Rev. A., LLJ> 
Williamson, Rev. J. ... 
Williamson, Misa 
Wilson, Misa E 
Wilson, Misa 

Wintcrbothani, Misa 


L. M. S. 


Wishard, Mr. L. D 

Y. M. C. A. 

U. S. A. 


Wood, Mr. F. M 


C. I. M. 


,, Mrs. ... ... ... 



Wood, Misa A. 


E. W. M. 


Woodbridge, Rev. S. I 


A. S. P. M. 






Woodhull, Dr. Kate 


A. B. C. F. M. 


Wright, Rev. A. C 


A. M. E. M. 


Wright, Rev. W,, D.D 

B. & F. B. S. 





Tares, Mrs. M. T. ... 


A. S. B. M. 


Yen, Rev. Y. K. 


A. P. E. M. 




Youiifc i Miss A 


A. S. B, M. 







American Presbyterian 




Southern Presbyterian 



Methodist Episcopal 




>, South 




Protestant Episcopal 




Baptist Missionary Union 




Southern Baptist . . 




Reformed Church ^, ^, .. 




Bible Society 




Baptist Missionary Society . . _, . . 



British and Foreign Bible Society,-, 



Canadian Presbyterian ^ r ^, 




China Inland Mission .^ ^, 




Chvirch Missionary Society.., ^, , 




Church of England Zenana .., _, , .... 



English Presbyterian 


,, Wesleyan .. .. _ 





Evangelical Missionary Association 



Foreign Christian Missionary Society 
Irish Presbyterian .. ,_, .^ _ 




London Missionaay Society 




National Bible Society 




Society for Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge 
Seventh Day Baptist 
Society for Promoting Female Education in the East . . 




Swedish Missionary Society " 



Soul-winning Prayer Union _, ^ 



United Methodist Free Church . ^ _ 




,, Presbyterian., .^ -.. ^ 




,, Brethren .... ..... ^. 




Woman s Union 



Basle Mission. . 



Berlin ,, .- .. ,.. _ 



Berlin Foundling House 
General Evangelical Protestant ... , ^. .. 




Unconnected ... ,.. .. ^.. . T 









(Final Form.) 

1. That the cliair mau observe in the conduct of business the or 
dinary and generally accepted rules for deliberative bodies. 

2. That the Committee on Arrangements and Entertainment be 

3. That a Committee, consisting of Revs. Chauncey G-oodrich, H. H. 
Lowry and J. C. Gibson, be appointed on Devotional Services. 

4. That a committee of five be appointed by the chairman to receive 
and introduce to the Conference any resolutions or matters of business 
not included in the printed programme ; this committee to be called the 
Committee on Business and Resolutions. 

5. That when thought desirable by the Conference, committees be 
appointed, composed of not less than twelve persons, to report to the 
Conference what action, if any, is desirable on the subject or subjects of 
the day ; that the two presidents shall appoint a Standing Committee of 
Kornumtiou, composed of twelve men, representative of all parts of the 
empire, and that when committees on special subjects are agreed to, the 
number of its members shall be fixed by the Conference and the members 
nominated by the Standing Committee- 

6. Authors shall be restricted to five minutes in presenting a resume 
of their essays. 

7. The discussion of the subjects introduced by the essays each fore 
noon and afternoon of the Conference, shall be opened by two persons 
specially prepared for doing so, who shall be selected by the Committee 
on Business and Resolutions. Members of the Conference, thus prepared, 
are requested to hand their names to that committee. 

8. Speakers in the debates shall be limited to five minutes, unless 
extension of time is voted by the Conference. 

9. Authors shall have five minutes to close the discussion on their 
essays, if they Tvish. 

10. In all discussions which may arise in the Conference, whether on 
resolutions, substitutes or amendments, speakers shall be restricted to 
three minutes. 

11. All members of the Conference, including ladies, are entitled to 



SHANGHAI, WEDNESDAY, May 7th, 1890. 

The second General Conference of the Protestant Missionaries of 
China assembled at the Lyceum Theatre. Shanghai, at 10.30 a.m. 

The first half hour was spent in devotional exercises, conducted by 
Rev. H. Blodget, D.D., of Peking. 

At 11 a.m. the opening sermon was preached by Rev. J. Hudson 
Taylor. Subject Christ feeding the multitude (Matt xv. 29-39). 


The Conference met for organisation. Rev. Ernst Faber, Dr. Theol., 
of Shanghai, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, called the 
meeting to order, and on his motion the Rev. H. Blodget, D.D., of 
Peking, acted as temporary chairman, and Rev. G. F. Fitch, of Shanghai, 
as temporary clerk. 

Rev. G. F. Fitch called the roll of members. (See the list of members.) 
In accordance with the recommendation of the Committee of 
Arrangements, two chairmen, one from British, one from American mis 
sions, six secretaries and a treasurer were chosen. 

The following persons were duly elected : 

Chairmen Rev. David Hill, of Wuchang. 

Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D., of Chefoo. 
Secretaries Rev. W. J. Lewis, of Shanghai. 

Rev. B. C. Henry, D.D., of Canton. 

Rev. W. T. A. Barber, -of Wuchang. 

Rev. J. R. Hykes, of Kiukiang. 

Mr. W. R. Hunt, of Nanking. 

Rev. A. H. Smith, of P ang-chuang. 
Treasurer Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai. 

Rev. G. F. Fitch, chairman of the Shanghai Missionary Association, 
gave an address of welcome to the Conference on behalf of the mission 
aries of Shanghai. 

A telegram of greeting was despatched to the annual meeting of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, then in session in London. 

Rules for the guidance of business were adopted. 

The organisation of the Conference being completed, a paper was 
read by Rev. T. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D., of Shanghai, on "The Changed 
Aspect of China." 


Eev. A. P. Happer, D.D., of Canton, presided. 
An open meeting was held in the Union Church. 
A paper by the Ven. Archdeacon Moule on " The Relation of Chris* 
tian Missions to the Foreign Residents," was read by the Rev. H, C. 
Hodges, M.A., of Shanghai Cathedral. 



Addresses were delivered by Prof. E. P. Thwing, M.D., PhD., of 
Brooklyn, and Rev. W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swatow. 


THURSDAY, May &> 9.30 a.m. 
jf2eu. Dr. Neviiis presided. 

The Conference met at Union Church. 

A devotional service was conducted by Eev. W. Wright, D.D., 
editorial superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

The chairman announced the names of the Committee on Business 
and Resolutions and the Committee on Arrangements during the Confer 
ence. (See Committees I. and II.) 

Papers were presented by Rev. "W". Mnirhead, of Shanghai, and Rev. 
J. Wherry, of Peking, on " Historical Summary of the Different Ver 
sions of the Holy Scriptures, with their terminology and the feasibility 
of securing a standard version in Wen-li and a corresponding version in 
the Mandarin Colloquial." 

A paper on the same subject, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Schereschewsky, 
formerly of Wuchang, was presented by Rev. G. L. Mason, of Huchow. 

After discussion of the papers, a committee was appointed to report 
to the Conference on the feasibility of a united Wen-li version. (See 
Committee III.) 

A paper was presented by Rev. J. C. Gibson, of Swatow, on "A 
Review of the Various Colloquial Versions and the Comparative Advan 
tages of Roman Letters and Chinese Characters." 

Papers on the eame subject, by Rev. S. F. Woodin, of Foochow, and 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop Burdon, of Hongkong, were presented by Rev. G. 
H. Hubbard, of Foochow, and Rev. J. B. Ost, of Hongkong. 

A committee was appointed to report on the question of Colloquial 
Versions. (See Committee IV.) 


Eev. Dr. Nevins presided. 

The chairman announced the names of the Committee -of Nomination. 
(See Committee V.) 

A committee was appointed to report on the feasibility of a united 
version of the Old and New Testaments in the Mandarin Colloquial. 
(See Committee VI.) 

Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai, presented a paper on " The 
Need of Chinese Historical, Geographical, Ethnological and Philological 
Notes ; also headings to the chapters, brief introductions to the books, 
and a general preface, being added to the Bible in the Chinese language. 

Mr. S. Dyer, of Shanghai, presented a paper on " Bible Distribution 
in China, its methods and results." 

A committee was appointed to report on the papers of the afternoon. 
(See Committee VII.) 

The papers were discussed until the hour of adjournment. 



Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, of T ung-ckoiv, presided. 

Addresses were delivered by Rev. W. Wright, D.D., of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, and Mr. L. D. Wishard, of the T. M. C. A., 

II. S. A. 


FRIDAY, May 9. 9.30 a.m. 
Rev. D- Hill presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. L. W. Pilcher, D JX, of 

A committee was appointed to prepare an address to the Emperor 
of China. 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor presented a paper on " The Missionary ; his 
qualifications, introduction to his work and mode of life." 

Rev. David Hill, of Wuchang, presented a paper on " Lay Agency in 
Chinese Missions, to what extent desirable and under what conditions." 

The papers were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 


Rev. D, Sill presided. 

Rev. J. L. Novius, D.D., of Chefoo, presented a paper on " Histori 
cal Views of Missionary Methods, past and present, in China, and how far 

Revs. B. C. Henry, D.D., of Canton, and H. H. Lowry, of Peking, 
presented papers on " Preaching to the Heathen in Chapels, in the Open 
Air and during Itineration." 

Rev. F. H. James, of Chinan Fu, presented a paper on " The Secret 
Sects of Shantung." 

The papers of the day were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 

A committee was appointed to report on "Lay Agencies and the 
Representation of that Subject to- -the Home Churches." (See Committee 

A committee was appointed to report on the question of the Union 
of Protestant Missions in this Country and the Formation of a Protestant 
Missionary Association for China. (See Committee IX.) 


Rev. W. Muirhead presided. 

Rev. A. H. Smith, of P angchuang, delivered an address on " The 
Relation of Christianity to Universal Progress." 


SATDRDAT, May 10. 9.30 a.m. 
Rev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. J. R. Goddard, of 


A paper by Miss A. C. Safford, of Soochow, on " A General View of 
Women s Work, in China, and its results," was presented by Mrs. J. L. 
{stuart, of Hangchow. 

Papers were presented by Miss Hattie Noyes, of Canton, and Miss L. 
JIaygood, o f Shanghai, on " Girls Schools." 

A paper was presented by Miss C. M. Eicketts, of Swatow, on " Best 
Methods of Beaching the Women." 

A paper on the same subject, by Miss C. M. Cnshman, of Peking, was 
presented by Miss J. G. Evans, of T ungchow. 


Jtev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

A paper was presented by Miss M. Murray, of Yangchow, on "The 
Feasibility of Unmarried Ladies engaging in General Evangelistic Work 
in New Fields." 

A paper by Miss A. M. Fielde, of Swatow, on " The Training and 
Work of Native Female Evangelists," was presented by Mrs. J. M. Foster, 
of Swatow. 

A paper was presented by Mrs. A. H. Smith, of P angchuang, on 
" The Christian Training of the Women of the Chnrch." 

A committee of twelve ladies was appointed to report on the 
subjects of the papers of the day, with special reference to an appeal to 
the women of Europe and America for large reinforcements. (See 
Committee X.) 

The papers of the day were discussed until the hour of adjournment. 


Rev. T. Bryson, of Tientsin, presided- 

The meeting was devoted to memorials of members of the last Con 
ference who had since died. 


MONDAY, May 129.30 a.m. 

Eev. D. Hill presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Eev. G. F. Fitch, of Shanghai. 

A paper was presented by Eev. A. W. Douthwaite, M.D., of Chefoo 
OH ".Medical Work as an Evangelising Agency." 

A paper by Miss Mary Niles, M.D., of Canton, on " Medical Mission 
Work in China by Lady Physicians," was presented by Miss E. M. Butler, 

of Canton. 

A resolution was adopted on tho value of the voluntary work in 
mission hospitals of medical -men at the open ports. (See Eesolution I.) 

Tho subject of the ordination of medical men was referred to the 
Committee on Lay Agency, with the addition of three medical missionaries. 

The papers read were discussed till the hour of adjournmomt. 



Rev. D, Hill presided. 

Communications in reference to the prohibition of the opium traffic 
were presented from 

The Central China Mission of the A. M. E. Church, the Representa 
tive Meeting of the Society of Friends in London, and the Society for 
the Suppression of the Opium Trade.* 

A paper was presented by Eev. F. Hartmann, of Hongkong, on 
"Orphanages, Asylums for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb and other 
Charitable Institutions." 

A paper was presented by Rev. W. H. Murray, of Peking on 
"Asylums for the Blind." 

A paper was presented by Dr. H. T. "Whitney, of Foochow, on " The 
Value and Methods of Opium Refuges." 

A paper by Dr. J. Dudgeon, of Peking, on "Statistics and Resolu 
tions on the Evils of the Use of Opium," was presented by Dr. J. G. 
Kerr, of Canton. 

A letter of greeting from Dr. Lockhart, the oldest surviving medical 
missionary to China, was read. 

A committee was appointed to report on steps necessary for com 
batting the opium and morphia evils. (See Committee XL) 

A committee was appointed to report on the merits of various 
systems of teaching the blind and deaf-mutes in China. (See Committee 
.XII. ) 

The papers were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 


TUESDAY, May 13, 9.30 p.m. 
Eev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. J. W. Stevenson, of 

A paper by Rev. R. Lechler, of Hongkong, on " The Method of 
Dealing with Enquirers, Conditions of Admission to Church Fellowship 
and Best Methods of Discipline," was presented by Rev- F. Hnbrig, of 

A paper was presented by Rev. H. Corbett, D.D., of Chefoo, on 
" Church Discipline." 

A telegram of greeting was received from the native M. E. Church 
at Shan Hai Kwan, Chihli, and was answered. 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., D.D., of Canton, presented the Report of 
the Committee on Biblo Notes and Distribution. 

The report was discussed and recommitted. 
*See Appendix A. 



Rev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

Rev. J. C. Gibson, of Swatow, presented the Report of the Committee 
on Vernacular Versions. 

The report was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Eeport IV.) 

Papers were presented by 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., D.D., of Canton, on " The Deepening of 
the Spiritual Life and Stimulating the Church to Aggressive Work." 

Rev. C. Goodrich, of T ungchow, on " Service of Song in China." 

Rev. T. Richard, of Tientsin, on " The Relation of Christian Missions 
to the Chinese Government." 

Rev. G. L. Mason, of Huchow, on "The Methods of developing Self- 
support and Voluntary Effort." 

The papers were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 


Eev. W. Ashmore, P.D., of Swatow, presided. 

The meeting was devoted to questions put by younger and answered 
by senior missionaries. 


WEDNESDAY, May 14. 9.30 a.m. 
Eev. D. Hill presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Mr. L. D. Wishard, of the 

U. S. A. 

The Report of the Committee on the Memorial to the Emperor was 

presented, discussed and postponed. 

The discussion of the papers of the preceding day was continued. 

A committee was appointed to report on " The Relation of Christian 
Missions to the Chinese Government." 


Rev. D. Hill presided, 

Rev. D. Hill presented the Report on Lay Agency, which was 
amended and adopted. (See Report XV.) 

Papers were then presented by 

Rev. N. J. Plumb, of Foochow, on the "History and Present Con 
dition of Mission Schools and what future Plans are desirable." 

Rev- C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tungchow, on " How may Educa 
tional Work be made most to advance the Cause of Christianity in China ? >r 

Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, of T ungchow, on "The Relations of Christian. 
Education to the Present Condition and Needs of China." 

Rev. M . Schaub, of Canton, and \ on " The Best Method of selecting and 

Rev. J. Lees, of Tientsin, j training Efficient; Native Assistants."" 

Rev. A. P. Parker, D.D., on "The Place of the Confucian Classics in 
Christian Colleges and Schools." 

A resolution was adopted to observe in China the day set apart in 
the West for prayer for schools and colleges. (See Resolution II.) 


A committee was appointed to prepare a brief account in Chinese of 
the essays read and resolutions adopted by the Conference. (See Per 
manent Committee XIII.} 

The papers of the day were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 


Miss C. M. Bichette, of Swatow, presided. 
This was a meeting for ladies only. 


THURSDAY, May 15. 9.30 a.m 
Rev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. T. R. Stevenson, of 
Union Church, Shanghai. 

Papers were presented by 

Rev. W. Muirhead, of Shanghai " iieport of the School and Text 
Book Series Committee." 

Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai" What Books are still 
needed ? " 

John Fryer, Esq., of Shanghai " Scientific Terminology ; Present 
Discrepancies and Means of securing Uniformity." 

A vote of thanks was unanimously passed to the School and Text 
Book Series Committee. (See Resolution III.) 

A committee was appointed to consider the subject of the work of 
the School and Text Book Series Committee. (See Committee XIII.) 

The papers were discussed until the hour of adjournment. 


Rev, Dr. Neviiis presided. 

Papers were presented by- 
Rev. E. Faber, Dr. Theol., of Shanghai, on "Christian Literature in 
China; its Business Management." 

Rev. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D., of Shanghai, on " Christian Period 
ical Literature." 

Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., of Shanghai, on " Current Chinese Literature : 
How far is it antagonistic to Christianity ? " 

A telegraphic greeting to the Conference, from the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, was read. 

A committee was appointed to report on the subject of Christian 
Periodical Literature. (See Committee XIV.) 

A committee was appointed to devise plans for securing harmonious 
working in the production of Christian Literature. (See Committee XV.) 

The papers of the afternoon were discussed. 

The discussion of tho Report of the Committee on the Memorial to 
the Emperor was continued and left unfinished at tho hour of adjourn 



"Rev. C- Goodrich, of T ungcJiow, presided. 

Bev. H. D. Parker, M.D., of P angchuang, presented greetings from 
the Congregational Churches of the U. S. A. 

Rev. Mr. Ostrom presented greetings from the churches of Hawaii. 

Rev. F. Ohlinger presented greetings from the Christiana of Corea. 

A letter of greeting was read from the Methodist New Connexion 
North, China Mission. 

Miss J. Ackermann, World Missionary of the "Women s Temperance 
Union, addressed the Conference. 


FRIDAY, May 16. 9.30 a.m. 
J5ev. D. Hill presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. N. J. Plumb, of Foochow. 
A committee was appointed to prepare an appeal for ordained 
missionaries. (See Committee XVI.) 

Dr. J. G. Kerr presented the Report of the Committee on Opium 
The report was discussed, amended and recommitted. 
Rev. W. Muirhead presented a Report of tho Committee on a Simple 
Wen-U Version. The Report was adopted. (See Report I.) 


Rev. D. Hill presided. 

A resolution was adopted, expressing thankfulness to Almighty God 
for His preserving mercy during the dangerous collapse of the staging 
erected for photographing tho Conference. (See Resolution IV.) 

A permanent committee was appointed to collect facts in reference 
to tho use of alcoholic liquors by native Christians and report to next 
Conference. (See Permanent Committee I.) 

Rev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., presented the Report of the Com 
mittee on a Mandarin Version of the Scriptures. 

The report was adopted. (See Report III.) 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., D.D., presented the Second Report of the 
Committee on Bible Notes and Distribution. 

The report was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Report V.) 

The report on the Memorial to the Emperor of China was recom 
mitted with instructions that the committee should amalgamate with 
that on the Relations of Christian Missions to the Chinese Government. 
(See Committee XVII.) 


SATURDAY, May 17. 9.30 a.m. 
Rev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. T. Barclay, of Formosa 

Dr. J. G. Kerr presented the Second Report of tho Committee on 

Tho report was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Report XII.) 


Mrs. C. W. Mateer presented the Report on Women s Work and 
the Appeal for more Lady Workers. 

The report and appeal were adopted. (See Report XVI.) 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., D.D., presented the Report of the Com 
mittee on Union. 

The report was adopted. (See Report IX.) 

A resolution of farewell greeting to Rev. A. P. Happer, D.D., of 
Canton, the senior member of the Conference, was unanimously adopted. 
(See Resolution V.) 


Rev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., of Shanghai, presented the Report ot the 
Committee on the Education of the Blind and Deaf Mutes. 

The report was adopted. (See Report XIII.) 

Rev. W. Muirhead, of Shanghai, presented a Supplementary Report 
of the Committee on a High Wen-li Version of the Scriptures. 

The report was adopted. (See Report II.) 

A paper was presented by Rev. J- W. Stevenson, of Shanghai, on 
" The Division of the Field." 

A paper by Rev. J. McCarthy, of Yangchow, on " Co-operation," was 
read by Rev. W. W. Cassells, of Pao Ning Fu, 

The papers were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 


MONDAY, May 19. 9.30 a.m. 

Rev. JD. Hill presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Prof. E. P. Thwing, M.D., 
Ph.D., of Brooklyn. 

The ballot for the permanent executive committee for securing an 
Easy Wen-li Version of the Scriptures was announced. (See Permanent 
Committee II.) 

The ballot for the similar committee for a Mandarin Version was 
announced. (See Permanent Committee III.) 

The ballot for the permanent executive committee to arrange for an 
Annotated Bible with request for its publication by the Tract Societies, 
was announced. (See Permanent Committee IV.) 

A resolution on the Supreme Importance of Evangelistic Work was 
adopted. (See Resolution VI.) 

A committee was appointed to report on Comity in Mission Work 
and the Division of the Field. (See Committee XVIII.) 

A paper was presented by Rev. F. Ohlinger, of Corea, on " How 
Far should Christians bo required to abandon Native Customs ? " 

A paper by Rev. H. V. Noyes, of Canton, on the same subject, was 
read by Rev. B. C. Henry, D.D., of Canton. 

A paper by Rev. W. A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D., of Peking, on 
" Ancestral Worship, a Plea for Toleration," was read by Rev. Gilbert 
Reid, of Chinan Fa. 


A paper was presented by Eev. H. Blodget, D.D., of Peking, on 
"The Attitude of Christianity to Ancestral Worship." 

The papers were discussed till the hour of adjournment. 


Eev. D. Hill presided. 

Kev- R. M. Mateer presented the Report of the Committee on an 
Appeal for more Ordained Missionaries. 

The report was discussed, amended and recommitted. 

The permanent committee for preparing Explanatory Notes and 
Comments on the Scriptures, as required by Section 4 of the Report on 
the subject, was appointed. (See Permanent Committee V.) 

The permanent committee for promotion of Anti- Opium Societies, 
as required by the Report of the Committee on Opium, was appointed. 
(See Permanent Committee VI.) 

A committee was appointed to appeal for the addition of a thousand 
men within five years. (See Committee XIX.) 

Rev. E. Faber, Dr. Theol., presented the Report of the Committee 
on Harmonious Working in Christian Literature. 

The report was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Report VII.) 

The ballot for the permanent Committee of Correspondence, required 
by the Report of the Committee on Union, was announced. (See Per 
manent Committee VII.) 

Papers were presented by Rev. J. W. Davis, D.D., of Soochow, ou 
" Direct Results of Missionary Work in China, and Statistics." 

Rev. J. Ross, of Moukden, on " The Manchus." 

Rev. T. Barclay, of Formosa, on "The Aboriginal Tribes of 


Rev. F. A. Steven, of Ta Ku T ang, on " The Chinese in Burmah" 
and " The Aboriginal Tribes of Western Yun-nan." 

A paper by Rev. J. A. B. Cook, of Singapore, on " The Chinese in the 
Straits Settlements," was presented by Rev. J. C. Gibson, of Swatow. 

A paper by Rev. G. W. Clarke, of Tientsin, on " The Miao-tsi," was 
presented by Rev. F. A. Steven. 


Eev. D. Rill presided.. 

The ballot for the permanent executive committee for securing a 
High Wen-li Version of the Scriptures was announced. (See Permanent 

Committee VIII.) 

The papers on Ancestral Worship were discussed until the hour of 



TUESDAY, May 20. 9.30 a.m. 

Eev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

A devotional service was conducted by Rev. J. Lees, of Tientsin. 
A Resolution of dissent from the conclusion of Dr. Martin s paper on 
Ancestral Worship, was adopted. (See Resolution VII.) 


A committee was appointed to edit the Records of the Conference. 
(See Permanent Committee XII.) 

Rev. R. M. Mateer, of Wei Hsien, presented for the second time the 
Appeal for more Ordained Men. 

The appeal was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Report 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor presented the Appeal for a Thousand Men in 
Five Years. 

The appeal was adopted. (See Report XVIT). 


Rev. Dr. Nevius presided. 

Rev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tungchow, presented the Report 
of the Committee on the School and Text Book Series. 

The report was adopted. (See Report VIII.) 

Rev. W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swatow, presented the Report of the 
United Committee on the Memorial to the Chinese Government and the 
Relation of Christian Missions to the Chinese Government. 

The report was discussed and adopted. (See Report XL) 

The Executive Committee required by this report waa appointed. 
(See Permanent Committee IX.) 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor presented the Report of the Committee on 
Comity in Mission Work. 

The report was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Report 

The committee which prepared the Appeal for a Thousand Men, was 
made permanent, in order to observe and report on the result. (See Per 
manent Committee X.) 

Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai, presented the Report of the 
Committee on Periodical Literature. 

The report was discussed, amended and adopted. (See Report 

The Permanent Committee required by the Report on Harmonious 
Working in Christian Literature, was appointed. (See Permanent Com 
mittee XI.) 

A resolution was adopted in reference to the Chinese branches of 
the Evangelical Alliance. (See Resolution VIII.) 

Various votes of thanks were passed. (See Resolution IX.) 


Rev. H. Blodget, D.D., of Peking, presided. 
A solemn and hallowed meeting for prayer and praise was held. 
The Presidents and Secretaries signed the minutes, and the Second 
General Conference ended with the Doxology and Benediction. 



Revs. J. W. Stevenson, of Shanghai; C. F. Reid, of Shanghai; 
A. Elwin, of Hangchow ; L. W. Pilcher, D.D., of Peking ; T. Bryson, 
of Tientsin. 


Revs. A. Williamson, LL.D., G. F. Fitch, and J. W. Stevenson, all 
of Shanghai. 


Revs. W. Muirhead, of Shanghai; C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of 
Tungchow ; J. C. Gibson, of Swatow ; J. Edkins, D.D., of Shanghai ; Mr. 
J. Archibald, of Hankow ; Rev. J. Wherry, of Peking ; H. Blodget, D.D., 
of Peking ; C. Goodrich, of T ungchow; C. Hartwell, of Foochow ; H. H. 
Lowry, of Peking; W. Wright, D.D., of London; Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Burdon, of Hongkong; Revs. E. Faber, Dr. Theol., of Shanghai; J. W. 
Davis, D.D., of Soochow; R. H. Graves, D.D., of Canton; N. Sites, D.D., 
of Foochow ; A. P. Happer, D.D., of Canton ; E. T. Williams, of Nanking ; 

E. S. Little, of Kiukiang; T. Richard, of Tientsin; T. Barclay, of 
Formosa ; A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai ; J. B. Ost, of Hongkong ; 

F. Hartmaun, of Hongkong. 


Revs. J. C. Gibson, of Swatow; W. E. Soothill, of Wenchow ; W. D. 
Rudland, of T aichow; W. Wright, D.D., of London; M. Schanb, o! 
Canton ; W. Cooper, of Ganking ; G. H. Hnbbard, of Foochow ; B. C. 
Henry, D.D., of Canton; J. R. Goddard, of Ningpo; F. Hartmann, of 
Hongkong; L. W. Kip, D.D., of Amoy; and Miss Haygood, of Shanghai. 


Revs. J. C. Gibson, of Swatow ; C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of 
Tungchow; J. Lees, of Tientsin; T. Richard, of Tientsin; E. Faber, 
Dr. Theol., of Shanghai ; A. W. Douthwaite, M.D., of Chefoo ; W. Bridie, 
of Canton; Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D., of Shanghai; D. Z. Sheffield, of 
T ungchow; L.W. Pilcher, D.D., of Peking: J. R. Hykes, of Kiukiang; 
A. Elwin. of Hangchow. 



Rev. J. R. Eykes, of Kiakiang; Rt. Rev. Bishop Bnrdon, of Hong- 
koug; Revs. H. Blodget, D.D., of Peking; A.Jones, of Chinchow Fn; 
A. S. Sydenstricker, of Cb ingkiang Fn ; H. H. Lowry, of Peking; 
C. G. Sparham, of Hankow ; T. Bryson, of Tientsin ; W. T. A. Barber, of 
Wuchang ; C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tnngchow ; F. M, Wood, o 
Ganking ; D. Z. Sheffield, of T ungchow. 




Revs. R. H. Graves, D.D., of Canton; J. L. Kevins, D.D.,of hefoo ; 
W. F. Walker, D.D., of Tientsin ; C. Goodrich, of T ungchow ; P. Hubrig, 
of Canton ; C. Shaw, of Foochow ; J. B. Ost, of Hongkong ; J. Lees, of 
Tientsin ; A. W. Donthwaite, M.D., of Chefoo ; T. Barclay, of Formosa ; 
H. C. DuBose, of Soochow ; C. Hartwell, of Foochow ; A. Williamson, 
LL.D., of Shanghai ; J. C. Gibson, of Swatow ; F. H. James, of Chinanfu ; 
L. W. Kip, D.D,, of Amoy ; and J. L. Stuart, of^Hangchow. 


Revs. D. Hill, of Wnchang; C. F. Reid, of Shanghai; H. Corbett, 
D.D., of Chefoo; J. W. Davis, D.D., of Soochow; J. W. Stevenson, of 
Shanghai ; B. C. Henry, D.D., of Canton ; N. Sites, D.D., of Foochow ; T. 
W. Pearce, of Canton ; A. Elwin, of Hangchow ; N. J. Plumb, of Foochow ; 

F. H. James, of Chinanfu ; and W. Bridie, of Canton. 


Revs. J. L. Nevius, D.D., A. P. M. ; W. Muirhead, L. M. S.; F. 
L. H. Pott, A. P. E. M. ; C. Shaw, C. M. S.; T. Richard, E. B. M. ; T. 
Barclay, E. P. M. ; W. H. Watson, E. W. M. ; J. H. Taylor, C. I. M.; 
J. Goforth, C. P. M. ; A. Williamson, LL.D., S. U. P. M. ; W. E. Soothill, 
F. M. F. C.; C. Goodrich, A. B. C. F. M. ; H. Blodget, D.D., A. B. C. F. 
M.; J. R. Goddard, A. B. M. U. ; H. H. Lowry, A. M. E. M.; D. H. 
Davis, S. D. B. ; R. H. Graves, D.D., A. S. B. M. ; Y. J. Allen, D.D., 
LL.D., A. S. M. E. M.; L. W. Kip, D.D, A. R. M.; J. L. Stuart, A. 
P. M.; F. Hartmann, B. F. H.; M. Schaub, Basle M.; F. 
Hubrig, B. M. ; F. E. Meigs, F. C. M. S. ; G. Sickafoose, U. B. ; S. 
T. Thome, B. C. M. S. 


Mrs. C. W. Mateer, of Tungchow ; Mrs. T. Bryson, of Tientsin ; Miss 

G. Howe, of Kiokiang ; Mrs. A. Lyall, of Swatow ; Mrs. J. G. Kerr, of 
Canton ; Miss C. M. Talmage, of Amoy ; Mrs. J. M. W. Farnham, of 
Shanghai ; Mrs. G. Stott, of Wenchow ; Miss L. Haygood, of Shanghai ; 
Miss M. Vaughan, of Hangchow ; Mrs. E. Tomalin, of Chefoo ; Miss 
M. Murray, of Tangchow ; Mrs. M. T. Yates, of Shanghai ; Mrs. D. Z. 
Sheffield, of T ungchow ; Miss C. M. Ricketts, of Swatow. 


J. G. Kerr, M.D., of Canton ; Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shang 
hai ; Rev. W. Muirhead, of Shanghai ; W. H. Boone, M.D., of Shanghai ; 
Rev. A. P. Happer, D.D., of Canton ; A. Lyall, M. B. C. M., of Swatow; 
Rev. J. B. Ost, of Hongkong, Rev. A. W. Douthwaite, M.D., of Chefoo ; 


D. D. Main, L.B.C.P. & S., of Hangchow ; Rev H. L. Parker, M.D., of 
P angchuang; Rev. D. Mclver, of Swatow; Rev. S. A. Hunter, M.D., 
of Wei Hien. 



Eevs. J. Edkins, D.D., of Shanghai; W. Wright, D.D., of London ; 
F. Hartmann, of Hongkong; W. H. Murray, of Peking; Y. K. Yen, of 
Shanghai; J. C. Gibson, of Swatow; Mr. John Fryer, of Shanghai; 
Revs. E. Faber, Dr. Theol, of Shanghai ; T. Barclay, of Formosa; J. Lees, 
of Tientsin ; T. C. Fulton, of Newchwang ; and D. Hill, of Wuchang. 


Mr. John Fryer, of Shanghai ; Revs. W. H. Lacey, of Foochow ; W. 
T A. Barber, of Wuchang ; F. L. H. Pott, of Shanghai ; W. B. Bonnell, 
of Shanghai; C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tnngchow; M. Schaub, of 
Hongkong; F. Hubrig, of Canton; L. W. Pilcher, D.D., of Peking; J. 
H. Judson, of Hangchow; S. Couling, of Chingchow; J. C. Ferguson, of 


Revs. A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai; Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D., 
of Shanghai; J. M. W. Farnham, D.D., of Shanghai; J. Edkins, D.D. ? 
of Shanghai; Mr. J. Fryer, of Shanghai; Mr. D. S. Murray, of Shang 
hai ; Revs. N. J. Plumb, of Foochow ; T. Barclay, of Formosa ; C. ( 
Sparliam,of Hankow ; W. Cooper, of Gank ing ; J. C. Gibson, of Swatow ; 
and J. N. B. Smith, of Shanghai. 


Revs. E. Faber, Dr. Theol, of Shanghai; J. M. W. Farnham, D.D., 
of Shanghai; W. Bridie, of Canton; A. G. Jones, of Chowp ing; J- 
Wherry, of Peking; Mr. A. Kenmure, of Canton; Revs. F. M. 
Wood of Gank ing ; P. D. Bergen, of Chinanf n ; J. Ross, of Moukden ; G. 
W. Painter, of Hangchow ; F. H. James, of Chinanfu ; and T. W. Pearce, 
of Canton. 


Revs R M. Mateer, of Wei Hien ; H. Corbett, D.D., of Chefoo ; A. 
G Jones of chowp ing ; J. Ross, of Moukden ; A. Elwin, of Hangchow ; 
C Goodrich of T ungchow ; J. Goforth, of Linch ing ; J. R. Hykes, o 
Kiukiang; B. C. Henry, D.D., of Canton; J. Lees, of Tientsin; I 
Mclver, of Swatow; Mr. A. Orr Ewing, of Pingyao ; Revs. T. Bryson, 
of Tientsin; and W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swatow. 

Rev* T. Richard, of Tientsin; Y. J. Allen, D.D., of Shanghai; J. 
Edkins, D.D., of Shanghai ; F. H. James, of Chinanfu ; J. McCarthy, of 


Yangchow; N. Sites, D.D., of Foochow; E. Faber, Dr. TheoL, of Shang 
hai; Gilbert Reid, of Chinanfu ; B. C. Henry, D.D., of Canton; G. W. 
Painter, of Hangchow ; A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai ; A. H. Smith, 
of P angchuang ; C. Shaw, of Foochow ; H. Gorbett, D.D., of Chefoo ; 
A. P. Happer, D.D., of Canton ; Rt. Rev. Bishop Burdon, of Hongkong ; 
Mr. John Fryer, of Shanghai; Rev. W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swatow. 


Revs. J. Hudson Taylor, of Shanghai ; A. G. Jones, of Choup ing ; 
R. M. Mateer, of Wei Hien ; H. Blodget, D.D., of Peking ; J. Lees, of 
Tientsin ; W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swatow ; J. C. Gibson, of Swatow ; R. 
M. Ross, of Amoy ; J. R, Goddard, of Ningpo ; J. B. Ost, of Hongkong ; 
L. W. Kip, D.D., of Amoy; C. Hartwell, of Foochow ; and W. H, 
Watson, of Kwangchi. 


Revs. J. Hudson Taylor, of Shanghai ; W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swa 
tow ; H. Corbett, D.D^ of Chefoo; C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tung- 
chow ; C. F, Reid, of Shanghai. 


I. Report of the Committee on the Wen-li Version 
of the Old and New Testaments. 

Youa Committee would respectfully recommend that this Conference 
elect by ballot an Executive Committee of twelve representative men, five 
Englishmen, five Americana and two Germans, to whom shall be com 
mitted the work of securing a translation of the whole Bible into simple 
but chaste Wen-li; and that this Committee proceed on the following 
plan : 

1. That they select and secure the services of a Committee of not. 
fewer than five competent translators, and make all necessary arrange 
ments for the convenient and vigorous prosecution of the work. 

2. That this Committee of translators may be as representative as 
possible, it shall be selected with reference to denominations and nation 
alities, but competent scholarship for tho work to be undertaken shall be 
made the paramount consideration ; and we recommend that it include 
tho names of Right Rev. Bishop Bnrdon, Rev. H. Blodget, D.D., and 
Rev. Griffith John, D.D. 

3. That no existing version, or partial version, ba made the basis of 
the new version to the exclusion of others, but that all existing materials 
be utilized ; aud, further, that all questions relating to the translation 
itself shall rest with translators, not with the Executive Committee. 

4. That the text that underlies tho revised English versions of the 
Old and New Testaments bo made the basis, with the privilege of 3,ny 
deviations in accordance with the Authorized Version. 

5. That in order to secure one Bible in three versions, the Executive 
Committee is instructed to enjoin upon the translators that in settling 
upon tho text, and it: all questions of interpretation, they act in conjunc 
tion with the Committee on Mandarin and higher Wen-li revision, and 
that for these purposes they constitute one Committee- 

6. That this Executive Committee shall continue to act and to 
superintend tho work until its completion. If any of the first Committee 
of translators shall cease to act before the completion of the work, the 
Executive Committee shall, if they think best, select others in their 

7. That in the case of the absence from China, or other disability of 
any member of the Executive Committee, he shall have the right to 
name his prosy or successor, but that if he fail to exercise this right it 
shall revert to the Committee. 

8. That the Executive Committee ask, in the name of this Confer 
ence, tho concurrence and financial help of the Bible Societies of Great 
Britain and America in carrying forward this work; and that when 



completed it be the common property of the societies which have given 
their patronage to the work, each having the right to publish such 
editions as it may choose, and with such terms for God. Spirit and 
baptize, as may be called for, and also to add explanatory readings, page, 
chapter and sectional headings, maps and such other accessories as it may 
deem, expedient. 









//. Supplementary Report of the Committee on the 
Wen-li Version of the Old and New Testaments. 

YOUR Committee would respectfully recommend that this Conference elect 
by ballot an Executive Committee of twelve representative men, five 
Englishmen, five Americans and two Germans, to whom shall be com. 
mifcted the work of securing a translation of the whole Bible in the 
higher classic style ; and that this Committee proceed on the following 
plan : 

1. That they select by a two-thirds vote a Committee of not fewer 
than five competent translators, and make all necessary arrangements 
for the convenient and vigorous prosecution of the work. 

. That this Committee of translators may be as representative as 
possible, it shall be selected with reference to denominations and nation 
alities, but competent scholarship for the work to be undertaken shall be 
made the paramount consideration. 

3. That a new version of the Old Testament be made, using the 
Medhnrst and Stronach, and the Bridgman and Culbertson versions 
wherever available ; that in the New Testament the Delegates version be 
taken as a basis, and that the Bridgman and Culbertson version and the 
version by Dr. Goddard be also employed wherever available. Also that 
for both Testaments all other existing material be used at the discretion 
of the translators ; and, further, that all questions relating to the trans 
lation itself shall rest with the translators, not with the Executive 

4. That the text that underlies the revised English versions of the 
Old and New Testaments be made the basis, with the privilege of any 
deviations in accordance with the Authorized Version. 


5. That in order to secure one Bible in three versions, the Executive 
Committee is instructed to enjoin upon the translators that in settling 
upon the text, and in all questions of interpretation, they act in conjunc 
tion with the Committee on Mandarin revision and the Committee on 
simple Wen-li, and that for these purposes they constitute one Committee. 

6. That this Executive Committee shall continue to act and to 
superintend the work until its completion. If any of the first Committee 
of translators shall cease to act before the completion of the work, the 
Executive Committee shall, if they think best, select others in their 

7. That in the case of the absence from China, or other disability of 
any member of the Executive Committee, he have the right to name his 
proxy or successor, but that if he fail to exercise this right it shall revert 
to the Committee. 

8. That the Executive Committee ask, in the name of this Confer 
ence, the concurrence and financial help of the Bible Societies of Great 
Britain and America in carrying forward this work; and that when 
completed it be the common property of the societies which have given 
their patronage to the work, each having the right to publish such 
editions as it may choose, and with such terms for God, Spirit and 
baptize, as may be called for, and also to add explanatory readings, page, 
chapter and sectional headings, maps and such other accessories as it may 
deem expedient. 









III. Report of the Committee on the Revision of the Old 

and New Testaments in Mandarin. 

YOUR Committee would respectfully recommend that this Conference 
elect by ballot an Executive Committee of ten representative men from 
the Mandarin-speaking regions of China, to whom shall be committed 
the work of securing an improved version of the Old and New Testa 
ments in Mandarin, and that this Committee proceed according to the 
following plan : 

1. That they select and secure the services of a corps of competent 
scholars for the work of revision, consisting of not less than seven men, 
to be known as the Committee on Mandarin Revision, and shall farther 
make all necessary arrangements for the vigorous prosecution of the 


2. That tins Committee of Revision may be as representative as 
possible, ifc shall be selected with reference to denominations and nation 
alities, but competent scholarship for the work to be undertaken shall be 
made the paramount consideration. 

3. That the Committee on Revision shall make constant and careful 
use of the union Mandarin version of the New Testament, prepared in 
Peking and widely employed in the Mandarin-speaking regions of China, 
of the recent version prepared by Dr. John, and of the Medhurst version 
formerly in extensive use in Central China; and in Old Testament 
revision, of the version of Bishop Schereschewsky ; and further that all 
questions relating to the translation itself shall rest with the trans 
lators, not with the Executive Committee. 

4. That the text which underlies the revised English versions of the 
Old and New Testaments be made the basis, with the privilege of any 
deviations in accordance with the authorized version. 

5. That in order to secure one Bible in three versions, the Executive 
Committee is instructed to enjoin upon the revisers, that in settling upon 
the text and in all questions of interpretation, they act in conjunction 
with the translators into simple and higher Wen-li, and that for these 
purposes they constitute one Committee. 

6. That the Executive Committee shall continue to act and to su 
perintend the work of supervision until its completion. If any member 
of the corps of revisers shall for any cause cease to act before the 
completion of the work, the Executive Committee shall, if they think 
best, supply his place. 

7. That in case of absence from China or other disability of any 
member of the Executive Committee, he shall have the right to name his 
own proxy or successor, but if he fail to exercise this right it shall revert 
to the Committee. 

8. That the Executive Committee ask in the name of this Conference 
the concurrence and financial help of the Bible Societies of Great Britain 
and America in carrying forward this work; and that when completed 
it be the common property of the Societies which have given their 
patronage to the work, each, having the right to publish such editions as 
it may choose, and with such, terms for God, Spirit and baptize as may be 
called for, and also to add explanatory readings, chapter and sectional 
headings, maps and such other accessories as it may deem expedient. 








IV. TJie Committee on Vernacular Versions recommends 
the Conference to resolve as follows : 

THAT the Conference is persuaded of the great importance of the use of 
the vernaculars in translations of Scripture for the edification of the 
native church: and finds that the use of Roman letter in writino- the 


vernaculars is recommended by a large amount of testimony from 
different parts of the empire. 

The Conference, therefore, commends this subject to the earnest con 
sideration of missions working in the various dialects, and appoints 
a permanent committee to watch over this subject with a view to assist 
generally in the development of this branch of mission work, and in 
particular to secure uniformity in methods of Romanizing, so far as may 
be compatible with the requirements of each dialect, and with the full 
liberty of those who work in it. The Conference further requests all 
missionaries undertaking work in Roman letter to communicate with this 

The Conference heartily recommends to the liberal consideration of 
the Bible Societies any applications that may be made to them for aid in 
the production of Vernacular Versions in Roman letter undertaken by 
any mission body. 

The Permanent Committee shall have power to fill np vacancies, 
and to add to their number if they shall see cause. 







V. Report of the Committee on the Need of Brief 
Introductions and Notes to the Scriptures and on 

Bible Distribution. 

1st. That we heartily thank the Bible Societies for the constant and 
generous aid given by them in Bible translation, publication and distri 
bution in China, and trust that efforts will be made to render such work 
still more effective. 

2nd. That in view of the special and serious difficulties which 
heathen in China meet with in understanding the Bible, we request the 
Bible Societies to publish, in addition to their present issues, editions of 
the Scriptures with summaries, headings and brief explanations. 

3rd. That such explanations occupy no more comparative space than 
that allowed for the marginal notes in the English Revised Version. 


Wi. That the present Conference select a Committee of twelve 
missionaries to prepare such explanations, and that the unanimous 
approval of all the members of this Committee be required before they be 
printed. This Committee shall consist of two Baptists, two Cougre- 
gationalists, two Episcopalians, one German Reformed, one German 
Lutheran, two Methodists and two Presbyterians, ifc being understood 
that when any member of the committee shall cease to act, the committee 
shall notify the missionaries of his denomination and request them to 
choose his successor, and in default of such choice the committee shall 
select another, if possible from the same denomination. 

5$. That we earnestly recommend that all Scriptures be issued in 
clear type and attractive form. 

6^. That this Conference elect by ballot an Executive Committee 
of twelve representative men, five Englishmen, five Americans and two 
Germans, who shall choose a committee of not fewer than five men to 
prepare an annotated Bible for general use, and that this Executive 
Committee ask in the name of this Conference the concurrence and 
financial help of the Tract Societies of Great Britain and America in 
carrying forward this work. 


X L. NEVIUS. H. C. DuBosE. 




C. SHAW. ^. H. JAMES. 

J. B. OST. L. W. KIP. 




























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VII. Report of the Committee on the Present State of 
Christian Literature in China, and to devise Plans 
for securing a harmonious ivorking together 
of all Literary Efforts. 

WHEREAS it is generally ackowledged that, owing to various causes, a 
great part of the existing Protestant Christian Literature in Chinese is 
unknown to many missionaries, and that consequently great waste of 
time and labor has resulted ; and whereas it is highly desirable that steps 
be taken to make this literature more generally accessible, 
Resolved : 

I. That a permanent Committee on Protestant Christian Literature, 
to consist of seven members, be appointed, with the following duties : 

(a.) To collect information from all parts of the empire on Protes 
tant Christian books and tracts already published. 

(&.) To endeavor to form a complete library of Protestant Christian 
Literature in Chinese. 

(c.) To prepare a Classified Catalogue, discriminating between pub 
lications "out of print" and those still "in circulation," and giving as far 
as possible the following details: Name in Chinese and in English, 
author s name, style or dialect, size of page, number of pages, how 
printed (type, blocks, etc.), where printed, when printed, where obtain 
able, price, and short descriptive note of contents. 

(d.) To revise the above-mentioned catalogue from time to time as 
may be found desirable. 

(e.) To gather information regarding works in preparation, and, 
when thought advisable, to publish suck information in the Recorder and 
in the Messenger. 

(/.) To endeavor to find writers who shall supply the more pressing 
wants in any department of Christian literature. 

(<j.) To secure adequate notices of new books and reprints in the 
Recorder and in the Messenger. 

(ft.) To secure, if practicable, a general depot at Shanghai for the 
store and sale of all books in cii culation in their classified catalogue ; and 
also book rooms at important centres, where copies of such books may 
be seen. 

II. That missionaries contemplating literary work be strongly re 
commended to communicate with this committee before beginning such 




A. G. JONES. J. Boss. T. W. PEARCE. 


VIII.- Report of the Committee on the subject of the School 
and Text Book Series Committee. 

1. Resolved, that this Conference record its high appreciation of the 
services of the members of the School and Text Book Series Committee, 
and that special mention be made of the time and labor so freely given by 
Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., and of John Fryer, Esq., and 

2. "Whereas, an Educational Association has now been organized 
with a view to the promotion of educational interests in China, including 
specially the matters of School and Text Books and Scientific Termino 
logy, therefore 

Resolved, that the books, maps, blocks and other assets and liabili 
ties of the School and Text-book Series Committee bo transferred to the 
Educational Association of China, with the proviso that any authors 
who may not wish their books so transferred, have the privilege of 
withdrawing them on equitable terms. 







IX. Report of Committee on Union. 

KECOGNI&ISG with devout thankfulness to tho Great Head of the Church 
the spirit of unity and brotherly love which has brought together so 
large a body of missionaries from all parts of China, of different nation 
alities, of various denominations, and of diverse preferences as to methods 
of work, and has united them in one harmonious Christian Conference, 
and which has, moreover, enabled them to take united action with regard 
to versions of Scripture, methods of work, and other subjects ; and in 
order to maintain and increase this spirit of unity, and to perpetuate the 
benefits of mutual conference, it is resolved to recommend 

1. That members of this Conference and all other missionaries in 
China set apart a portion of every Saturday evening as a. time of special 
prayer for each other s success in bringing souls to Christ, and that we 
may be united still more closely in the unity of the Spirit and the bonds 
of love. 

2. That a Committee of Correspondence, consisting of seven members 
residing in Shanghai, be elected by this Conference by ballot, whose duty 
it shall be to communicate with the missionaries on all subjects of common 
interest, to collect and publish missionary information and statistics, and 
to seek the views of the missionaries in the different parts of our common 
field on any subject where they may think united action desirable, 


including provision for the next Conference. Any vacancies in this 
Committee to be filled by the Shanghai Missionary Association. 

3. That we urge the missionaries in the various missionary centres 
who have not yet done so to unite in local conferences or associations, and 
that such bodies select one of their number to correspond with the Shang 
hai Committee, and to act in conjunction with them in carrying out the 
work above assigned them. 

4. That the Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal and the 
Messenger, with the consent of the proprietors, be adopted as the O-rgans 
of this Committee. 














X. Committee on Comity and Division of the field. 

IN view of the spirit of unity and brotherly love prevailing among UB, 
and of the little time which remains before the Conference closes, we do 
not feel it necessary to do more than suggest the following resolutions, 
which embody some of the ordinary rules of procedure long in use in 
many of our missions : 

Resolved that we advise : 

I. That as a general rule, the common occupation of smaller cities 
and the districts around them is not the most profitable way of utilizing 
our forces, but that larger cities and districts should be considered open 
for common occupation, and especially so when they are needful bases for 
the occupation of the regions beyond. 

II. That Societies wishing to begin new work or to extend, be 
strongly recommended to take into consideration unoccupied territory, so 
as speedily to cover the whole field. 

III. That in case of disagreement as to occupation of territory, or 
any other matters connected with their work, it is recommended that 
the Societies concerned seek the arbitration of disinterested parties on 
the field. 

IV. That where two or more missions are working in one place, 
care should be exercised not to receive applications for baptism from 
persons who are already recognized candidates of another Church. 

V. That we mutually respect the acts of discipline of the various 


VI. That we recognize the inherent right of every Church member 
to transfer his membership to another denomination ; but recommend to 
all concerned great caution in dealing with such cases. 

VII. That no overture for taking members of other Churches into 
mission employment be made without consultation with the Missionary 
in charge. 







XI. Report of the United Committee on a Memorial 

to the Throne and the Relation of Christian 

Missions to the Chinese Government. 

WHEREAS, the late re-publication and the wide distribution of grave 
charges against Christian Missions, tending to arouse dangerous riots, 
have been brought to the notice of the Conference, and 

Whereas, some of the chief authorities of the Empire have expressed 
a desire to be more fully informed of our aims and purposes, we recom 
mend with a view to a better understanding : 

I. That a Committee be appointed to prepare an address for pre 
sentation to the Chinese Government to the following effect : 

1. To thank the Government for the protection it has given- us in 
the past. 

2. To lay before the Government the false charges made against us, 
pointing out the danger of serious consequences unless their circulation 
be prohibited. 

3. To pray the Government to take immediate effective measures to 
check their circulation, and to make known throughout the Empire the 
truth in the case. 

4. To state what we do believe and teach, showing that everywhere 
we inculcate loyalty, peace and charity, and that in all our work we seek 
nothing but the best interests of China and the Chinese. 

II. That the best way of presenting the address be left to the 
discretion of this Committee. 

III. That this Committee shall consist of seven persons appointed 
by this Conference. 











XI L Report of Committee on Opium. 

WHEEEAS this Conference regards the rapid extension of the growth of 
native opium, in addition to the nse of the imported drug, with profound 

alarm; and 

Whereas the consequent vast increase of the opium-habit demands 
our most serious and unremitting consideration, 

Therefore Kesolved 

1. That we as a Conference re-affirm and maintain our attitude of 
unflinching opposition to the opium-traffic. 

2. That we recommend all Christians in China to use every endeavor 
to arouse public opinion against the spread of this evil, and to devise 
means to secure, as far as may be, its suppression. 

3. That we advise the formation of a Chinese anti-opium society 
with branches at all mission-stations. And we recommend the appoint 
ment by this Conference of a Committee of seven to carry out this 


4. That we have learned with alarm of the rapid increase in the 
consumption of morphia in China : that we find this increase is largely 
owing to the indiscriminate sale and consequent abuse of so-called anti- 
opium medicines, and that we now on the suggestion of the Medical 
Missionary Association of China, urge all missionaries to discourage, and, 
as far as possible prevent, the sale of such anti-opium medicines as con 
tain opium or any of its alkaloids.* 

5. That we earnestly impress on all Christian Churches throughout 
the world, the duty of uniting in fervent and continual prayer to God 
that Ho will in His wise providence direct His people to such measures as 
will lead to the restriction and final abolition of this great evil. 

6. That we deeply sympathize with the efforts of the Societies in 
Great Britain and elsewhere for the suppression of the Opium Trade, and 
recommend them to continue and increase the agitation for the suppres 
sion of the growth and sale of opium 

J. G. KERR. J- B. OST; 





A. LTALL. s - A - HUNTER. 

XIII. Report of the Committee on Work for the Blind 
and for the Deaf and Dumb. 

1. Resolved that a permanent Committee be appointed to watch over 
and develop Christian work for the benefit of the Blind and of the Deaf 
and Dumb, and to bring local workers into correspondence. This 

* In presenting this Report, the Chairman stated that this clause has no reference 
to carefully managed opium refuges. 



Committee shall have power to add to its number, and to fill up vacancies, 
and shall report to the next General Conference. 

2. Resolved, that the Sub-Committee named (See Permanent Com. 
mittee No. 14) be instructed to co-operate with the Committee of the 
proposed Deaf-rnnte Institution in Shanghai, and to aid them in carrying 
out their plans. 

3. Resolved, that the Conference receive and put on record the 
following recommendation of their Committee with regard to methods of 
writing Chinese for the use of the Blind . 

(1). That the Committee unanimously recommend the system of the 
Braille dots as by far the best for general use in writing and printing for 
the Blind. 

(2). That in applying this system to Chinese, two methods are 
recommended .() A system of writing by initials and finals, expressed 
by Braille dots. (J) A system of spelling in the European method. 

(3). That in dialects with a small syllabary the use of intials and 
finals may be found sufficient, while in those where the syllabary is large, 
European spelling will probably be more satisfactory. 

(4). That the respective merits of these two methods must be deter 
mined by consultation on details, and by experience and comparison of 
actual results. 

(5). That the marking of tones seems necessary in some dialects and 
unnecessary in others. 

4. Resolved, that the Conference recommend that wherever the 
teaching of the Blind is undertaken, some industrial training should be 
added, so far as practicable; and invite all missionaries to o;i Te what 
assistance they can in all such work. 






Y - K - YEN - T. C. FULTON. 

XIV. An Appeal for Ordained Missionaries. 


Realizing as never before the magnitude of China and the utter 
inadequacy of our present numbers for the speedy carrying into execution 
of our Lord s command, " Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel 
to every creature ; " therefore, 

Resolved, that we, the four hundred and thirty members of the 
Missionary Conference, now in session in Shanghai, earnestly and 
unanimously appeal to you to send oat speedily as many hundreds as can 
i/ le secured of well qualified ordained men. 


The whole of China is now open to missionary effort and needs a 
large number of men of prayer, of patient endurance and of common 
sense, men full of the Holy Ghost, and of faith in the Gospel as " the 
power of God unto salvation." 

The missionary here encounters hoary and subtle superstitions, a 
most difficult language, a people of vigorous intellect, with a vast litera 
ture and an elaborate educational system. There is need, therefore, of 
men of commanding practical and intellectual as well as spiritual endow 
ments, men who shall be able to engage in and direct the work of 
evangelization, to educate, train and induct into its work a native pastor 
ate, to found and conduct educational institutions and to provide a 
general theological, scientific and periodical literature. 

Seeing as we do, the titter destitution and helplessness of these mil 
lions stiil " having no hope and without God in the world," we appeal to 
young men to give themselves to this work. We believe that the great 
question with each of yon should be, not, "Why should I go," but, 
" Why should I not go." 

We recommend that the men be sent under the regularly constituted 
missionary societies of the various denominations, and that these societies 
search out suitable men before they are committed to the home work. 

With the highest appreciation of the claims of the Home Churches, 
we still urge young pastors to consider whether the places of some of 
them might not be filled by men who cannot come to the mission field, 
while they might bring their experience to spheres of work in China 
which must otherwise be left wholly unoccupied. 

We call upon individual congregations to greatly increase their con- 
tribntions for the support of one or more of these men. 

We urge Christian men of wealth to prayerfully consider the duty 
and privilege of giving themselves personally to this work, or of support 
ing their representatives. 

Finally, we shall not cease to pray the Lord of the harvest to move 
you mightily by His Holy Spirit in behalf of this vast and ripening field. 
Yours in Christ, 

DAVID HILL, f Presidents. 
SHANGHAI, May, 1890. 

XV. Report of Committee on Lay Agency. 

1. The Committee recommend that the accompanying Appeal for 
additional Lay Agents be sent to the Home Churches from the present 
Conference : 

That this Conference, whilst strongly urging upon the Home Churches 
the sustentation and continued increase of the staff of thoroughly trained 
and fully qualified ordained missionaries, and the further development of 
native agencies in every branch of Christian work, is still so profoundly 
impressed with the manifold need of this vast country, that it would present 


a direct appeal to the Home Churches for lay missionaries, and in doino- so 
would lay before them some of the departments of service in which their 
help is more especially needed. 

Beginning with the highest service, and touching the deepest need 
of the country, it would point to the many millions of our fellow-men 
who have never heard the Gospel of the grace of God and to some 
millions more, who, though they have possessed themselves of some 
portion of His Word, still fail to comprehend its meanino- for want of 
some one to guide them in their study of it, and they would urge the 
claims of these unevangelized millions on the youth of the Home 
Churches and would emphasize the nobility of the service which a Chris 
tian evangelist may thus render to the Lord in China. 

The country long closed is open. The people, if not decidedly 
friendly, are not hostile. The work oE the Bible colporteur has prepared 
the way. The promise of ingathering is yearly brightening, but the 
labourers are few, and with the abundance of Christian workers in the 
homo lauds, surely hundreds or even thousands might be found to 
hasten on the evangelization of this empire by their personal effort and 

Passing now to the intellectual requirements of China, we rejoice to 
record the progress of missionary education in the East during recent 
years, but are admonished by the fact that purely secular instruction so 
largely tinges the educational movements, both of Christian and heathen 
governments ; and in this fact we hear a loud call to the Christian 
Church to supply in larger numbers Christian educationalists for China. 
The intellectual renaissance of the empire is just commencing ; there is an 
incipient cry for Western culture, and the response which the Christian 
Church may make to this cry will, to no inconsiderable extent, decide the 
course which the education of the country will take in the future. 

With Christian men in tho chairs of the colleges of China, what may 
we not expect from so powerful an auxiliary in tho evangelization of 
the empire. University men may find here at no distant period some of 
the most influential posts in tho mission field, and we would earnestly 
invite all such Christian co-workers to weigh over with all seriousness 
the question whether they may not more effectively serve their Master in 
China than in the homo lands. 

But besides the intellectual need of the country there is also the 
chronic and often dire necessity of physical distress. 

The masses of the people are poor. Physical suffering meets us at 
every turn. Medical science is almost unknown. Charitable institutions, 
though established both by the government and by private effort, fail to 
compass the need of tho masses. Flood and famine slay their thousands 
and yet tho wealth of tho world is in Christian hands and might, by 
judicious distribution, both save tho lives of thousands yearly and give 
completer expression to the Life wo preach. On behalf of these destitute 
masses, therefore, we earnestly plead with the men of wealth in tho Home 
Churches that they will consider the claims of these suffering ones, and 
not only by their gifts and prayers will largely aid tho re-iaforcemeut of 


the noble staff of medical missionaries already in the field, but -will give 
themselves in larger nambera to benevolent enterprise abroad. The 
blind, the aged, the orphan and the destitute mutely plead for Christian 
compassion, and the Lord Himself has said, " Inasmuch as ye did it unto 
one of these my brethren, oven, these least, ye did it unto me." 

We appeal then to our lay brethren of the Home Churches, to men of 
sterling piety, of strong common sense, that they would lay to heart the 
needs of this vast empire, its spiritual destitution, its stunted education, 
its physical distress, and that they would solemnly ask themselves 
whether for the greater glory of God they are not called to meet this 
pressing need and to devote themselves, their service and their wealth 
to this missionary enterprise in China. Wo would offer to them a most 
hearty welcome to our ranks and would assure them that whether they 
come out as ordained or as lay workers, this welcome will be equally cordial ; 
and in conclusion we would earnestly pray that this appeal may be 
brought home to the hearts of many by the power of the Divine Spirit. 

2. The Committee further recommend the following Resolutions for 
the adoption of the Conference : 

(a.) That this Conference does not deem it necessary that medical 
missionaries be ordaiued to the Pastoral Office. But 

(&.) That the Conference recommends that medical missionaries 
desiring ordination to the office of deacon, elder, or evangelist, apply for 
such ordination in connection with their respective Churches. 








XVI. Report of the Committee on Women s Work. 

1. That the Conference desires to express its cordial approval of the 
able papers read on Saturday last by the ladies who had been appointed 
to write upon the various subjects presented. 

2. That we rejoice in the greatly increased number during the past 
ten years of lady-workers and native helpers, and the corresponding 
advancement of the work among the women and girls of China in all 
departments as set forth in these papers. 

3. That we fully agree with the idea brought forward in these 
papers that in all our Mission Schools, whether Boarding or Day-schools, 
while due attention should be given to intellectual and physical training, 
the first place must always be reserved for religious instruction, the first 
object must ever be to bring the pupils to a knowledge of and belief iu 
Christ as their Saviour. 


4. That the importance of schools for women, church members and 
others, where they can receive an intelligent idea of Christian truth and 
become able at least to read the Scriptures in their native tongue, cannot 
be over-estimated, and while we rejoice that the ladies could report some 
such schools as already established, we would earnestly recommend that 
the number be greatly multiplied and that they be opened in connection 
with our native churches and out-stations, and assistance should, if 
deemed necessary, be given in order to enable the women to give their 
time to study. 

5. That we fully endorse the sentiment expressed by one of the 
gentlemen of the Conference, viz., "that the wives of missionaries 
should have every encouragement and assistance from their husbands, to 
enable them to engage in direct mission, work." 

6. That missionaries should use every lawful means to prevent the 
marriage of Christian girls to heathen men, especially when one or both 
the parents are church members. 

7. That we as missionaries continue to maintain a decided stand 
against the cruel custom of foot-binding, and we would urge that renewed 
and persistent efforts be made to arouse public sentiment against this 
evil, with the hope that the time is not far distant when the education and 
culture of the young ladies of this country will be properly appreciated, 
and bound feet no longer be regarded as the standard of respectability. 

In conclusion, the Committee desire, on behalf of tho ladies, to express 
to the Conference their appreciation of its action in devoting an entire 
day to tho consideration of woman s work and allowing an extension of 
time for the full presentation of the papers and in making them full 
members of the Conference. 


Mrs. C. W. MATEER. Miss C. M. TALMAGB. Mrs. E. TOMALIN. 

Mrs. T. BRYSON. Mrs. J. M. W. FARNHAM. Miss M. MURRAY. 

Miss G. HOWE. Mrs. G. STOTT. Mrs. M. T. YATES. 


Mrs. J. G. KEEE. Miss M. VAUGHAN. Miss C. M. BICKEITS. 


An Appeal from the Ladies of the Conference. 

To the Christian Women of the British Empire, the United States 
Germany and all other Protestant Countries IGreeting. 

We, the women of the Missionary Conference now assembled in, 
Shanghai, come to yon, our sisters in Christ, with an urgent appeal in 
behalf of tho one hundred millions of women and children of China who 
" sit in darkness and in the shadow of death." 

The work of women in China has been prosecuted at the oldest 
stations for about fifty years, at first chiefly by the wives of missionaries, 
but in later years single ladies have largely augmented this working force. 
There are now ladies engaged in educational, medical and evangelistic 
work in China. Much has been done by them; many lives have been 
uplifted from the degradation of idolatry and sin, many sad hearts 
comforted, many darkened minds enlightened and much solid good 
effected. But our hearts are burdened to-day with love and pity for 
the millions of women around us, our sisters, for whom Christ died, still 
unreached by the sound of the Gospel. 

Beloved sisters, if you could see their sordid misery, their hopeless, 
loveless lives, their ignorance and sinfulness, as we see them, mere human 
pity would move you to do something for their uplifting. But there is a 
stronger motive that should impel you to stretch out a helping hand, and 
that we plead the constraining love of Christ. We who are in the midst 
of this darkness that can be felt, send our voices across the ocean to you, 
our sisters, and beseech you by the grace of Christ our Saviour that you 
come at once to our help. 

Four kinds of work are open to us. 

1. There is school work in connection with our various missions, 
which in many cases the men have handed over to the women in order 
that they themselves may be free to engage more directly in evangelistic 

2. There is a work to be done for the sick and suffering women of 
China, in hospitals, dispensaries and homes, for which skilful physicians 
are needed. Most of this work can be better done by women than by 
men, and much of it can be done only by women. 

3. There is work for us in the families of the church. There are 
converted mothers and daughters who need to be taught the way of 
the Lord more perfectly, and to be trained in whatever is necessary 
for their full development into lively members of the great household 
of faith. 

4. There is a work of evangelization among women, similar to that 
being done by men among the people at large. It is not claimed that 
the evangelization of women cannot bo done at all by men, but that 
there is more of it thau men can do, there is much of it that will never be 
done unless women do it, and much that men cannot do as well as women 
can. There is nothing in this kind of work transcending the recognized 


scriptural sphere of women. Women received from the Lord Himself, 
upon the very morning of the resurrection, their commission to tell the 
blessed story of a risen Saviour. "What they did then we may continue 
to do now. 

But you will ask, who are needed for this work ? Knowing the-con- 
ditions of life and work in China, we would answer that : 

1. They should be women of sound health, of good ability and good 
common sense, also well educated though not necessarily of the highest 
education apt to teach, kind and forbearing in disposition, so that they 
may live and work harmoniously witb their associates and win the hearts 
of the Chinese. Above all, they should be women who have given 
themselves wholly to the Lord s work, and are prepared to bear hardship 
and exercise constant self-denial for Christ s sake. 

2. It is desirable that they should pursue a systematic course of Bible 
study before coming to China, and have some experience in Christian 
work at home. 

Further, we would suggest that they should labour in connection 
with established missions in order that the good results of their work 
may be preserved, and that they may Lave, when needed, the assistance 
and protection of their brother missionaries. 

Open doors are all around us, and though idolatry lifts a hoary head, 
and ancestral worship binds the people as with chains of adamant, yet 
with God "all things are possible," and mountains of difficulty melt like 
snow-flakes before the rising of the Sun of Righteousness. 

God is on tho side of His own glorious life-giving word ; we ask 
you to come in the power of consecration and faith, with sober expecta 
tions and readiness to endure hardness as good soldiers of Jesus, and take 
your share in the most glorious war that was ever waged on earth the 
war against the powers of darkness and sin, assured that God will ac 
complish His own purposes of love and grace to China, and will permit 
you, if you listen to this call, to be His fellow-workers in " binding up 
the broken hearted, proclaiming liberty to the captives, and the opening 
of tho prison to them that are bound." 

That tho Holy and loving Spirit of God may incline year hearts to 
respond to His call is our earnest prayer. 

Yours in our Lord, 

Signed on behalf of the two hundred and four ladies assembled in 
Conference at Shanghai. 

Mrs. Mary Lees, London Missionary Society. 

,, A. Elwin, Church Missionary Society. 
Miss C. M. Ricketts, English Presbyterian Mission. 
Mrs. J. R. Watson, English Baptist Mission. 
Miss L. G. Sugden, Wesleyan Mission. 

I. Newcombe, Church of England Zenana Mission. 
Mrs. E. Tomalin, China Inland Mission. 
John Ross, U. P. Church of Scotland. 
W. E. SoothUJ, United Methodist Free Church, 


Mrs. T. C. Fulton, Irish Presbyterian Church. 

Arthur H. Smith, American Board. 

J. M. Foster, Baptist Missionary Union. 

,, C. W. Mateer, American Presbyterian Mission (North). 
Miss L. H. Hoag, M.D., Methodist Episcopal Mission (North). 

E. F. Swinney, M.D., Seventh Day Baptist Mission. 
Mrs. Eliza M. Yates, Southern Baptist Mission. 
Miss Laura A. Haygood, Methodist Episcopal Mission (South). 
K. M. Talmage, American Reformed Mission. 

R. E. Reifsnyder, M.D., Woman s Union Mission. 
Mrs. J. L. Stuart, American Presbyterian Mission (South). 


XV IL An. Appeal to all Protestant Churches of 

Christian Lands. 

We, the General Conference of Protestant Missionaries in China, 
having just made a special appeal to you for a largely increased force of 
ordained missionaries to preach the Gospel throughout the length and 
breadth of this great land, to plant churches, to educate native ministers 
and helpers, to create a Christian literature, and, in general, to engage in 
and direct the supreme work of Christian evangelization ; and, 

Having also just made a special appeal to you for a largely increased 
force of unordained men, evangelists, teachers and physicians, to travel 
far and wide distributing books and preaching to the masses, to lend a 
strong helping hand in the great work of Christian education, and to 
exhibit to China the benevolent side of Christianity in the work of heal 
ing the sick : 

Therefore, we do now appeal to you, the Protestant churches of 
Christian lands, to send to China in response to these calls 



We make this appeal in behalf of three hundred millions of un- 
evangelized heathen ; we make it with all the earnestness of our whole 
hearts, as men overwhelmed with the magnitude and responsibility of the 
work before us ; wo make it with unwavering faith in the power of a 
risen Saviour to call men into His vineyard, and to open the hearts of 
those who are His stewards to send out and support them, and wo shall 
not cease to cry mightily to Him that He will do this thing, and that our 
eyes may see it. 

On behalf of the Conference, 

Committee <( H. CORBETT. 

1 0. W. MATEER. 
SHANGHAI, Jl/oy, 1890. 


1. To collect facts in reference to tlie use of alcohol Itij native Christians 
and report to next Conference. 

J. G. Kerr, M.D., of Canton, Chairman; Rev. J. Wherry, of Peking ; 
Rev. A. W. Donthwaite, M.D., of Chefoo; T. Gillison, M.B., C.M., of 
Hankow ; Mr. D. S. Murray, of Shanghai ; Rev. G. H. Hubbard, of 
Foochow ; Rev. Jno. Ross, of Moukden. 

2. To secure an Easy Wen-li Version of the Scriptures. 

Rev. R. Lecbler, of Hongkong, Chairman; Revs. D. Hill, of Wu 
chang; W. Ashmore, D.D., of Swatow; J. W. Stevenson, of Shanghai; 
F. Hubrig, of Canton ; J. C. Gibson, of Swato-w ; C- F. Reid, of Shang 
hai; H. Corbett, D.D., of Chefoo ; T. Bryson, of Tientsin ; Ven. Archdea 
con Wolfe, of Foochow ; Revs. G. F. Fitch, .of Shanghai ; A. H. Smith, 
of P ang-chuang. 

3. To tecvre a Mandarin Version of the Scriptures. 

Rev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tungchow, Chairman; Revs. F. 
W. Bailer, of Gank ing; E. Faber, Dr. Theol, of Shanghai; D. Hill, of 
Wuchang; C. Goodrich, of T ungchow; T. Bryson, of Tientsin; A. 
Elwin, of Hangchow ; J. R. Hykes, of Kiukiang ; R. T. Bryan, of Chiu- 
kiang ; J. Mclntyre, of Newchwang. 

4. To arrange for an Annotated Bible with request for its publication 
by the Tract Societies. 

Rev. E. Faber, Dr. Theol. , of Shanghai, Chairman; Revs. J. L. 
Nevius, D.D., of Chefoo; W. Ashmore, D.D., of Stvatow; J. W. 
Stevenson, of Shanghai; C. Goodrich, of T ungchow; R. H. Graves, 
M.D., D.D., of Canton ; A. Elwin, of Hangchow ; F. Hnbrig, of Canton ; 
J. Edkins, D.D., of Shanghai; T. Bryson, of Tientsin; H. H. Lowry, 
of Peking ; and A. Williamson, LL.D., of Shanghai. 

5. For preparing Explanatory Notes and Comments on the Scriptures. 
(See Section 4 of Report.) 

Baptist. Conyregationalist. 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., D.D., Canton, Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, T nngchow. 
Rev.J. S. Whitewright, Chingchow Fu. Rev. T. W. Pearce, Canton. 

Episcopalian. Methodist. 

Ven. Archdeacon Moule, Shanghai. Rev. W. Bridie, Canton. 

Rev. F. R. Graves, Wuchang. Rev. J. Jackson, Kiukiang. 

Presbyterian. German. 

Rv. W. McGregor, Amoy. Rev. A. Kollecker, Canton. 

Rev. J. L. Whiting, Peking. Rev. M. Schanb, Canton. 


6. For the Promotion of Ant i- Opium Societies. 

J. G. Kerr, M.D., of Canton ; B. C. Atterbury, M.D., of Peking ; 
Ven. Archdeacon Moule, of Shanghai ; H. T. Whitney, M.D., of Foochow ; 
S. R. Clarke, of Kwei Yang Fu ; Rev. A. G. Shorrock, of T ai Yuen Fu ; 
Bev. G. John, D.D., of Hankow. 

7. On Correspondence. (See Report of Committee on Union.} 

Bev. G. F. Fitch, Chairman; Revs. W. Muirhead, A. Williamson, 
LL.D., Ven. Archdeacon Motile, Bevs. J. W. Stevenson, D. W. Herring, 
Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D. 

8. For securing a High Wen-li Version of the Scriptures. 

Rev. E. Faber, Dr. Theol., of Shanghai, Chairman; Bevs. B. Lechler, 
of Hongkong; J. C. Gibson, of Swatow; C. Goodrich, of T ungchow; A. 
Elwin, of Hangchow ; L. W. Pilcher, D.D., of Peking ; J. Wherry, of 
Peking; Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D., of Shanghai; J. W. Stevenson, of 
Shanghai; B. H. Graves, M.D., D.D., of Canton; F. W. Bailer, of 
Gank ing ; T. Bryson, of Tientsin. 

9. To prepare an Address to the Government. 

Bevs. Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D., of Shanghai ; G. John, D.D., of 
Hankow; Bt. Bev. Bishop Moule, of Hangchow; Bevs. W. Ashmore, 
D.D., of Swatow; J. Wherry, of Peking; H. Blodget, D.D., of Peking; 
T. Bichard, of Tientsin. 

10. To observe and report the Results of the Appeal for a Thousand 

Bevs. J. H. Taylor, of Shanghai ; W. Ashmore, D.D.^of Swatow ; H. 
Corbett, D.D., of Chefoo; C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D., of Tungchow ; C. 
F. Beid, of Shanghai. 

11. On Christian Literature. 

Mr.A. Kenmure, of Canton, Chairman; Bevs. J. M. W. Farnham,D.D., 
of Shanghai ; J. Wherry, of Peking ; N. J. Plumb, of Foochow ; C. G. 
Sparham, of Hankow ; A. G. Jones, of Chingchow Fu ; C. A. Stanley, 
of Tientsin. 

12. To edit the Records of the Conference. 

Bevs. W. J. Lewis, of Shanghai ; W. T. A. Barber, of Wuchang ; 
J. B. Hykes, of Kiukiang. 

13. To prepare a Brief Account in Chinese of the Conference. 

Bev. J. Edkins, D.D., Chairman; Revs. G. F. Fitch, Y. K. Yen and 
Mr. J. Ware, all of Shanghai. 

14. To develop Christian Work for the Benefit of the Blind and of the 
Deaf and Dunib. 

Revs. W. Campbell, of Formosa ; W. H. Murray, of Peking ; J. C. 
Gibson, of Swatow; F. Hartmann, of Hongkong; D. Hill, of Wuchang; 
H..C. Hodges, J. Edkins, D.D., Y. K. Yen, W. J. Lewis and Mr. J. Fryer, 
all of Shanghai, the last five of whom shall be a Sab-Committee with 
power to meet and initiate action. 



15. To foster the Development of Romanised Vernacular Versions. 
For Mandarin : Revs. C. Lsaraan, of Nanking ; E. Bryant, of Tien 
tsin ; J- "W. Lowrie, of Peking; W. Cooper, of Gank ing. 
For Shanghai dialect Rev. J. A. Silsby. 

Ningpo J. R. Goddard. 

T aichow W. D. Rudland. 

Wenchow W. E. Soothill. 

Foochow ,, S. F. "Woodin and TV. Stewart 

Amoy and") f L. W. Kip, D.D. and 

Formosa f " ( T. Barclay. 

Swatow ,, J- C. Gibson, Secretary. 

Canton B. C. Henry, D.D. 

Hakka G. Reusch, and D. Maclrer. 

Hainan F. P. Gilman. 


1. Of Medical Practitioners at the Open Ports. 

Resolved. That this Conference recognises with gratitude to God 
the valuable voluntary service rendered to the cause of Christian philan 
thropy among the Chinese by medical men in practice among the foreign 
communities at the open ports, and expresses the hope that such service 
and sympathy will be continuously and increasingly proffered. 

2. Of a Day of Prayer for Schools and Colleges. 

Resolved. That this Conference recommend that the day set apart 
in the U. S. A. and England as a Day of Prayer for Schools and Colleges, 
viz., the last Thursday in January, be also observed by all the churches 
in China. 

3. Of Thanks to the School and Text Book Series Committee. 
Resolved. That thia Conference record its high appreciation of the 

services of the members of the School and Text Book Series Committee, 
and that special mention be made of the time and labour so freely given 
by Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D., and Mr. John Fryer. 

4. Of Thanks to God for preserving Mercy. 

"Whereas no lives were lost by the collapse of the staging erected for 
photographing the Conference and no injuries sustained but such as may 
be healed, 

Resolved. That we record our deep sense of our Heavenly Father s 
care in protecting ns in an accident franght with such grave peril. 

5. Of Good Wishes to Rev. A. P. Happer, D.D. 

Resolved. That, as the Rev. Dr. Happer, the oldest member of this 
Conference, is obliged to leave, we hereby express our great pleasure in 
Laving had him with us in our Conference, our gratitude to God for 
Laving spared his life so long for active and useful labour, and we hope 
that we may have the benefit of his aid and counsels for years to come. 

6. Of the Supreme Importance of Evangelistic Work. 

Resolved. That, while we regard the educational and literary 
branches of our work as indispensable and likely to yield large fruits in 
the future, we nevertheless urge that in view of its paramount importance 
the evangelistic work be pushed forward with increased vigour and 
earnestness, in order, if possible, to save the present generation. 

7. Of Ancestral Worship. 

Whereas Dr. Martin, in his paper entitled " Ancestral Worship : a 
Plea for Toleration," has reached the conclusion "that missionaries 
should refrain from any interference with the native mode of honoring 
ancestors, and leave the reformation of the system to the influence of 
Divine Truth, whoa it gets a firmer hold on the national mind," 



Resolved. That this Conference record its dissent from this con 
clusion and affirm its belief that idolatry is an essential constituent of 
ancestral worship. 

8. Of the Evangelical Alliance. 

Resolved. That the whole matter of the recognition of the Chinese 
Branches of the Evangelical Alliance, and the continuance and extension 
of their work, be referred to the Committee on Correspondence, and that 
the result of their deliberations be published in the Recorder and the 

9. Of Thanks. 

Resolved. That the most hearty thanks of this Conference be con 
veyed to the Pastor and Trustees of the Union Church of Shanghai for 
their great liberality in giving us the free use of the building. 

That this Conference most cordially thanks the kind hosts and 
hostesses of Shanghai for their generous hospitality extended to the 
Members of the Confei ence, and also that special thanks be conveyed to 
those gentlemen who have kindly placed empty houses at the disposal of 
the Conference. 

That the thanks of this Conference be presented to its Chairmen 
and other officers for their patience and efficiency in the conduct of 
business and discussion. 

That the thanks of this Conference be presented to Mr. S. F. White- 
house, of Shanghai, for his efficient services at the organ. 

That the thanks of this Conference be presented to Mr. W. H. Grant, 
of Philadelphia, for the kind supply of the hymn-books used during the 

That this Conference most cordially thank the Committee which so 
laboriously and successfully made all the arrangements for the Conference. 

That the thanks of the Conference be presented to the Committee on 
Business for their zeal and discretion in the discharge of their important 

That the thanks of the Conference be presented to the editors of the 
Shanghai newspapers for the large space devoted to the records of the 

That the thanks of the Conference be presented to the various steam 
ship Companies for the substantial reduction in the fares of missionaries 
attending: the Conference. 


Tuesday, Qth May, at 5 p.m. 

First Day, Wednesday, 1th May. 

Prayer Meeting at 10.30 a.m., in the Lyceum, conducted by Rev. 

Dr. Blodget. 

Sermon Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, in the Lyceum, at 11.00 a.m. 
Organization of Conference, Election of Officers and Preliminary 

Business, in the Lyceum, at 2.30 p.m. 
Address of Welcome. 
The Changed Aspect of China Rev. Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D. 

Union Church, at 8 p.m. 

The Relation of Christian Missions to the Foreign Residents, paper 
by Ven. Archdeacon Moule, and addresses by Prof. Thwing and 
Dr. Ashmore. 

Second Day, Thursday, 8th inst. 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) Historical Summary of the Different Versions, with their term 
inology and the feasibility of securing a single standard version in 
Wen-li, with a corresponding version in the Mandarin Colloquial 
Rev. W. Muirhead, Rt. Rev. Bishop Schereschewsky and Rev* 
J. Wherry. 

(2) Review of the various Colloquial Versions and the Comparative 
Advantages of Roman Letters and Chinese Characters Rev. J. C. 
Gibson, Rev. S. F. Woodiu,*Rt. Rev. Bishop Burdon. 

2.30 p.m. 

(3) The Need of Brief Introductions, Headings, Maps and Philologi 
cal, Historical, Geographical and Ethnological Notes Rev. A. 
Willliamson, LL.D. 

(4) Bible Distribution in China : its methods and results S. Dyer, 

8 p.m. 

Addresses by Rev. Dr. Wright, Editorial Secretary of B. and F. B. 
Soc., and Mr. L..D. Wishard, College Sec. of Y. M. C. A., U. S. A. 

Third Day, Friday, 9th inst. 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) The Missionary : his qualifications, introduction to his work and 
moda.of life-^Rev. J. Hudson Taylor. 



(2) Lay Agency in Chinese Missions : to what extent desirable and 
on what conditions Rev. D. Hill. 

2.30 p.m. 

(3) Historical Review of Missionary Methods, past and present, in 
China, and how far satisfactory Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D. 

(4) Preaching to the Heathen in Chapels, in tho Open Air and during 
Itineration Rev. B. C. Henry, D.D., and Rev. H. H. Lowry. 

(5) The Religious Sects in Shantung Rev. F. H. James. 

8 p.m. 

The Relation of Christianity to Universal Progress Rev. A. H< 

Fourth Da)/, Saturday, IQth inst. 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) General View of Women s Work in China and its results Miss 
A. C. Safford. 

(2) Girls Schools Miss Hattie Noyes and Miss Haygood. 

(3) Best Methods of reaching the Women Miss C. M. Cushman and 
Miss C. M. Ricketts. 

2.30 p.m. 

(4) Feasibility of Unmarried Ladies engaging in General Evangel 
istic Work in New Fields Miss M. Murray. 

(5) The Training and Work of Native Female Evangelists Miss A. 
M. Fielde. 

(6) The Christian Training of the Women of the. Church Mrs. A. 
H. Smith. 

Prayer Meeting in the Union Church, at 8 o clock. 

Sunday, llth inst. 

Communion of the Lord s Supper at the Methodist Episcopal (South) 
Church, Yunnan Road, presided over by Rev. Dr. Faber, 9.30 a.m. 
Service for. the Chinese in L. M. S. Chapel (city) at 3 p.m. 

Fifth Day, Monday, 12th inst. 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) Medical Work as an Evangelizing Agency Dr. A. W. Donth- 

(2) Medical Missionary Work in China by Lady Physicians Dr. 
M. Niles. 

2.30 p.m. 

(3) Orphanages, Asylums for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb and other 
Charitable Institutions Rev. F. Hartmauu and Rev. W. H, 


(4) Value and Methods of Opium Refuges Dr. H. T. Whitney. 

(5) Statistics and Resolutions on the Evils of the Use of Opium 
Dr. J. Dudgeon. 

Sixth Day, Tuesday, 13th inst. 


9.30 a.m. 

(1) Method of dealing with Inquirers, Conditions of Admission to 
Church Fellowship, and Best Methods of Discipline Rev. R. 
Lechler and Rev. H. Corbett, D.D. 

(2) Deepening the Spiritual Life and Stimulating the Church to 
Aggressive Work Rev. R. H. Graves, D.D. 

9.30 a.m. 

(3) Service of Song in China Rev. C. Goodrich. 

(4) Relation of Christian Missions to the Chinese Government Rev 
T. Richard. 

(5) Best Methods of developing Self -support and Voluntary Effort 
Rev. G. L. Mason. 

8 p.m. 
Missionary Information and Experience, short addresses. 

Seventh Day, Wednesday, \ltTi inst. 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) History and Present Condition of Mission Schools and what far 
ther Plans are desirable Rev. N. J. Plumb. 

(2) o. How may Educational Work be made most to advance the 
Cause of Christianity in China ? Rev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL.D. 

J. The Relation of Christian Education to the Present Condition 
and Needs of China Rev. D. Z. Sheffield. 
2.30 p.m. 

(3) The Best Method of selecting and training Efficient Native 
Assistants (Preachers, School Teachers, etc.) Rev. M. Schaub 
and Rev. J. Lees. 

(4) The Place of the Chinese Classics in. Christian Schools and Col 
legesRev. A. P. Parker, D.D. 

Eighth Day, Thursday, 15th hist, 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) Reports of School and Text Book Committee, presented "by Rev. 
Wm. Muirhead. What Books are still needed ? Rev. A. William, 
son, LL.D. 


(2) Scientific Terminology: Present Discrepancies and Means of 
secnring Uniformity J. Fryer, Esq. 

2.30 p.m. 

(3) Christian Literature in China: its Easiness Management. A 
Discussion of Dr. J. Murdoch s Report (published at Shanghai, 
1882) Opened by Rev. E. Faber, D.D. 

(4) Christian Periodical Literature Rev. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D. 

(5) Current Chinese Literature; how far is it antagonistic to Chris 
tianity ? Rev. J. Edkins, D.D. 

Ninth Day, Friday, iQtk inst. 

9.30 a.m. 
() Division of the Field Rev. J. W. Stevenson. 

(2) Co-operation Rev. J. McCarthy. 

2.30 p.m. 

(3) How far should Christians be required to abandon Native Cus 
toms ? Rev. F. Ohlinger and Rev. H. V. Noyes. 

(4) a. The Worship of Ancestors : a Plea for Toleration Rev. W. 
" A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D. 

I. The Attitude of Christianity towards Ancestral Worship- 
Rev. H. Blodget, D.D. 

Tenth Day, Saturday, 17 th inst. 

9.30 a.m. 

(1) Direct Results of Missionary Work in China, and Statistics- 
Rev. J. W. Davis, D.D. 

(2) Manchuria Rev. J. Ross. 

2.30 p.m. 

(3) The Aboriginal Tribes of Formosa Rev. T. Barclay. 

(4) The Chinese in Singapore Rev. J. A. B. Cook. 

(5) Missionary Effort among the- Chinese in Burma Rev. F. A. 

(6) The Miao-tsi and other Tribes of Western China Rev, Geo. W. 


Saturday Evening Closing Meeting. 

Sunday, 18th inst. Service for the Chinese in Methodist Episcopal 
Church (Rev. C. F. Reid s), Yunnan Road, at 3 p.m. 

NOTE. From 9,30 to 10 a.m. each day will be occupied by devotional 

fl RS T p AY. 


By Rev. J. Hudson Taylor (China Inland Mission). 

" And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee ; and 
went up into a mountain, and sat down there. And great multitudes 
came unto Him, having with them those that were lame, blind, dumb, 
maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus feet; and He 
healed them : insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they saiv the 
dumb to speak, the maimed to be ivhole, the lame to ivalk, and the blind 
to see : and they glorified the God of Israel. Then Jesus called His 
disciples unto Him, and said, I have compassion on the multitude, 
because they continue with me now three days, and have nothing to eat 
and I ivill not send them aivay fasting, lest they faint in the way. And 
His disciples say unto Him, Whence should we have so much bread in 
the wilderness, as to Jill so great a multitude ? And Jesus saith unto 
them, How many loaves have ye ? And they said, Seven, and a few 
little fishes. And He commanded the multitude to sit down on the 
ff round. And He took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, 
and brake them, and gave to His disciples, and the disciples to the 
multitude. And they did all eat, and were filled : and they took up of 
the broken meat that was left seven baskets full. And they that did eat 
^vere four thousand men, beside women and children." Matt. xv. 29-38. 

I. THIS narrative will, I think, touch all our hearts in one respect : 
it brings before us at the very outset and keeps before us all through 
the presence of our blessed Lord. The 32nd verse, which speaks of the 
feeding of the multitude, brings before us JESUS. " JESUS called his 
disciples unto Him." JESUS opened their hearts to the sympathy and 
compassion of His own heart, " I have compassion on the multitude : " 
"I will not send them away fasting, lest they faint in the way." This 
is just what we all need : we want our dear Master to draw us near to 
Himself; to open His own heart to us, and let us see the depths of 
His compassion, and the strength of His determination to feed the 
multitude. And, Oh, shall not we be as His disciples were, utterly at 
His disposal ? Shall we not feel as they evidently felt ? Our LORD has 
compassion on the multitude and wishes them to be fed ; then they must 
be fed, and one question only may arise, How is it to be done ? 

Oar blessed LORD had fed a multitude previously, a larger multitude 
probably, five thousand men, beside many women and children. The 
disciples knew, no doubt, the condition of this multitude, they knew 
how long they had been with our LORD, they knew their great need, but 
they had not learned the lesson which they should surely have learned 
from the previous miracle. It never appears to have entered into their 
minds to undertake the work of feeding this multitude before they were 
sent away ; and when our blessed LORD reveals to them His own thought 

2 SERMON. [Firs I; day, 

and feeling about the matter, the question is raised, as though they had 
never seen the previous miracle, " Whence should we have so much bread 
in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude ? " 

It seems very amazing that they should not have remembered the 
feeding of the five thousand and should not have seen the whole thing at 
once. But how like these disciples were to ourselves ! How frequently 
GOD has helped us in some time of special trial or special-difficulty, and we 
have rejoiced in His help ; yet perhaps the very next time the LORD has 
brought us into the same circumstances, our faith has been so wavering 
and weak, and our expectations so low. We have had but a very poor 
sort of hope, perhaps, when we should have had strong confidence in Him. 
But is it not very blessed to see that our gracious LORD did not upbraid 
these disciples ; did not say, " Really you are no nse to Me ; it is no use My 
using you ; you do not learn the lessons you should learn ; I will work 
this miracle independently of you." No; he deals so gently, so graciously, 
so lovingly with them. He leads them along, and uses them again and 
yet again in His blessed service. This same JESUS is with us now ; and 
with the task before ns of carrying the Gospel to the dark multitudes of 
this land, we have the same forbearing, loving, mighty LORD, not in His 
weakness, as JESUS was when on earth, but now ascended to His Father s 
throne, having received all power in heaven and all power on earth. 

II. Then this narrative is very helpful to us, in that it brings before 
us the disciples of the LORD JESUS as the instruments through ivhich He 
wrought His greatest work. 

Weak and poor as they were, our blessed LORD fully realized His 
oneness with His disciples and their oneness with Him. He would do 
nothing independently of them, and I think there is a lesson for us to 
learn that we should not work independently of one another. If our 
blessed LORD worked through His disciples and would not work 
independently, how closely should we be knit together, and how should 
we realize our oneness, and with practical co-operative oneness do the 
work He has given us to do ! Our gracious Master has told us that HG 
is the Vine and we are the branches, and if we forget our corporate 
unity He does not forget. 

Ho remembers His oneness with us, and never ignores His people. 
He does not work independently of them, but through them. He called 
His disciples to Him and opened His heart to them. He told them 
His desire and purpose, and He looked to them to carry out that desire. 
Those disciples were very weak in the faith ; they had not yet received 
the outpouring of the SPIRIT in the plenitude with which they were 
blest at Pentecost ; but they had one thing in their favor. They were 
near to JESUS, and they heard what He had to say, and however 
conscious they may have been of the difficulty of the situation, they were 
prepared to do what they were told. Oh, dear friends, are we living 
habitually in such nearness to the LORD JESUS that the gentlest intima 
tion of His wish comes to us with the force of a command, and with the 
consciousness that some -way or other it is possible to obey, and that we 
shall be carried through in any service to which He calls us? 

May 7th.] EEV. j. HUDSON TAYLOR. 8 

III. Then we have brought before us the multitude. 

I am so glad it was a great multitude, and that the disciples 
evidently thought it was impossible to feed them. All their previous 
experience of the LORD S goodness had not wrought in them this faith 
that it was possible to supply the requirements of all these people, or to 
do it at once. " Whence should we have so much bread in the wilder 
ness," they say, "as to fill so great a multitude ? " So much ! "We are too 
apt to be aritbmetical in our thoughts ; we want so much to do so much. 
They forgot with whom they had to do. In the presence of the LORD, it 
was no matter how much there was. The widow at Sarepta might have 
said, How much flour shall I need if I am to support Elijah for many 
days ? It was no question of how much she had. It was better for her 
to have only a handful of meal and a little oil in the cruse than to 
have a dozen barrels of meal. I have often thought of that since the 
great famine in Shansi, when we saw how dangerous it was to have 
much money or much food. I have often thought it was much better 
to have small resources, in the hand of GOD, who is able to multiply them, 
than it is to have much. If that poor widow had had a large store in her 
house, do you think she could have kept the house over her head ? It 
would have been torn in pieces by the hungry multitude, impelled by the 
famine to take possession of anything that would appease their hunger. 
But who would rob the poor widow of a handful of meal and a little 
drop of oil in the cruse? Yet it was amply sufficient, for the LORD S 
blessing rested upon it. 

GOD in His Word gives us illustration after illustration of the great 
truth that what He has given us is all that we need in order to glorify 
Bis own great name: we require nothing more! When Moses on the 
mount was wondering how his message could be authenticated, the LORD 
said, " What have you got in your hand ? " Why ! he had nothing but a 
staff! That was quite sufficient. "Throw that on the ground," and it 
became a serpent. Afterwards, when he had nothing in his hand, the 
LORD said, " Put your hand in your bosom," and that healthy hand 
was at once made leprous. The LORB does not require anything outside 
of that which He has given to His people to accomplish His present 
purposes whatever they may be ! 

So it was not a question of large supplies ; it was just a question of 
the presence of the LORD, and of that willing obedience which put-all 
that -they had at His disposal. 

IV- Let us look at our Lord s methods: How were the people fed ? 
^ 1. By the united action of CHRIST and His disciples. He claimed 
their all, they gladly gave up their all, and unhesitatingly obeyed all His 
directions. Our LORD said to them, " How many loaves have ye ? " 
Now if there had been some stingy arithmeticians there, they might have 
set to work to calculate. " The LORD has done a great miracle like this 
before ; then there were five thousand men and a great number of women 
and children ; he had five loaves, and after the multitude was fed, there 
was enough and to spare. Here are four thousand men ; four loaves will 

4 SERMON. [First day, 

suffice ; we will keep three for ourselves and give Him as large a pro- 
portionate supply as He had before." 

Do not we hear a good deal of that sort of thing, and is it not rery 
mistaken and foolish ? 

The LORD asked them what they had ; they told Him they had seven 
Joaves and a few small fishes ; and He asked them to bring, and took 
possession of, all the seven loaves and all the fishes. 

It was not a question whether four loaves might not suffice, or one 
loaf might not suffice; it was just the question of entire consecration. 
Now, for our Conference ice need to be in this position of entire consecra 
tion, utterly and absolutely at the disposal of our LORD. We do not 
need a larger number than He has brought together ; we do not need 
greater ability ; we do not need wider experience, in order to have full 
blessing ; but we do need to be near to our LORD, very near to Him ; to 
have him reigning in our hearts. We want that He should know, and to 
know ourselves, that all we have and all we are are in unreserved con 
secration given up to Him. And if this be so, as the multitude was fed, so 
our own needs and desires will be met, and the needs of this great people 
will be met, to an extent perhaps far beyond onr highest thought and 
most sanguine expectations. Oh, let us every day seek to be all for JESUS ; 
and being all for JESUS, we shall be all for one another, and all drawn 
together. Let us just give up our work, our thoughts, our plans, our 
selves, our lives, our loved ones, our influence, our all, right into His 
hand, and then when we have given all over to Him there will be nothing 
Jeft for us to be troubled about or to make trouble about ; when all is in 
His hand all will be safe, all be wisely dealt with, all will be done 
and well done. When the eye is single, when the heart is true to 
CHRIST, then and then alone the whole body will be full of light. 
And if the whole body be full of light, having no part dark, then 
the whole of the questions that come before us, the whole of our 
circumstances and relationships and surroundings will be full of light 
too, as when the bright shining of a lamp illumines us. When the 
bright shining of the lamp illumines our path it sheds light all around ; 
we step forward with confidence ; we see where we are going, we know 
what we are doing, because we are full of light. This fullness of light 
is just what we want for this Conference ; this is just the preparation we 
require. How shall we get it ? Simply by unreserved surrender, taking 
our LORD as King, and putting ourselves and all we have and all we are 
into His hands. 

If He take some plan very different from what is in my mind, what 
matters it ? We want China blessed ; we do not want our plans carried 
out, What does it matter which brother or sister the LOED honors in 
His service, it only CHRIST is glorified and China is saved ? When our 
hearts are true to Him everything becomes simple, and there is no danger 
of difficulty from personal masters coming in and blinding our eyes. Oh, 
let us by Hia grace be brought so low before Him, and yet be so lifted up 
by Him above circumstances and surroundings, that the keart is just 

May 7th.] REV. j. HUDSON TAYLOK. 5 

singing with joy all the time, JESUS, JESUS, JESUS ! listening for the MAS 
TER S voice, wanting to know His will, asking, what would JESUS do in this 
matter, what would be His pleasure in this enterprise, what would be His 1 
joy in that undertaking, and then all our hearts will gladly go after Him. 

As our brother stated, "We do love Him, and we do serve Him, and 
we mean to love Him more and serve Him better every day of our lives." 

I am sure that our LORD has brought us together for grand blessing. 
I expect a great outcome from this Conference, and you expect it too. 
We have asked it of the LORD in faith, and we know that the One who 
had compassion, when on earth, on the multitude who followed Him for 
three days, is not going to leave us hungering and thirsting in the dark, 
who at His own command and for His own sake have left things most 
dear to us, and have come to spend our lives in this land, and who give all 
our dearest ones into His charge whether taken, as in the case of the dear 
babe just taken home, to sleep in JESUS, or spared to love and serve Him 
when our own service is past, if our MASTER shall tarry and delay Hia 

But let us further consider the methods of the LORD JESUS in the 
feeding of this multitude. 

It is delightful to realize that we have in CHRIST the wisdom of 
GOD as well as the power of GOD, and hence the way in which He 
accomplished every purpose was the wisest way. His methods were 
perfect methods. Being the Servant of His FATHER, He was guided in all 
things by His HOLY SPIRIT. He fully followed the One who sent Him. 

2. In the next place our LORD did not act unsystematically. He used 
both method and order. 

His first requirement was that the multitude should sit down on the 
ground. It is highly probable that some similar plan was adopted to 
that which we are told was used in the case of the feeding of the 5,000 ; 
that they were divided into companies easy of access, so that there might 
be no confusion and no difficulty about the distribution, that none might 
be overlooked or neglected, that -all might be methodically served with 
the bread and with the fish. 

Now here is a practical lesson of wisdom. I am so thankful that one 
subject to be discussed at this Conference is " The Division of the field." 
Our present forces, if wisely divided, would be able to accomplish very- 
much more than we are now accomplishing. I think we all feel this more 
or less ; and I do pray that the SPIRIT of GOD may throw light on this 
difficult question, which is so impossible for us to manage, but very easy 
for Him. If one or two of the disciples had taken these loaves, and 
one had kept five in his hand and another two, it might have been very 
difficult to get them properly distributed ; but they were all first handed 
over to JESUS, and then, having offered thanks to GOD, Ho broke and 
gave them to His disciples, and sent them to distribute to the multi 
tude. Wo are not told that Ho said to Peter, You go to this company, 
and to James, You go to that. He assumed that the sound judgment and 
the spirit of obedience, with comniQo sense, were quite suffici eat to golden 
them iu these matters. 

6 SERMON. [First day, 

And they acted no doubt in a rational way ; four or five of them 
would not go to one company, hindering one another, and none to 
the next company ; but undoubtedly they distributed themselves wisely 
over the work that was to be done. It was all done in a method 
ical way. It would take a good deal of time for twelve men to break 
off pieces of bread, and to give them with pieces of fish to 4,000 men and 
we know not how many women and children ; but they did not raise any 
question as to the time it would take, or the difficulty of accomplishing it. 
The LORD gave them the bread to distribute, and they began and 
went on until all had their portion, so that all were filled and all were 
satisfied. I have little doubt that very soon those who were receivers 
in the first instance became distributors. Perhaps some man broke a 
piece off his bread and gave it to his wife, and found that he had no 
less after he had divided the bread than before ; and when he found 
that out ho would be ready to distribute further. 

It seems to me highly probable that the distribution was not all 
done direct from the hand of the apostles to each one of the thousands 
who were present, but that the first receivers became in their turn 

Are we not looking for something like this, to a much larger extent 
than we have yet seen it ? Thank GOD, many of those who have been 
turned from the service of idols to the Living GOD, are now distribut 
ing the Word of Life which they have received, and are spreading the 
message, which has been a blessing to themselves ; but we want it to be 
true to a very much larger extent ; and how is this to be brought about ? 

It seems to me that we want to ask more seriously than I have done 
in bygone days, What is really the will and command of our blessed 
LOBD, and to set about obeying Him, not merely attempting to obey. 
I do not know that we are told anywhere in the Bible to try to 
do anything. " We must try to do the best wo can," is a very common 
expression ; but I remember some years ago, after a remark of that kind, 
looking very carefully through the New Testament to see under what 
circumstances the disciples were told to try to do anything. I did not 
expect to find many instances, but I was surprised that I did not find 
any ; then I went through the Old Testament very carefully, and I could 
jiot find that the LORD had told any of the Old Testament believers to 
try to do anything ; there were many commands apparently impossible to 
obey, but they were all definite commands ; and I think we have all to set 
ourselves, not to try to obey our LORD as far as wo can, but to obey Him. 

If, as an organized Conference we were to set ourselves to obey the 
command of our LORD to the full, we should have such an outpouring of 
the SPIRIT, such a Pentecost, as tho world has not seen since the SPIRIT 
was poured out in Jerusalem. GOD gives His SPIRIT, not to those who 
long for Him, not to those who pray for Him, not to those who desire 
to be filled always ; but Ho does give His HOLT SPIRIT to them that obey 
Him. And if as an act of obedience we were to determine that every 
district, every town, every village, every hamlet iii this land should hear 
|he Gospel, and that speedily ; and we were to set about doing it, I believe 

May 7th.] KEY. j. HUDSON TAYLOR. 7 

that the SPIRIT would come down with such mighty power that we should 
find loaves and fishes springing up on every hand we do not know 
where or how. We should find the fire spreading from missionary to 
flock ; and the native Christians all on fire, setting their neighbors on fire ; 
and our native fellow-workers and the entire Church of GOD would 
be blest. GOD gives His HOLY SPIRIT to them that obey Him. Let us 
look to it that we see really what the LORD S commands are to us now 
in this day of our opportunity, in this day of the remarkable openness 
of the country, in this day when there are so many facilities, when GOD 
has put steam and telegraph at the command of His people, for the quick 
carrying out of His purposes. 

^As to wealth there is no end to His resources. Poverty in His hands 
is the greatest possible wealth. A handful of meal blessed by the LORD 
is quite sufficient to accomplish any purpose the LORD chooses to accom 
plish by it. It is not a question of resources at all to those who are 
following the MASTER, doing just what He has for them to do. 

To return, the miracle was wrought methodically. The disciples 
were not told to act in any erratic or fanatical way, but the common 
sense GOD had given them was to be used. Our SAVIOUR Himself 
methodized their arrangements, and gave them the work to do in a way 
in which it was possible speedily and satisfactorily to accomplish it. He 
took their all, and it was quite sufficient ; and not only were the multitudes 
fed, but the disciples themselves were encouraged. When all had been 
satisfied, they gathered up seven baskets full of the fragments that re 
mained. We cannot set ourselves to do the LORD S work at His command, 
and in His way, without reaping a rich blessing ourselves. 

I am speaking to missionary brethren who are accustomed to preach 
the Word of Truth, and to sisters who are accustomed to read that Word 
and to speak to the women in their own homes and elsewhere ; and do we 
not all know and feel that ive get the richest blessing? If those to 
whom we minister the Word of Life get a tenth part of the sweetness 
and preciousness that we ourselves get in ministering it, they will be 
well fed, and we shall be well satisfied. It is iu giving that we receive. 
It is in holding back that we lose. The disciples themselves were 
enriched ; and if we claim from the Church at home seven loaves for the 
LOED JESUS CHRIST, not three or four or five, and if we give to the LORD 
JESUS CHKIST all our seven loaves, oh, how we shall be enriched, while 
He multiplies and magnifies and blesses far beyond our highest thought t 

IN CONCLUSION : The great commission which our MASTER has given 
to us is expressed in several different ways. Our brother read to us tfce 
commission as given in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. Tho different 
wordings in which our Saviour gave His commission on the various 
occasions are all to be considered, and the plans of service that He leads 
us to adopt are to be diverse in their methods and kinds, and very 

I do not know of any kind of missionary work in China, and I have 
never heard of any, on which the LORD S blessing has not rested, or 
cannot rest, and in which we may not hope to see great enlargement. Cut 

8 SEBMOK. [First day, 

beyond all this, within the last few months there has come home to my 
own heart with a power I have never realized before, the commission as 
expressed in the Gospel of Mark, to " preach the Gospel to every 
creature," to the whole creation. I do not think our present methods of 
work want to be materially modified, and certainly none of them should 
be weakened or abandoned, they should all be strengthened, but it 
does seem to me that we want to take this additional command of rapid 
evangelization to our hearts, (for I think it is additional) and say, What 
did the LORD mean, nay, what does the LORD mean to-day, by saying in 
his Holy Word, " Preach the Gospel to every creature." 

I confine my thought to this one empire at the present time ; but I 
am quite sure we cannot obey the command of GOD with regard to China, 
and any other country be left unblest. For the field is the whole world, 
and the heart of GOD is so large that no part of the world is outside Hia 
thought or outside His purpose. As the body of CHRIST is one, we 
cannot have any member or any limb of that body (if I may nse the ex 
pression) in healthy active exercise without improving the health and 
increasing the vigour of the whole body. And if we can in an increased 
measure of intelligent obedience carry the evangelization of China 
forward rapidly, the church cannot reach the villages and hamlets of 
China, and leave those of India, or the masses of Africa, where they are. 
However, confining our attention to-day to China, the thought has been 
very much on my heart, Can nothing be done to present the Gospel 
speedily to this great nation ? I do not myself think that there aro so 
many people in China as many do. I have carefully read the diaries of 
many missionaries in every province of China for many years past, and 
I think the number tha; is frequently given as the population of China 
is very exaggerated. But let the estimate be what it may, if it were 
twice as many the command remains the same ; our privilege and duty 
is to obey the command, and to see that the Gospel reaches every family. 
If there be 250,000,000 in China, and I think no one will estimate at 
a lower figure than that, there will not be more than 50,000,000 of 
families ; and if we had 1,000 evangelists and colporteurs reaching fifty 
families a day, in a 1,000 days, or less than three years, an offer of the 
written Gospel or of the verbal message might be given to all : that 
is within three years after that number of workers were in the field 
and fit to undertake the work. 

If the population were double it would only take twice as long, if the 
same agency were at work. It is not at all a difficult thing to reach 150 
adults or fifty families in the course of a day. 

I would commend to your prayerful consideration the question 
whether there ought not to go forth from this Conference a united appeal 
to the Christian Church to undertake the work of rapidly preaching the 
Gospel over this land. I do not say that going to a village and preaching 
the Gospel there for three or four days is all that is needed, but it is 
something that is needed. It is a beginning. Suppose the Apostle Paul 
Lad said, My work is quite useless : I cannot stay very long in any 
place I go to : I am driven away before I have had time to form a 

May 7th.] EEV. j. HUDSON TAYLOR. 9 

Church : I will give it up. The glorious work that GOD did by him 
would not have been done. He went as his LORD led him, and the 
LOKD prevented him from making the error of staying too long in one 
place by driving him away. 

He scattered seeds of truth, and after he went away men talked 
about these things, and thought about them, and the thoughts slowly 
permeated through the minds of many. Beside those who were led at 
once to receive the truth, and who perhaps as Jewish proselytes or 
Jews were acquainted with the Old Testament, the Gentiles had new 
thoughts brought into their midst. Many important truths were talked 
over and thought over ; and the truth was working when the worker was 
gone. And He who sent him to preach the Gospel in this town or that 
city, and then allowed him to be driven away, sent other workers to 
follow it up. 

Paul was not the only worker for GOD, or the only arrow in His 
quiver. When Paul had planted and passed on, the LORD found an 
Apollos to water, and He Himself gave the increase. I do trust that we 
shall not separate without a strong appeal to the Churches. I believe the 
appeal that went forth to the Churches from the Conference thirteen 
years ago did incalculable good, and has been greatly blessed ; but the 
Churches now are in a very diffarent state to what they were thirteen 
years ago. There was never such a preparation of evangelists as there 
is now in the Church. There was never known such a thing as some 
four thousand college students in America pledged, if the LORD opens 
their way, to give their lives to missionary work. There was never that 
preparation in the hearts of Christian young men and women in Europe 
to give themselves to mission work. I believe that if you were now to 
send forth a strong appeal, it would not take very long to get a thousand 
evangelists from Europe and America into the field ; and if these 
evangelists were associated with the established missions, so that there 
was wise direction and supervision, I am sure they would be a strength 
in every part of the field, and a blessing in every part of China. We 
have about forty Societies represented here ; it would only want twenty- 
five men to be associated with each Society to give us a thousand 
additional workers for the special work of scattering the Gospel broadcast 
by word of mouth and printed page. 

America could surely give us five hundred very easily, and I am 
sure Europe would do the same. I have been in correspondence with a 
number of earnest workers, and among them a number of retired 
missionaries, both in America and on the continent of Europe. I am told 
that there are many hearts praying for something of this kind ; and if, 
there be a wise division of the field, and wise arrangements given us by 
GOD in our Conference, we may very speedily indeed see what we desire, 
a large number of new workers coining to this laud. A missionary 
formerly connected with the Baslo Missionary Society wrote me from 
Germany, after reading a paper written by mo asking for prayor that a 
thousand evangelists might bo speedily sent to China, and he said, <f We 
must have one hundred of them from Gcrmauy." 

10 SERMON. [First -day, 

I am quite sure from my visit to Scandinavia, one hundred 
would be within the number of earnest men who might be expected from 
there within a very short time. Would it be a very hard thing to expect 
three hundred workers from Great Britain and Ireland, leaving- out the 
rest of the Continent ? Cannot the Church of England, which has 35,000 
ordained clergy, find a hundred lay workers who would come out to 
labor here ? Would not the Presbyterian friends of England, Scotland 
and Ireland very easily find another hundred ? I asked this question, 
not two months ago, at a workers meeting in Glasgow, and the reply 
was, "We could send one hundred from Glasgow alone." I believe they 
could, and that without very much difficulty. And what about the great 
Methodist bodies ? Would a hundred workers bo a very unreasonable 
contingent for them to give, with their thousands of lay preachers, 
besides all their ministers ? As for five hundred from America it seems 
so ridiculously small, compared with the greatness of that country, its 
missionary zeal and capacity, that it seems almost absurd to propose so 
small a contingent. 

I do most earnestly commend this thought to you for your prayerful 
consideration. Wiser men may have wiser suggestions to make, but in 
whatever way wo do the thing, let us do it. The LORD JESUS CHBIST has 
been for sixty generations looking down on this land ; and from the very 
earliest post-apostolic times there has never been in the Church that zeal 
and enterprise which have attempted the evangelization of its own genera 
tion. I think we shall all agree with Dr. Pierson that the command of 
CHRIST really implies that each generation shall evangelize its own 
generation ; just as the multitude that we have had our attention turned 
to in the narrative had an immediate supply of an immediate need. It 
would have been of no use to say to them, " After two or three days you 
shall bo fed." They were hungry, and they would faint by the way. So 
to-day, the multitudes are perishing; and while we are waiting, they are 
dying without the Gospel. But oh, shall not our blessed LORD have the 
joy of finding in this sixtieth generation after Ho agonized for us in 
Gethsemane, in this sixtieth generation after He so lovingly trusted 
His Church to bo faithful to Him and carry out His command, shall 
Ho not have the joy of seeing us obey the command in this generation ? 
Then the Gospel shall very speedily reach every hamlet, and no family 
in this country shall bo without the offer of the Gospel, whether they 
receive it or no. 

After prayer ly the Rev. J. HUDSON TAYLOR the Conference adjourned 
till 2.30 p.m. 



By Rev. Y. J. Allen, D.D., LL.D. (A.S.M.E.M. Shanghai). 

subject we are to consider this afternoon involves issues that cannot 
fail to enlist tho interest of a meeting like this ; and it is doubtless due 
to tho supposed bearing its discussion may have on our deliberation, as 
well as on tho future conduct of our work, that tho committee assigned 
it to its present position on tho programme of this Conference. 

That great changes have taken place changes of such a character as 
to justify the terms of tho subject perhaps no one is disposed to question. 
Tho presence of this Conference in this goodly city is sufficient 

evidence. A few years ago our numbers were limited, now 

c JwUlonccs 

wo have become a host ; then we waited for tho splitting of tho of eim"Ko- 

rock, ntow an abundant entrance is administered unto us ; thirteen years 
ago wo assembled from the coast ports and provinces chiefly, now 
wo como from tho remote interior in fact from all tho country, 
and are met in still larger numbers in this great city, which only 
a few years since was bat a meagre settlement within prescribed 
limits, but has in less than half a century become tho intellectual and 
commercial metropolis of an empire with which a bare contact was 
possible so late as thirty years ago. 

These evidences of change taken together with what is necessarily 
implied in them, sustain tho statement contained in the subject and verify 
its truth. 

Assuming then that the aspect of China is changed, wo are brought 
face to face at this Conference with a fact of tho deepest significance 
one that should cheer our hearts, inspire our counsels and harmonize our 

It is a great thing to bo a missionary to China ; and at such a time 
as this, he may count himself doubly blessed who hath part and lot with 
us in tho service now required at our hands. 

Great events wait on tho deliberations of this Conference ; and that 
we may tho more clearly understand our relation to tho changed aspect of 
China and tho obligations hence imposed, lot ua now briefly consider, 
(1) the nature of tho changes, and (2) their bearing on tho future 
conduct of our work. 

T. The Nature of the Changes. 

The Changes nndor this head may be variously described, as 
1st. Compulsory, or thoso necessitated by force or treaty obligations. 
2nd. Semi-compulsory, or thoso initiated with a view to adjustments, 
3rd. Spontaneous or voluntary, those arising from conviction. 


4th. Imperial; or those which define the position and policy of the 


Or we might consider them tinder the more familiar headings ; as, 
1. Political, 2. Commercial, 3. Intellectual and moral. Or, if a more 
limited presentation be preferred, all might be comprised under two 
headings only ; to wit, Commercial and Missionary. 

But, for the purposes of our present discussion, which it is desirable 
to make as direct and practical as possible, I have elected to adopt the 
first category ; (1) because, while embracing all the others, it conforms 
more nearly to the historical order of the events, and hence (2) will 
enable us to discover more clearly the progress which has been made along 
the line of changes. 

I. The Nature of the Changes. 

A conflict between China and the West however much to be regret 
ted, and, as to its immediate occasion, to be deplored, was an inevitable 
issue not of the will of man altogether, but, as I verily believe, of the 
Providence of God. Passing over then the rights or the wrongs, the 
justice or the injustice involved in the initial incidents of that history, as 
irrelevant to our subject and purpose, we come now to consider the 
changes which followed. These were 

1. Compulsory, or those necessitated by force or treaty obligations. 

The occupation of the Capital by the Allies in 1860 and the Capitu 
lation which followed, may be regarded as closing the long conflict begun 
in 1839; while the engagements China was compelled to enter into at 
that time with regard to the future, may be considered as the beginning 
of a new era, not alone in the matter of the international relations so 

latelv involved, but also in her own immediate history. Hitherto 
Compulsory * . . ... 

changes. " She would admit no opening for learning her real position 

among the nations of the world," but blindly, " mulishly," as Dr. 
Williams says, "persisted in cherishing her ignorance, her isolation, 
her conceit and her folly." Deaf to arguments of reason and amenable 
only to her fears, the ultima ratio was hence the only alternative. By it 
her implied postulate, " without force no change," waa brought home 
to her, and after that the deluge. 

Henceforth the aspect of China began to be changed. The middle 
wall of partition which had so long separated, as a horizon, between her 
and foreign nations, was swept away ; her exclusiveness was penetrated ; 
her isolation uncovered ; her supercilious bearing rebuked ; the high 
prerogatives she had assumed were abased, and the hitherto peerless Son 
of Heaven found himself face to face with a set of new conditions, which, 
however loath to accept, he was compelled to acknowledge and ratify by 
a treaty which confirmed, (1) to Commerce and Missions, the right of 
unmolested access to his dominions ; (2) to ministers plenipotentiary, 
the right of residence in his Capital ; and (3) to all, the immunities of a 
jurisdiction extra-territorial. 

These terms were severe, and at the time no doubt exceedingly 
humiliating to China, but they were welcomed abroad, by Church and 

May 7th.] EEV. Y. j. ALLEN, D.D., LL.D. 13 

State, Commerce and Missions, as opening new fields for their enterprise 
and still greater conquests for our Christian civilization. But as to the 
Extra-territorial clause, in particular, it is doubtful whether either in 
China or abroad its full significance was at once understood. To the 
foreigner it meant immunity, to the Chinaman indignity, but neither sus 
pected the fall power of which it was capable. This, however, was in due 
time revealed and China was compelled not only to recognize in it the 
jurisdiction of an imperium in imperio, but to see herself bound over by 
it unto the tutelage of her Conquerors. In other words, she had 
accepted conditions from which she could not redeem herself except 
by a revolution which shall touch every spring of her actions and have 
for its final outcome the uplifting of the nation to a higher plane of life 
and civilization. What effect this clause has had and is still having 
on her conduct will more fully appear hereafter. 

We come now to the second class of changes, to wit 

Semi-compulsory, or those initiated with a view to adjustments. 

Hien Fung did not long survive his humiliating capitulation. His 
reign though brief was turbulent and disastrous from a Chi- _ 

. j . . , _ Semi-compul- 

nese standpoint, beyond any precedent in the annals of the sory changes. 
Manchu dynasty ; and closed, leaving a minor on the throne, and by this 
time, a half score of foreign representatives on their way to occupy the 
capital ; while at least fully one third of the eighteen provinces was a 
wreck and still in the hands of the merciless insurgents. 

A less dauntless regency might well have quailed in the presence of 
a task so overwhelming, one might almost say, so impossible, as the one 
that now awaited them, to wit, the recovery of their lost provinces, the 
reconstruction of the administration, and the adjustments necesssary to 
satisfy their late foreign foes. Fortunately at this juncture, however, 
the Allies who still hovered in garrison along the coast, waiting their 
heavy indemnity, and only too eager to come into full possession of 
their newly acquired treaty privileges, were easily prevailed on to hasten 
that possession by an alliance with their late opponents. The rebellion 
was soon crushed, and henceforth a sense of gratitude on the one hand 
and a wholesome fear on the other united to secure to the regency still 
further valuable counsel and assistance from the presence of the foreign 
ministry, now permanently installed within the gates of the capital. 

Many changes ensued : some having reference to the reconstruction 
of the administration, some to adjustments demanded by their foreign 
relations, in all of which they showed the greatest aptitude, in availing of 
their dearly bought experience. Indeed one might almost have supposed! 
that the regency had abdicated and left the administration in the hands 
of the foreign ministry, so prominent was the foreign element every, 
where. They knew that the treaty must be fulfilled and that in reorganiz 
ing the government they could not do better than copy the strong 
points of their late adversaries. Hence the ubiquitous foreign element 
in the military camps, in the Arsenals, in the Customs, in Schools, in 
departments for translation, in coast surveys and light house- service 


etc. etc-> in fact wherever they had knowledge of his superiority, there 
the foreigner was to be found, if not in person, in the representations of 
his genius. 

The regency would seem to have taken the title of the young 
Emperor, Tung-chI, mutual order, as their watchword, and whether 
they addressed themselves to inside or outside relations, essayed first and 
foremost to bring back peace and prosperity to their down-trodden 
country. The hitherto nebulous frontiers were now better defined and 
established ; the weak hold of the Government on the provinces was 
strengthened and their administration made more responsible, and what 
had hitherto been but a straggling Colonial office was magnified into the 
grand personnel of the present Foreign-office, or Tsung-li Ya-m6n. 

Stupendous, truly, were the changes wrought out by this regency 
in the name of the young Emperor, and great and liberal were the 
benefits expected of his reign. But alas ! just as the peaceful light was 
about to release the regency from their long night of toil and greet his 
accession to power, he, too, passed away. And here we come to our 
third class of changes, to wit : 

3. Spontaneous, \ r oluntary, or those arising from conviction. 

The present Emperor, Kwang Sii, succeeded, but being then a minor, 
the same regency was again summoned. But under very different 

circumstances. The land is at rest ; returning prosperity con- 
Spontaneous . , . 
Changes, tents the people, and the Government has time to think. 

The policy of adjustments was continued but on a higher plane. 
The Government had more liberty, the people less prejudice ; compulsion 
had yielded to conviction, while ideas had begun to substitute force. 
China had become mobile and a new era of genuine progress was at hand. 

The minority of the Emperor at this juncture was a boon to the 
nation. The regency under the previous reign had already successfully 
encountered the conservative prejudice against learning from foreigners, 
and now the youth of the heir is their opportunity to mould tke future 
destinies of the Empire and prepare it, ultimately, to take its proper 
place among the nations. 

Hitherto, under pressure, they had imitated .and copied, but now 
the time had come to go a step further. Accordingly the pupilage of the 
Minor became the pupilage of the nation and justified, as well as 
mitigated, the humble attitude they were about to assume. Henceforth 
every movement marks progress. International relations become more 
cordial, and ministers from China are appointed to the West ; commer 
cial facilities and intercourse are improved. The Govemmemt begins 
to feel the necessity of more light. The press is now called into 
The resa requisition. The journals of their foreign minister are pub- 
utilised, listed, books and newspapers are translated and in demand, 
and foreign ideas begin to circulate freely. China is becoming conscious 
of her wants, begins to realize her disparity. Later many run to and fro 
and knowledge is increased; the leaven of a kindlier sentiment pervades 
the land; fresh impulses are given to enterprise, and new industries 
spring up. Occasional frictions arise, but give quickening and piquancy 

May 7th.] REV. Y. j. ALLEN, D.D., LL.D. 15 

to the situation and stimulate fresh advances. Thus the course of 
events,, sometimes slightly obstructed, but never seriously checked, flows 
on, till by and by definite ideas begin to be formed. The minor is now 
approaching his majority, and the ambition of the regency is not only 
to prepare him for the country, but they aspire to present to him a 
country redeemed from its disasters and disabilities, yea, more, worthy 
a place in the family of nations. Hence later on, gathering courage 
from their convictions and a wider range of knowledge, they not only 
essay to improve the defences of their country, but dare brook with 
their innovations the combined power of superstition, conservatism 
and literary prejudice. The time had come when the welfare of the 
country and the exigencies of the situation demanded a change. The 
regency therefore, as their last act, commended and commenced the in 
troduction of mining, tho survey and construction of telegraphs and 
railways, and what was equally, if not more, startling and Te i CRrflpll and 
significant, insisted on invading the examination halls with a railways. 
learning purely foreign, but as essential to their purpose as either of the 
other more obvious, if less daring, innovations. 

Many other great enterprises of a national import, such as a mint, a 
bank, a post office, etc., the regency had in mind to undertake. But 
their time limit had expired. Not, however, according to a recent critic, 
till they had done more for China in the way of progress than had been 
accomplished any hundred years before. 

We come now in due order to the fourth and last series of changes, 
to wit, 

4. Imperial, or those which define the future position and policy of 
the country. But iri order to a better understanding of the problems 
awaiting imperial solution, and the probable bearings thev 

n i ii t , - Imperial 

will nave on the future conduct of our work, it may be well, changes. 
before proceeding, to briefly refer to the regency again. 

No one, perhaps, is disposed to detract from their labors or be<*rude 
the nigh praise bestowed on their achievements. They did what perhaps 
few could have done, and no doubt felt a just pride in the hour when 
they turned over the government with its responsibilities to their 
August Master. 

But with the facts before us it is impossible not to see that with 
all their efforts they had yet solved next to nothing, reached but few if 
any fundamental propositions. They had aspired to great things and 
were apt scholars in many, but unfortunately they were deficient in 
profundity and foresight and hence their methods were sadly at fault. It 
is true Prince Kung had reached the conclusion that to introduce the 
arts without the science of the West would likely prove an abortive 
and useless expenditure of the public funds," but for the most part 
they inquired for no beginnings, laid no foundations, but sought only 
hasty or immediate ends and results. The omega was their aim, and 
they pursued that with some degree of persistence, but the alpha they 
neglected, and hence whatever else they may have learned they acquired 
but scant knowledge of the A B C of our civilization, or the foundations 


on which it rests. Their country was suddenly and successfully in- 
vaded and thrown open, and as suddenly they were called on to accept 
the situation and adjust themselves to it. They saw, as in the distance, 
only the apex of our civilization, the pinnacles, as it were, of its glory, 
and mistaking these for things transferable at pleasure, neglected in all 
their calculations the foundations on which they are based. It is just 
possible, however, that being Chinamen and accustomed to learn their 
lessons backward, \os it were, they might ultimately have reached and 
discovered that the greatness of the "West and the glory of its power 
must have underneath them a breadth of intelligence and liberty, a 
wealth of virtue and truth, without which all were an impossible conceit. 

Here then is one of the problems that await solution, and with which 
the Emperor will have immediately to deal in determining the future 
position and policy of the country. And the matter is more urgent than 
some may be disposed to think, for the pending developments of the 
country are of a nature to emphasize its importance and demand an 
attempt at its- solution. In other words, the government and the people 
must have immeasurably more intelligence and more liberty of enterprise, 
Need of the more honesty, as a virtue, more truth and confidence, and 
moral virtue, hence more conscience or moral integrity, before the emblems 
of our civilization, which they are in haste to adopt, can ever be to them 
more than a mere superficial imitation and hence a stupendous folly. 

But that is not the only problem to be disposed of ere His 
Majesty can rest or his policy be satisfied. Ke would make China not 
only great and prosperous but independent, supreme at home and 
respected abroad. Such is the policy, such the position now claimed 
for the country. China for the Chinese and its development by China 
men, with Chinese capital, Chinese labor and Chinese material. Great 
and independent. These two words combine and comprise 
the ideal of the present monarch (reign). This was also 
remotely the ideal of the late regency, but they were content to leave its 
realization to their Master; and so, too, they put off the extra-terri- 
toriality question. They were wise in this, and evasion with them was 
possible, but Kwang Sii must face it. It has revolutionized Japan ; 
made a new country of it. What is it to do for China ? 

Not so mobile as the Japanese, nor yet so inflexible as tho Turk, 
the Chinaman cannot be insensible to the fact that the extra-territorial 
clause, in the treaties, stands between him and his coveted ideal. It 
must be eliminated. But how ? that is the question, that the problem. 
"While it remains, indignity remains. She is neither supreme at home, 
nor has she prestige abroad. Tho issue is not fully joined yet, but it 
cannot be long delayed ; for commerce erstwhile restrained by that same 
clause, is now approaching her borders from all sides, overland and by 
sea, and the alternative its pressure will suggest must provoke a 
solution. One that will remove the restrictions from commerce and 
give it free course under the old iinperium -in, irnperio, or one that will 
restore to China her territory and her jurisdiction as an honored and 
equal member .in the family of. nations. Which it shall bo, ia for China 

May 7th.] REV. Y. j. ALLEN, D.D., LL.D. 17 

to say. If the latter, then the price of her integrity and liberty must 
be a voluntary revolution along the lines hitherto followed so success 
fully in Japan. There is no other alternative consistent with the high 
aims and aspirations of the imperial government, or compatible with 
the objects held in view by that obnoxious clause. 

Hence finally. Of all the changes this is the sum, the ultimatum, 
to wit, The policy of the -country, whether regard be had to a develop 
ment of its resources and greatness, or a restoration of its dignity and 
honor, its integrity and independence, must impel ifc to enter more 
earnestly and thoroughly upon the path of progress along which alone its 
ideal may be reached. 

"We come next to the second part of our subject, to wit, 

II. Bearing of the changes on the future conduct of vur -work. 

The immediate and most obvious effect of the opening of China to 
missions in 1860, now just thirty years ago, was to give to the missionary 
enterprise a fresh and enlarged impulse. Later, as the vastness of the 
field, the numbers and condition of the people, the failure of their 
ancient systems and the urgent need of the Gospel, became better known, 
that impulse was greatly augmented. And now that new conditions 
Lave arisen, as is evidenced by the changed aspect of China, or in other 
words, now that China, once so inert and indifferent, has become, in a 
sense, mobilized, and her aspirations and aims are turned toward the 
future, the question naturally arises, What is the bearing of such 
changes on the future conduct of our work ? And as no Bearing of the 
answer to this question can be either full or satisfactory with- mfsefons . 11 
out some reference to the extra-territoriality clause, the bearings of which 
have already been hinted at, its introduction at this time and place would 
seem not only appropriate but necessary. 


Hitherto the Chinese for the most part have held our presence in 
their country under suspicion, and tolerated us as a sort of necessary evil, 
with which, however much they might deprecate it, they were powerless 
to deal. Of course under such circumstances our relations could not be 
altogether satisfactory, nor our labors meet with a just recompense of 

Great changes were therefore necessary, just such changes as those 
whose progress has been outlined in the first part of our subject. 

Any farmer knows the relation of light to the seed he sows, and 
however good the soil, would never think of sowing till the sky had 
been opened up, else why not sow in the woods or under the shadows 
of the great trees in the fertile valleys. God never wrought a miracle 
to save either the great trees or the sweat and labor of the farmer when 
the soil was required for a harvest. And just so it is in the mission field. 
The Sowers of the Word cannot expect a harvest while the shadows, dark 
and deep, still cover the field. A clearance must be made ; the light of 
heaven must be admitted. In the one case we welcome the axe as an instru 
ment of blessing, and nearest the axe in all great mission fields cumbered 


as China ia, has been the extra- fcerritoriality clause. So great and 
beneficent is it that it might well be called the providential clause. To it 
we are indebted for more than doth yet appear. Ifc is felling whole 
forests of the rankest superstition, conceit, pride and prejudice, and 
giving access to the grandest field that ever harvest covered. The old 
jroots may remain and rankle for a time, but light and labor once admit 
ted the harvest is sure. 

But lest I be speaking in riddles, it may be well to illustrate more 
fully the place and bearing of this clause on the future conduct of 
our work. 

The conquest of this country in 1860 may be likened to the conquest 
of primeval America. It gave us access ; but as in the one case the 
luxuriant wild growth of centuries cumbered the earth and must be 
removed before the settlers could find a home and congenial surround 
ings, so here were found similar conditions, of a moral character, the 
elimination of which was necessary to the introduction of that higher 
civilization so indispensable to the best welfare of mankind. And as in 
the one case the axe became the pioneer instrument to the possession 
of what is now fast becoming the greatest nation on the face of the 
earth, so here the extra-territorial clause is being made the pioneer 
instrument in the overthrow of what might almost be termed the 
primeval obstructions in the way of China s future development. 

I am aware that this is giving a wider interpretation and bearing 
to that clause than was contemplated in the treaties, but the facts 
warrant it, and go to prove that diplomatists sometimes, as in this 
instance, may be wiser than they know. Hence Providence clause would 
be a more fitting title. 

This clause, as the treaties intended, presides over us here; and 

in every city or place throughout the empire, wherever a foreigner may 

be, it throws its cegis about him. That was its original purpose. But 

Providence has destined it to a wider interpretation and a more glorious 

achievement. It has become a moral lever, to change the figure, in the 

bands of at least thirteen of the great nations of Christendom 

The clause a * *a_* a M * !,;< 

moral lever. wno were a unit in fixing it under China, and. tor tnirty 

years Lave been a unit in maintaining it there. It is under the seat of 
government, and unless Christendom prove false to its unity, its 
pressure will not be removed till China has accepted our Christian 
civilization and is eligible to a place and recognition in the family and 
comity of Christian nations. 

Eef erring now to the direct and more specific bearing of the changes, 

it is evident that they have wrought or are working an entire revolution 

in our relations (1) in China s relations to us, and (2) in our relations 

. t to China. By the first China has become a pupil to Christ- 

1 endom, and by the second Christendom has been constituted 

a teacher to China. These are great changes and concern us much, 

whether as individuals or as a conference, for on us, as the immediate 

representatives of Christendom, is laid no inconsiderable part of the 

burden and responsibility involved in so great a change of relations. 

May 7th.] REV. Y. j. ALLEN, D.D., LL.D. 19 

As to the first proposition, China becoming a pupil to Christendom, 
it was hardly to be expected that she would accept without a murmur 
the position assigned her. Hence in memorializing the throne on the 
subject, the Prime Minister, deprecating opposition to the inevitable 
requirements of the situation, used these words, " Wo have weighed 
the matter maturely before laying it before the throne ; but among 
persons who are unacquainted with the subject there are some who will 
regard this matter as unimportant ; some who will censure us as wrong 
in abandoning the methods of China for those of the West ; and 
some who will even denounce the proposal that China should submit 
to be instructed by the people of the West as shameful in the extreme. 
Those who urge such objections are ignorant of the demands of the 
times" Referring to and refuting other imputations and objections, 
he says, finally, " As to the allegation that it is a shame to learn from 
the people of the West, this is the absurdest charge of all, for under the 
whole heaven the deepest disgrace is that of being content to lag in the 
rear of others." To that memorial the answer of the vermilion pencil 
was, " Let the measures proposed in the memorial be adopted." 

Here then we see the position defended, and the relation it implies 
acknowledged and accepted on the part of the Imperial government. And 
in this connexion, two remarkable facts, destined to have far-reaching 
results, may be noted. First, the highest officers of the government are 
the first to acknowledge and set the example of accepting the relation, a 
fact which must ultimately commend it to the whole nation ; second, we 
see them adopt a method of learning, accepting first the highest and latest 
developments of our civilization, which must have the effect ultimately 
of introducing an inquiry for the primary or fundamental elements, and 
thus bring into requisition the whole round of Western thought and 
learning and commend it to the schools. 

This is the Chinese method of progressing, from top to bottom, from 
end to beginning, and backward though it may seem to us, who can say 
that it is not the most effective in a case like this ? 

That China is learning, and learning widely, if not always wisely, 
cannot be questioned. She must learn and learn vastly more Cntna ig 
than has ever hitherto entered into her curriculum, before she learning. 
is qualified up to the measure of her aspirations, or can meet the require 
ments of the international comity. The times, however, may yet develop 
many stubborn protests against innovation, and perhaps not a few 
recalcitrants will throw themselves in the way of China s progress, but 
it being now no longer a matter of compulsion, or even semi-compulsion, 
but of deepest conviction, it is not likely that any serious check will ever. 
be encountered, or that she will pause or hesitate in her now well set 
purpose to escape from that "deepest disgrace," described by Prince 
Kung, the Prime Minister, as "being content to lag in the rear of others." 

2nd. Our relation to China, that of teacher. Having accepted, as 
already appears, the relation assigned her, the corresponding relation we 
are now called on to assume toward her. becomes a matter of graveat 


concern, at least to ns, npon whom, as the immediate representatives o 

the intellectual and moral forces of Christendom, is devolved the high 

and responsible position of acting as the guide, the philosopher and the 

Missionaries friend of China in other words as her teacher a term which 

her teachers, j U8Q j n fa most comprehensive sense, as embracing every 

phase of our contact, every impression of our presence. 

The change implied in these reciprocal terms, pupil and teacher 
is not the least significant feature of this new order of things, and is so 
grateful that it ought to thrill every heart with fresh delight and 

Hitherto our efforts have been embarrassed by the distance, reserve, 
distrust or indifference of those whom we would instruct, and we have 
preached at them, taught at them, but have had little access to them ; 
again, we have loathed their heathenism, and pitied them, but sympathy 
and love were in large part wanting ; in other words our relation waa 
lacking in reciprocity, in mutuality, and hence was titular- rather than 
actual. We were called teachers but had few pupils. 

But all that is changed or is fast changing now, and upon us is 
conferred at last this unspeakable. gift, and the opportunity thereby, of 
advancing the Redeemer s kingdom. 

No doubt China if she had her choice, would most gladly fall back 
into the quiescence of the past and remain stationary. But necessity ia 
npon her. She is in a lock, and the gates are closed behind her ; whilo 
the flood gates of a mighty rushing tide of civilization are opened before 
her. Her inertness, her isolation therefore are things of the past. She 
must rise, must join the nations in the march of progress, upward and 

Seeing then that China cannot escape the task which Christendom 
has imposed in other words that she must learn ; seeing also that she 
now accepts the situation, as of conviction, and is becoming more and 
more reconciled to learn ; yea, farther, seeing that npon us is devolved a 
charge so great, so unspeakably great, and that there is no escape from 
its responsibilities in other words, that necessity is laid on us equally 
with China, let ns also, in conviction of duty, stand fast in our place, 
and as our final inquiry, the conclusion of the whole matter, seek to 
know what, in view of all these changes and our relations to them, are the 


It would ill become me to speak dogmatically on this subject, nor do 
I propose to do so, but I may venture to make a few suggestions regard 
ing what, as appears to me, are the ultimate bearings obligations arising 
out of the question discussed in this paper. 

I. The first is that of Unity 

The facts all seem to point that way. Hero we have a field, embrac- 
Need of unity, ing folly one half of the heathen world, whether as to territory 
or population, and comprised in one nation. One government rules over 
it all. One set of laws is administered throughout its whole extent. Its 
civilization ia uniform j its language and literature, manners and customs 

May 7th.] EKV. T. j. ALLEN, D.D., LL.D. 21 

are almost homogeneous. It is Roman in its vastness and in the com 
pleteness of its consolidation, and equally Roman in its wonderful 
preparation for the Gospel. And as a whole, a unit, it has been thrown 
open to Christian missions, while, politically speaking, the nations of 
Christendom are combined as a unit to keep it open. The missionary 
enterprise also with great unanimity of purpose has sent forth its hundreds 
of representatives with one sole object in view : the conversion of the 
nation and the establishment of the Christian Church in China. 

And now it would seem the time is at hand, when the Christian 
missionaries should as one man rise to the dignity of the situation, the 
level of Christ s standpoint when He prayed for the unity of His disciples 
and the unity of their converts, to the end that they might all be one and 
that the world might have this supreme evidence of Hia mission from 
God the Father. 

This sentiment is neither new nor strange, at least not so in China. 
Indeed it may be said to be fast becoming the dominant sentiment in all 
large mission fields, and is hence attracting no little attention in the 
home churches. Necessity, as it were, is upon us here, and obligation so 
great and urgent as this if so be it is an obligation and not merely a 
pious sentiment should command, as it is sure to do, the most serious 
and prayerful consideration of this Conference. 

2nd. A Uniform Standard Bible. 

The demand for this is well nigh commensurate with the field, and 
it would seem that hardly a greater obligation than this could arise 
whether we consider its immediate relation to unity or its 
wider bearing on the character of our work. The Bible is Ul iform Bible 
our book of books, the foundation of all our teachings, and it is due to 
the nation whom we are to teach that this emblem of our unity in faith 
and doctrine should be forthcoming with as little delay as possible. And 
if it could be annotated perhaps its usefulness when distributed would be 
increased manifold. 

3rd- A Connexional -Organ for the Native Church. 

Merely to name this want is sufficient, doubtless, to A j 0n mai for 
impress the Conference with a sense of the obligation due the Church - 
in this regard. It would add vastly to the esprit du corps of the native 
ministry and otherwise serve to bring into general harmony and sympathy 
the work of the whole field. It would therefore be of untold value ia 
promoting the Spirit of Unity, and preparing the way for the ultimate, 
organization of that China Church which is to be the culmination and. 
crown of all our labors. 

4fth. Uniform Standard Series of School and Text Books. 

Of similar purport and value would be the preparation and publi 
cation of a uniform Standard Series of School and Text Books for the 
educational institutions and work of the whole field. Providence, aa 
has already beea shown, has devolved upon ua in no small Uniform school 
measure, the duty and responsibility of such a charge as this. Books. 
Much has already been done ; enough at least to teat ita feaaibility, but 


not enough to touch the growing wants of our own work,- to say nothing 
pf the wider demand which will ultimately look to ns for help in this 
regard. Our success and our future status will be determined largely by 
pur action in this matter. 

5. A Native Christian University. 

The time having come when higher education with special reference 

to the native Church should be amply provided for, steps looking to the 

establishment of a bond fide University for the native Christian Church 

Native Un- would seem to be in harmony with our relations to China, 

iverBity. a i rea dy referred to, and might appropriately be placed among 

the obligations hence imposed. 

All these are but parts of the first and greatest obligation, to wit, 
Unity, and naturally serve to interpret the nature of that unity one 
purpose, one end, involving a manifold co-operation. 

Such a unity would be a blessing evermore ; and among its first 
benefits would be the just and satisfactory settlement of the question of 
missionary comity. There would then be no call for a division of the 
field, for none would be necessary ; but all working together, their labors 
would contribute to one common issue the establishment of the Church 
jn China, instead of numberless rival sects or denominations. " A con 
summation most devoutly to be wished." 

Then, too, would ensue that proper division of labor which would 
insure to each branch or department of the work its due share of 
attention and development ; nor would there be any more occasion OP 
temptation, as when one mission attempts to compass all there is to do, 
pf arraying one branch of work against another. In other words, the 
obnoxious versus would disappear from our missionary vocabulary, and 
symmetry of form and efficiency of organization give to oar enterprise 
not only a compactness, fullness and force hitherto unknown, but also 
make it possible to largely reinforce our numbers and extend our 
operations with but slight increase of expenditure. 

Jn conclusion. The changed aspect of China is fraught with issues, 
at this time, so overwhelming in their importance and bearing, and 
imposes obligations and responsibilities so vast and serious, that one can 
not help feeling that the assembling of a General Conference like 
this is not only appropriate, but opportune and providential. 

And as great events wait on its deliberations, so may great grace and 
wisdom .characterize them all, and the end be glory to God in the highest. 




Ven. Archdeacon Moule, (C. M. S., Shanghai.) 

THE subject suggested for my paper seems to assume that a relation does 
exist between Christian missions and foreign residents. This assumption 
many foreign residents may hesitate to allow. But it will be impossible 
to discuss the subject if we have to go back to the very elements of 
Christian belief and consequent duty ; these principles must be acknow 
ledged and heartily recognized before a discussion of any profit and 
practical efficacy can be carried on. There can, of course, be no relation 
ship, save that of mutual antagonism, or as one would wish to say in 
gentler tones, regret and alarm between Christian missionaries and those 
who, with a Christian name, repudiate Christian doctrine and cast off the 
trammels of Christian duty. But if we believe that Jesus died and 
rose again from the dead ; if we believe that on Him alone, as Saviour 
and Advocate, our hopes for the eternal world depend ; if we believe 
that after His miraculous Resurrection and just before His miraculous 
Ascension, He commanded that repentance and remission of sins should 
be preached in His name among all nations ; if we recognize the duty 
incumbent on every loyal Christian, loyally to carry out these commands, 
then not Christian missionaries alone, but every Christian soul on 
heathen or Mohammedan shores cannot but feel the thrill of interest and 
relationship between that soul and the work of Christian missionaries. 
I cannot allow that there is another side to this question ; methods of 
work and the manners and peculiarities of the workers do not touch its 
main lines ; with the spread of Christianity in heathen lands every true 
Christian must be in close relation. And yet, though we cannot afford 
to-night to hold controversy with those who deliberately repudiate this 
relationship, we would hold very earnest controversy indeed with the 
large number of foreign residents here, especially in Shanghai who, some 
from misconception, some from timidity, and many more from no well- 
defined reasons, do practically ignore the relationship and regard 
missionaries, if relations at all, at the utmost as second cousins twice 
removed, with a certain claim to recognition at sight and a certain claim 
to sympathy as benevolent enthusiasts, but with very little indeed of the; 
joy in joy and sorrow in sorrow which those joined by near and close ties 
must of necessity feel. Is Christ s Church militant indeed on earth ? Are 
we all bound to fight manfully under His banner against sin, the world! 
and the devil ? Has the Son of God indeed gone forth to war ? And is 
our lot cast, whether missionaries or foreign residents, in this advanced 
post in an enemy s country, where a special assault is being delivered, 


not on men and political systems, but on the principalities, the powers, 
the rrilers of the darkness of this world and the spiritual wickedness of 
the great, the real spiritual world ? Is the reality of that spirit world 
shown from out the mysterious veil which shrouds it by its effects on the 
beliefs, the pursuits, the aims, the sins of the Chinese, so far from God, 
BO near to Satan s dominions? And is our enterprize of Christian 
missions the deliverance of men from the power of Satan, from the king 
dom of darkness into God s freedom and light ? Are we missionaries in 
fact, if we are doing anything, fighting ? Then neutrality and indifference 
from those under the same banner of the Cross and signed by the same 
sign of Christ s triumph, is unnatural and unworthy of a Christian. 
Hence our controversy and earnest remonstrance with those who, without 
anything approaching to animosity or unfriendliness, yet fail to recognize 
their close and intimate relationship to Christian missions. 

I assume therefore this relationship as an uncontrovertible fact. I 
have argued the question thus far however by an inverse of the order 
expressed in the wording of my subject. I have endeavored to persuade 
all Christian residents in heathen countries that their relationship to 
Christian missions is natural and not artificial ; obligatory from the very 
principle of common spiritual birth and privilege and in no sense optional. 
But to approach the subject in the more direct order. How do 
Christian missionaries view the foreign residents ? Are we 
no t oftentimes greatly and gravely to blame in the assump 
tion that we are not related, or that as that traditional " poor 
relation " we shall be either disowned by our rich cousins or treated at 
most with frigid civility and ill-disguised aversion, or perchance, with 
that which is yet harder for some proud spirits to bear, with lofty 
patronage and haughty pity ? I believe it is the duty of Christian 
missionaries, residing and working where their countrymen, whether 
merchants or officials, live, to believe the recognition of this relationship 
until it is positively and bluntly denied ; to hope even against appear 
ances, and to persuade themselves of what ia oftentimes the simplest fact 
that the residential cousin is shy not unkind, that he or that she waits 
only for friendly advance for the offer of intercommunication, and above 
all for some information and enlightenment as to the work of the mission, 
and some practical hints as to the way in which sympathy and co-operation 
may be shown. There ia far too much tendency in many earnest Christ 
ian minds, unconsciously to establish themselves in a position which 
they honestly believe to be unworldly and out of the world, and to 
denounce, sometimes fiercely even, sometimes relentlessly, sometimes only 
by a sigh or a shake of the head, the rest, the foreign residents en bloc, 
as in the world and of the world, and as beyond the pale of relationship 
and communion. 

I do not in saying this shut my eyes for a moment to the dismal 
truth which requires no evidence ; it is so apparent that very many with 
the Christian name are living exactly as they ought not to live ; and 
while denunciation and angry upbraiding are even there out of place, yet 
most assuredly relationship and fellowship in the work are also utterly 


out of the question. I speak rather of a class, far larger I believe than 
we imagine, who are waiting for us to claim and guide relationship while 
we are waiting for them : and one great practical question before 
us to-night is, " Who is to take the first step ? " Many years ago at 
Hangchow I was rallied by a Chinese gentleman on the apparent 
estrangement between foreign missionaries and the upper classes in 
China. I asked him in reply who was to blame, from whom should 
the first advances come? He responded by inviting us to a feast so 
elaborate and so tedious that one was almost disposed to think 
estrangement better than such relationship ; we however rejoined by a 
similar invitation and friendly intercourse, and in the case of his 
servants something far better than this was the result. It is perhaps 
as hard to decide from whom the first advances must come in closer 
relationship between foreign residents and missionaries ; but some one 
must begin, and it must not stop with isolated and stiff acts of courtesy, 
but must be followed by a continuous flow of sympathetic co-operation. 
I may remark here that in many parts of non- Christian lands the in 
habitants form their first ideas of Western nations and of Western 
manners and customs from missionaries ; we may hope that these first 
impressions are for the most part favorable ; that missionaries from 
Europe and from the New World are not deficient in courtesy and in 
the higher Christian virtues of patience, forbearance, sympathy and 
charity. Neither do they form, in many cases, unworthy pioneers and 
depositories of Western science and of Western refinement. It may 
be well demanded, therefore, that foreign residents, for whom not 
seldom the door of commerce has been opened by foreign missionaries, 
shall not lower the moral standard, nor belie their relationship to 
missionaries, by bringing disgrace on Christian morality. If, as is often 
the case, they carry to higher degrees the imported branches of Western 
science and improvements, and if they raise the estimate in the native 
mind as to valour, and energy, and capacity, so too must they never, as 
near relatives, lower the estimate formed of Western probity and high 
honor in business and common intercourse, and of Western sobriety, 
charity and integrity. 

We must inevitably assist each other or hinder each other. The 
relationship is too close for the reflex influence to be unfelt. But time 
is mere dry argument have an ending ; and I proceed to practical sugges 
tions and information. 

First then, as to the way in which Christian missionaries may show 
their relationship to foreign residents. Here perhaps anything obtru 
sive is rather to be deprecated than recommended, but information as to 
the position of missionary centres of work, the streets in which schools or 
mission rooms are opened, the hours of divine service on Sundays and the 
times for public preaching on week-days, might be made accessible at any 
rate for foreign residents, if not directly offered to them ; special services, 
such as baptisms or combined services at tho New year or other particular 
seasons, might bo mentioned publicly or by individual notice, and so an, 
interest bo assumed till, as I said above, it is definitely repudiated. 


At Christmas time entertainments for Chinese children, or magic 
lantern exhibitions for the elder Chinese, might be notified to foreign 
residents, and as I know from experience, the presence and sympathy of 
a few of our friends from the settlement will add much to our pleasure, 
and I trust a little to their own. These hints may seem so obvious 
and common-place, that I should not offer them to this Conference, but 
for the fact that the most obvious duties and the most practical methods 
are of ten overlooked from the very fact of their simplicity. 

And now may I venture to suggest the contrary duty, how foreign 
_ ,. . a residents may manifest their relationship to the missionary 
residents. WO rk of the Church of Christ ? Let them begin at home ; let 
them not endure the thought of being served by boys, or coolies, or 
ahmahs, with more or less fidelity and efficiency, and that month after 
month should pass by without any attempt being made by master or 
mistress to bring these servants to Christ. The dreadful dialect of 
pidgin English can yet convey a vast number of ideas from English lips 
to Chinese minds, and though most unsuitable for preaching or system 
atic teaching, it would be quite sufficient to let the servant know that 
you, their master or mistress, care for their souls and desire to lead them 
to worship the God you worship, and to trust in your Saviour. Arrange 
ments would gladly be made by missionaries to send Chinese Christian 
teachers to hold prayers for servants in such households, and the master 
or mistress might be present during the short ten minutes or fifteen 
minutes service. Further, with comparatively little expenditure of time 
and pains many a master or mistress might learn to read from the 
Romanized colloquial versions of the Bible or Book of Common Prayer 
or other translated prayers and hymns, sufficiently intelligibly to lead 
such family prayers themselves. Meanwhile with gentle and kindly 
persuasion, though never with command or compulsion, they might urge 
their servants, and their shroffs and compradores, and their Chinese con 
stituents generally to make time to go for themselves to missionary 
preaching or reading rooms, or to the foreign missionaries dwellings, 
and inquire about this doctrine, which they see their master or employer 
or business friends esteem above gold and precious stones. A vast 
responsibility and a solemn one, too, rests on foreign house and land 
holders in these settlements ; the utmost care should be taken, as a duty 
which goes without telling, that their houses be never let through 
connivance of compradore or agent for immoral purposes, and that at 
least as great care be taken by Christian landlords in this respect, as 
high principled magistrates take in parts of the suburbs of Shanghai. 
But beyond the effort to secure respectable and decent tenants, lies the 
higher duty of endeavoring to provide for those tenants some (I can 
not use a better word than the familiar one) means of Grace. Water 
is laid on, hydrants are conveniently situated, roads are metalled, the 
streets and lanes aro well lighted, the drains are carefully attended to, 
why not let each considerable holder of house property add in each largo 
block of houses a room for Christian influence ; a school or a preaching 
or reading room ? Would it injure tho property ? I think not. The 


experiment has been tried in one case here in Shanghai, where a chapel 
and mission house in memory of the late Mr. Joseph Thorne has been 
given, rent free, by his widow ; the house standing in the midst of her 
property and serving the purpose not only of evangelization and Christ 
ian instruction and example, but also as a profession of the faith of 
the landlady and a sign manifest of the relationship between foreign 
residents and Christian missions. 

Christian missions and commerce, commerce and Christian mis 
sions, arranged according to the predilections of the two classes here 
represented, are often spoken of as the great forces which must en 
lighten and regenerate the world; and it is of the utmost importance 
that these forces should work in harmony, not necessarily independently 
at all times, least of all in antagonism. In East and Central Africa so 
strong is this persuasion and so high is the estimation in which Christ 
ian missions are held by commercial men, that the Church Missionary 
Society has been invited by the British East African Company to establish 
mission stations at or near their commercial outports leading into the 
vast interior. Amongst other means in which it should be abundantly 
possible for commerce and missions without friction to meet, is such an 
enterprise as the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Know 
ledge among the Chinese, by which (and by similar institutions) broad 
light is being gradually thrown on the Chinese mind, both as to spiritual 
knowledge and material science, and much prejudice and misconception 
is being removed, which means also the sweeping away of the greatest 
barriers to the opening of this gigantic land to free intercourse with the 
stirring West. 

Besides this, both ladies and gentlemen belonging to the foreign 
communities in the open ports, and in other places which may hereafter 
attract a mercantile foreign community, will greatly help and encourage 
the missionaries by visits, perhaps not too frequent, but also not spasmodic 
nor isolated, to our schools both boarding and day schools to our 
hospitals, to our preaching rooms, and sometimes to our Sunday services. 
The effort required will not bo found exhausting, nor the sights and 
sounds altogether repulsive, and the effects of sympathy and interest will 
not be wholly one-sided. It would also greatly benefit English-speaking 
congregations meeting in the different Churches or chapels to recognize 
as Church bodies their relationship with missionaries, and to have some 
special mission chapel or school endowed by the congregation and regard 
ed as their special object of prayer and of liberal support. The great 
colleges in our English universities and most of the large public schools 
have missions in e.g. the Eastern districts of enormous London provid 
ing the salary of a missioner and guaranteeing the expense of his 
evangelistic and parish work a most hopeful sign for England, and why 
not have the same in e.g. Shanghai ? 

The mention of these " missions " reminds me in conclusion of the 
effect produced in some parts of Ceylon by this very warm and intimate 
relationship between foreign residents and Christian missions Benefits of 
for which I am pleading. A special " mission " to the older 


Stations of the C.M.S. in India and Ceylon was organized and carried out 
with singular success during the winter months about two years ago. 
And the result has been not merely a revival of true religion in the 
native Christian congregations, but a reflex blessing on not a few of the 
English residents, planters and others. 

The present Bishop of Travancore and Cochin (brother to our good 
friend the British chaplain at Holy Trinity Cathedral, Shanghai, and at 
that time Principal of Trinity College, Kandy,) wrote thus of the Christ 
ians : " The effects have, I trust, been permanent, and have led to more 
definite consecration to that service which is perfect in proportion to our 
self-surrender to the Lord who bought us ; I am specially thankful for 
such tokens for good among the masters and elder boys;" while Mr. 
Simmonds writes thus of some of the planters on the coffee estates : 
" They seem to have been literally filled with the fire of love to and zeal 
for Christ ; they began at once to work for Jesus, not only amongst ttieir 
countrymen, but more especially with the coolies on their estates ; I do 
not hesitate to say that the intense earnestness and holy lives of these 
young men have made a deeper impression on the natives than anything 
we appointed laborers have done." 

So will it be in China, too, when through the power and unction 
of the Holy Ghost foreign Christian residents and foreign Christian 
missionaries, related to one another by the sacred ties of faith, and love, 
are one in sympathy and hearty goodwill, and one in earnest yearning 
desire that God s kingdom may come here, and His will be done on this 
Chinese earth, even as it is done in Heaven. 


Rev. Professor E. P. Thwing, M.D., (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

THE altitude and proportions of an edifice may be sometimes better 
estimated by one who stands a little removed from it, rather than within 
its walls. The magnitude, significance and promise of modern missions 
may be better appreciated by one who inspects them in both hemis 
pheres, not as a missionary, not as a hurrying tourist, but as a patient, 
candid and serious student of God s movements in history and provid 
ence. Returning home from this eighth foreign tour, which represents 
nearly a year s absence and thirty thousand miles travel, an unexpected 
summons meets mo to address this Conference on the first day of ita 
deliberations. No theme has been assigned ; but a few thoughts occur 
to me on a subject on which I have often reflected, but never before 
Accelerated spoken. The inherent momentum of ideas and the special 
" "truth" 10 acceleration of that momentum, which GOD is to give in these 
latter days. This is in the line of the morning s discourse and though 
too broad a theme for thorough discussion in a brief address, " as much as 
in me is, I am ready " to consider its salient features, keeping in mind 
the ninth beatitude, " Blessed is the man that uiaketh a short speech, for 
be shall be invited again ! " 

May 7th.] EKV. B. P^THWING, M.D. 29 

Von Herder, when dying, said, " Give me a great thought that I 
may be refreshed." We want great thoughts to live by, to refresh ua in 
the strenuous activities of a service in which tho most devoted are some 
times weary and depressed. Have we not here an exhilera ting vitality of 
truth, the mighty vigor, velocity and vitality of ideas, when ideas 
once started on their endless career ? 

When railways were first opened in Spain, we are told that the 
simple minded peasants, supposing that the trains could stop anywhere, 
anytime, as easily as a mule or ox team, stood on the track and were 
frequently run over. They had no conception of speed or momentum. 
Herbert Spencer uses the incident to characterize the mental incapacity 
of those who cannot comprehend the-ever increasing momentum 
of ideas, when once well started. " An idea is mightier than 
a million men," said the pastor of my boyhood, Dr. Edward Beecher. 
True. For men are circumscribed by physical limitations, to which 
spiritual forces are strangers. A man can be in but one place at a time ; he 
comes and goes ; he livea and dies, but these unseen increments of the 
soul which we call ideas, travel as the light by which we see, abide with 
us as the air by which we breathe, brood over us as do these star-life 
heavens to-night, all-encompassing, pervasive, eternal ! Embodied, they 
become laws, literatures, civilizations. Institutions are but "the lengthen 
ed shadows of single lives." Luther gave the world Lutheranism, and 
Calvin, Calvinism. History is but the biography of a few sturdy souls, 
as Emerson has somewhere said, and these souls are but the incarnation 
of ideas, the onward march of which nothing can obstruct. 

It is a perilous thing to antagonize ideas which express essential 
truth. It is to commit the folly of those who have put out a foot to stop 
what was thought to be a spent cannon ball and have thereby lost a leg. 
There is nothing so revolutionary and convulsive to society, Dr. Thomas 
Arnold has remarked, " as tho strain to keep things fixed, when all the 
world, by the law of its being, is in eternal progress." It was just this 
fatal error which Confucius taught when he said that China s Em)r of 
work was not to create, but to conserve and transmit. Hence Confucius. 
the usages of centuries crystalize into unvarying forms. Her people have 
been content to follow ancestral traditions ; to think, live and act as those 
before them, indifferent, to new conditions, possibilities and responsibili 
ties. The nation is fitly compared to Lot s wife, looking backward, 
wedded to tho past, vainly hoping to resist the influences which impel 
the human race onward. 

It was observed at one of the Moody meetings at Northfield that 
" the LORD himself cannot switch a motionless engine." There can be no 
guidance of stationary objects. To go right wo must move. GOD said to 
Moses, " Speak unto the children of Israel that they go forward ! " And 
JESUS bade His disciples to " Launch forth into tho deep." When the 
germinal impulse of an idea is divine, its mission is world-wide and 
its power dcific. Inspired of GOD and guided by Him, it is not a tran 
sient, purposeless thing, but a gigantic moral force, a strange, intrusive, 
resistless energy, ubiquitous and immortal ! It will not dio with the life 


first inspired by it, but live in -other lives and so wield a power-richer in 
quality and more commanding in influence as the years go on. This is 
spiritual momentum. 

The possessor and herald of such eternal verities is not to timidly 
stand, as did the propounder of a new law in olden time in England, 
who put himself meekly in the market place with a halter about his neck, 
with which the populace might hang him if displeased with the innova 
tion, but to enunciate them with the imperative emphasis of authority. 
Nothing in all the world is so intolerant as truth. It brooks no rival and 
stoops to no compromise. Truth is the reality of things. 

Unchangeable- ,1. i 1*1. j 

ness of trutb. Therefore, it is unchangeable in every age, in every latitude 
and longitude ; therefore it is authoritative, eternal, unconquerable. 
There is unspeakable comfort in this thought for the weary worker, 
oppressed by the burden, depressed by obstacles in his work. But there 
is another inspiring truth. 

In these latter days we may expect an acceleration of God s move 
ments in human history. He is not slack concerning his promises, 
though their fulfilment seems to us to be very slow. The martyred 
saints above are crying, " How long LORD," and the tired earth below 
repeats the same appealing prayer. The Gibraltar of heathenism stands 
firm in its stony strength, hoary with age, apparently invulnerable. 
Sixty generations of missionaries, resolute, robust, consecrated men and 
women have passed by, each smiting it heavy blows. Fragments have 
fallen, but the mountain stands. Scoffers laugh and say, as did one 
globe trotter in China, " More die here every minute than are converted 
in a century." It is not easy to answer the sneers of the godless, " who 
find the salt of their wit in the brine of our tears." But we do know 
that " GOD S chronometer never loses time ! " Ideas are imperishable. 
The mind is a palimpsest. What appears to have been lost will surely 
reappear. The ongoing of truth is irresistible. Also, to its intrinsic 
momentum we believe GOD S outstretched arm will give, as it were, an 
added push to make what he calls " a short work " of it as the end of all 
things hastens. Is not this Scriptural ? Has lie not promised that the 
plowman shall overtake the reaper, the treader of grapes, the sower of the 
seed, and that a nation shall be born in a day ? This conception rebukes 
the pessimistic philosophy of those who see the world going to the bad, who 
fancy that their duty is but to save here and there a few from the wreck. 
Macaulay says that in his day he saw nothing but progress, heard of 
nothing but decay; the birds of ill omen chanting their saddest notes 
when the future was brightest. No, no, we are in no sinking ship ; we 
are fighting in no failing cause ! GOD S word is not to return to him void. 
His truth is omnipotent. Its velocity increases with every decade. We 
may expect a more rapid evangelization of the world as a result. The 
branch of the LORD grows more beautiful and comely ; the fruit of the 
earth more excellent ; the light of the moon is to change to the splendor of 
the sun, and the light of the sun to be seven fold as the light of seven days. 
The splendid leaps that science is making in the evolution and 
application of physical forces is a .type and promise of the augmentation 

May 7th.] REV. E. p. THWING, M.D. 31 

of personal power and holiness in the Church of CHRIST. There ia 
coming to be a more healthful and aggressive life. The feeble knees are 
to be strengthened, the lame man shall leap as a hart, the tongue of the 
dumb shall sing. One shall chase a thousand, two put ten thousand to 
flight. Those who have been "weak among us shall become as David, and 
the house of David like GOD. Human enterprizes, slow at first, move 
with increased celerity after the preparatory work is done. I stood in 
St. Isaac s Church, St. Petersburg, and thought of the many millions 
spent in its erection, largely on the foundations. A Russian forest was 
sunk in the form of piles. After this tedious work was done, the 
massive monoliths, the marble and malachite, the jasper and the gold 
went readily to their places. Then fitly framed together the building 
stood complete, " frozen music an anthem in stone." 

For years the submarine excavations at Hurl Gate reef, East River, 
New York, went on. Money and lives were expended. Men saw no 
fruit of this sacrifice. But one day the powder and the dynamite ex 
ploded, when the baby finger of Mary Newton touched the electric 
button. A formidable barrier to commerce was removed. A heathen 
Hindu once ran after a missionary and bade him not to be discouraged, 
for there was, he said, a silent, secret work going on among his people. 
The whole fabric of heathenism was honeycombed and some day would 
disintegrate. When Neesima of Japan died last January, Buddhist priests 
sent memorial banners as a tribute of respect to the herald of a gospel 
they did not acccept, but the power of which they felt. 

No arithmetic of ours can calculate the movements of IMMANUEL, but 
we do know that " his going forth is as the morning," brighter and swifter 
till the noontide splendor of his reign is reached. Coming out of St. 
Peter s one day, wearied with the caricatures of Christian worship, my 
delighted eyes read on the Egyptian obelisk that graces the square, 
"CHRISTUS REGNAT," "CHRIST reigns!" not will reign, a promise or 
hope ; not has reigned, a memory and a regret, as " Trojafuit," something 
that was and ia no more ; no, He does reign in Rome, in China, in all 
the world. The government ia on his shoulders. The sceptre is in his 
Lands. He is the centre of truth, the summit of history, the goal of 
human hope. "HALLELUJAH, for the LORD GOD omnipotent reigneth !" 
Come LORD JESUS, come quickly. 

There are two audiences before me. Beyond and above this eager, 
listening congregation I see a larger throng, I hear a sweeter choir. 
There is an innumerable assembly of redeemed ones, gathered from every 
land and language, apostles, saints and martyrs, a white robed company. 
There are converts from every clime. There are faces that are familiar ; 
feet that will soon fly to meet us ; lips that wait to greet us ; but, best of 
all, there is JESUS, the Captain of our salvation, under whose illustrious 
leadership we are marching, and at whose pierced feet it will soon be our 
joy to cast our crowns. Let us ever \valk under the shadow of these august 
realities, feeling the inspiration of his presence, the thrilling impulse of his 
truth, day by day, till we one by one are summoned to meet him face to 
face, where our joys are supernal and eternal in the presence of the KING ! 


Rev. W. Ashmore, D.D., (A. B. M. U. Swatow) : I am expected to 
speak on this paper on " The Relation of Christian missions to the 
Foreign Residents." It is an important theme, but it is part of another 
theme, The Western Forces that are at ^uork in China and their relation 
to us as missionaries. 

At the head of them are the Merchants. We are to discriminate. 
h That many of our countrymen take no interest in missions 

and speak slightingly of us is true ; but they feel the same 
way about Christianity at home ; the reason is the same ; they are not 
in tone with Christianity anywhere. But the Missionaries have a lofty- 
appreciation of the interest taken in the work by many of the foreign 
community in China. (He then spoke of Mr. David Oliphant and others.) 
A second force is the Diplomatic Body and the Consuls. Although 
harsh things have been said about us in the Blue Books, wa 
Dll ^<ty? tic are to take into account the grand help we have had from 
the diplomatic body. (The speaker then paid a tribute to 
Ministers at Pekin and Consuls at the ports who never turn deaf ears to a 
well founded appeal for help.) 

Then there is the Maritime Customs. We as missionaries feel grateful 
for that institution. We have many able and influential 
friends in the Customs. We have a special reason to rec 
ognize the fact that it has introduced the Sabbath into that one branch 
of Chinese official life. All honor to them for this. (Its general attitude 
towards missions and missionaries was spoken of with appreciation.) 

After that we have the Secular Press. We do not hold ourselves- 

and our work aloof from criticism. We think however it 

ought to be fair ; for these papers are read at home and 

unfair criticism does us undeserved injury at home. But we recognize 

with gratitude the readiness with which the columns of the secular press 

are thrown open to us, and the kindly consideration that has been. 

shown us by Editors generally. (The speaker then referred to Mr. Andrew 

Shortreid, of the old time " China Mail, and others, and spoke of the pains 

then being taken by the Shanghai papers to report the proceedings of this 


A few words about Travelled Chinese. These are to be included in 
Western forces, for the reason that they bring back with them a vast 
amount of Western national sentiments and ideas which are revolutionary 
in their social drift and will some day make themselves powerfully felt. 
(The speaker then divelt on the attitude always taken by missionaries to 
secure fair treatment for Chinese at home.) 

The last of the forces I mention is Christianity itself, the most 
powerful factor of them all. It is that which China needs above 
things else to conserve her moral welfare for time and that of her people 
for eternity. (He then spoke of the missionary outlook. In the course of liw 
remarks he referred to the millenium and millenarian theories and pressed the 
indispensable necessity of witnessing for Christ and of establishing witnes 
sing churches for Him. When the nations are prepared to understand what 
Christ will do, then He will intervene whether by his personal presence 

"May 7th.] REV. WM. MUIRHEAD. 33 

or Sis providence and power, it matters not to us in this connection, and the 
world shall ivitness the glory of His kingdom on earth. He spoke also of the 
restoration of Israel and the spiritual effects on the great triumvirate of 
creeds at the three corners of the triangular position, Romanism, Mohammed 
anism and the Greek Church.) 








Eev. Wm. Muirhead, (L. M. s., Shanghai.) 

IT is well that we should consider, at the outset of our Missionary 
Conference, the foundation on which we proceed in our work 

The Sflcrc d 

in China, that is, the sacred volume, the one and only source Volume. 
of our authority, our inspiration, the truths we utter and the examples 
we are called to follow. Happily there is no occasion to defend its 
Divine origin and the obligation of its great commands. On these we are 
all heartily agreed, and in virtue of it we are here to-day in the capacity 
of the servants of Christ. Our object at present is simply to inquire into 
the faithful transfer of the Sacred Writings into the language of this 
people, by which they, too, may become acquainted with their precious 
truths, and raised to the enjoyment of their inestimable blessings for 
time and eternity, for earth and heaven. 

It is usual on the establishment of Protestant missions in a heathen 
land to translate as soon as possible at least a portion of Holy EiseofChris- 
Writ into the current tongue. And it has been so in China, "^SaT 
The active history of these missions is comparatively recent. The passing 
century is marked by this characteristic in a high degree, though we 
may well note their rise and progress at an earlier date. The case of 
China is in many respects peculiar. It is a country that has long been 
known to the nations of the West, though veiled in mystery and regarded 
with ignorant wonder for its singular isolation, the extent of its domains, 
the richness of its products, the claims and assumptions of its ruling 
powers, the uniqueness of its language and literature, and its rare 
accessibility to travellers from distant lands. 

All these have been matters of deepest interest to outside countries, 
and in carrying out the Commission of its Lord, the Christian Church 
ias fully shared in these impressions ; yet only after centuries,, well 


milleniums, and iu no adequate way at the best, has this country been 
made the sphere of missionary operation. We read of the advance of 
Christianity in the West in early ages, over what seems to be a wide 
range of the then known world, but China continued to remain unknown 
till, after a long and toilsome journey through the wilds of Asia, it was 
reached by Nestorian priests, and so the message of life was brought to 
its gates. Their success may have been -considerable, but in course of 
time they and their labours disappeared from the page of history. 

In the onward course of events, the emissaries of the Roman 
Catholic Church reached China, first, in the same way as those alluded 
to, and afterwards by sea from the South. They distinguished them 
selves in a high degree at court and throughout the empire. Their names 
and remains are largely with us to this day, and form an important 
section of the missionary annals of the country, both in the way of 
active evangelization, and of scientific Christian literature, carried on 
amid many vicissitudes of prosperity and adversity. 

At length in the early part of this century Protestant missions were 
begun and have gradually extended through the length and breadth of 
the land. While especially engaged in evangelistic work they have done 
not a little in the paths of literature, and in that line the translation of 
the Scriptures distinctively claims our attention. 

It would be invidious and unwise to enter into a minute criticism 
Various Trans- or comparison of the various translations that have been 
them s, made, so far as they have come under our notice, describing 
their several characteristics, and expressing our opinion of the one or the 
other as worthy of approval or otherwise. It is enough to enumerate in 
brief what has been done and what requires to be done, in order to bring 
about the desired end, which we hesitate not to say is the formation and 
adoption of a version of the Sacred Scriptures, which would be current 
everywhere in China, as the standard of our common faith, and could be 
appealed to and recognized as such by foreign missionaries, native Chris 
tians and the heathen at large. 

We have no means of knowing what the Nestorians did in the way 

Nestorian of translation. The term they used for God is well known to 

Monuments. h ave been Aloho, in conformity to their Syriac original. The 

inscription on the so-called Nestorian monument is the only source of 

information that we now have in regard to them. 

The Roman Catholics have done much in the matter before us, from 
an early period and at different times, but only in detached portions, as is 
Boman catho- * ne i r custom elsewhere. These are easily to be met with, 
lie versions, though of course not generally distributed. There is great 
freedom and simplicity in the style of translation, taken from the Vulgate 
as their standard form, which we have often had occasion to admire, but 
hardly to imitate as a whole, whether as appearing in their quotations or 
in their professed translations. We suggest, however, that their render 
ings might well be looked at by successors in the work. At the outset of 
their misisonary labours in China, we know the Jesuits adopted the terms 
Shang-ti for God and Shin for Spirit. In one case discovered bj Dr. 

May 8th.] EEV. WM. MUIEHEAD. 35 

Morrison in the British museum, Shin was employed for God in a version 
of the Gospels, but we-have no clue as to the origin of the work. There 
is nothing similar to it in any of their other writings, and now we have 
only T ien-chu and Shin for the words in question in all their writings. 

The Russian Church in Peking issued a version of the Ne-w 
Testament, chiefly at the hands of the distinguished Archi- 
mandrite Palladius, some years ago, which has lately been Versions. 
revised. It is formed much in the same style as the Roman Catho 
lic publications, as also in the terms employed, and deserves commen 
dation in the main, as the production of an excellent Chinese scholar, 
though scarcely forming a safe guide for us in our translatorial labours. 

Dr. Marshman, of the Baptist Mission in Serampore, ventured on a 
translation of the New Testament, in addition to his labours 
in concert with his brethren there on a number of Indian 
versions. It is a remarkable work, considering the circumstances in 
which it was made, and reflects high credit on him and his assistant, as 
also does his work on Chinese grammar, but the propriety and utility of 
his having been so engaged are more than doubtful, and the book is now 
classed with the archives of former days. 

Dr. Morrison and in part Dr. Milne deserve special mention as the 
pioneers of Protestant missions in China. They accomplished Morrison 
a marvelous work which, with all their other labours, speaks and Milne s, 
highly for their attainments and diligence. As a first effort of the kind, 
their translation of the Old and New Testaments cannot be too highly 
commended. We will not dwell on its style and character. They 
naturally adopted a simple and literal system of rendering the original, 
and succeeded so well as to be of considerable service in the work of their 
successors. As these, however, increased in acquaintance with tha 
language, it became evident that an improvement was needed, and 
arrangements were made for the purpose. In the volumes now under 
consideration the term Shin is used for God ; H jjft J& Shing-shin-fung 
for the Holy Spirit ; ff Shin-chu for Jehovah ; and j$ 5 i & Shin- 
t ien-shing-shu for the Bible. 

Drs. Medhurst and Gutzlaff worked together for some time on a 

translation of the New Testament, but afterwards separated, Medhnraf 

j -i . an< * 

and each went on in his own way. They were both distin- Gutzlaff. 

guished scholars in Chinese, but lacking perhaps in precision and point, 
in style and idiom, so as to render their immense vocabulary too free, too 
general, for practical use. They employ Shang-ti and Shin for the worda 
in question, and their works have passed out of view. 

The so-called Delegates version of the New Testament was made by 
Dr. Medhurst, Dr. Bridgman and Mr. Stronach, and follow- Delegates? 
ing it in immediate connection, the translation of the Old Medhurst 
Testament was made on corresponding lines by Dr. Medhurst, SSftfr* 
Messrs. Stronach and Milne, Bishop Boone was associated with the 
former as a Delegate, but was unable from his state of health to take any 
part in the work. The whole was accomplished between the yearg 
1847-53, and ranks high in the estimation of native scholars, It has 


been largely circulated, and forms the version in use by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. No one can fail to admire the classic beauty and 
rhythm of the style, and though it is sometimes objected that it is nofc 
always so literal as it might be, and that in general it largely exceeds the* 
grasp of ordinary readers which is however a matter of question 
there is no doubt as to its supreme excellence as a literary production, itst 
perfect scholarship, its adaptation to the native culture, its unequalled 
appreciation by careful students, its expression of the highest attainments 
of Biblical learning which, in numerous cases, it seemed to. anticipate. 
Shang-ti and Shin are used for God and Spirit. 

Shortly after the completion of the above New Testament, another 
Bridgman version was begun by Drs. Bridgman and Culbertson, at the 
Cuibertson e. request of a number of missionaries, who thought the pre 
vious translation might be improved and corrected. They carried on the 
work into the Old Testament, and pursued it in a more literal and lesa 
classical style than that of the Delegates. It has been adopted and 
largely circulated by the American Bible Society. Shin and Ling are 
used for God and Spirit. 

About the same time the Rev. Mr. Goddard, of the Baptist Mission, 

Goddard Ningpo, and the Rev. Mr. Dean of the same Mission at Hong- 

and Dean, kong, and afterwards at Siam, issued a version of the New 

Testament, which is favourably spoken of and in current use among the 

Baptist Churches. It adopts the same terms for God and Spirit as the 

other American version, with its distinctive nomenclature for baptism. 

In addition to the above^ two versions of the New Testament have 

Dr. John, Bi- been published lately, one by Dr. John of Hankow, and one 

8h and B Dn n b 7 Bishop Burdon of Hongkong and Dr. Blodget of Peking. 

Biodgct s. These purport to be in a more simple style than the higher 

literary form alluded to. They are now both on their trial and are well 

spoken of, alike seeking to adapt the Word of God to the generality of 

readers in China, without impugning what has previously been done, as 

is fully acknowledged in the preparation and construction of the works. 

The one uses Shang-ti and Shin for God and Spirit, the other T ien-chu 

and Ling. 

We shall briefly allude to the Mandarin and various local versions 
Mandarin and that have been issued, and which are more or less in current 
local versions. B se. The first Mandarin translation was under the hands of 
Dr. Medhurst, who simply aimed at a faithful rendering of the Delegates 
version of the New Testament. It was done by a native and is express 
ed in a free and racy style, which has been objected to as lacking in 
fidelity to the Greek. The second is a translation of the Old Testament, 
and was carried through by Bishop Schereschewsky, of the American 
Episcopal Church. It is regarded as a faithful transcript of the original, 
and reads like the work of an able Chinese and Hebrew scholar, yet 
requiring a good deal to be done to make it a perfect work. The third is 
a translation of the New Testament by various missionaries in Peking. 
It is the result of earnest and prolonged labour, exceedingly close and 
rigid in s.tyle, following the original with great exactness, but perhaps 

May 8th.] REV. WM. MUIRHEAD. 37 

wanting in the fluency and freedom which would be an advantage to it. 
The fourth is a translation by Dr. John of his literary New Testament, 
and intended to be an exact rendering of it. Of local versions there is 
quite a number, alike in the Chinese character and Romanized form. 
They are to be found in the Canton, Hakka, Swatow, Amoy, Foochow, 
Ningpo, Shanghai and other dialects, and need not be characterized as 
regards their style. It is enough they have been made to meet the wants 
of less informed readers in the various places where they are nsed, and 
have been found of great service in Church work. 

We have thus passed in review the several versions of the Old and 
New Testaments that have been made in Chinese, and now Appeal for a 
proceed to a principal part of the present essay, namely, the version: 
desirability of a single standard version of the Bible for all "China and 
the steps that might be taken for its accomplishment. 

1. The nnity of the written language may well be urged as a reason 
for this, which is also sustained by the course adopted by the i. Front the 
Chinese in the matter of their standard books, whether un wrmen he 
Confucian, Buddhist, Taouist or otherwise. The numberless lan s ua s e - 
scholars in China, who are the authorities and leaders of literary life, have 
been trained and unified in this way. Their studies are based on the 
classic works first put into their hands, and their style and sentiments 
are determined and stereotyped by the language and literature connected 
therewith. Hence the uniformity of China far and near, and the advan 
tage of a common standard, which is everywhere appealed to and 
appreciated. How different would China be were there no such standard 
of instruction in the schools and upper classes of Society ; and whatever 
be the difficulties of the course of study thus followed out, or its insuf 
ficiency from our standpoint to meet the requirements ef the country, 
arising as they do perhaps from the peculiarities of the language and the 
system of instruction pursued or the subjects actually taught, no one can 
fail to be surprised at the line of things universally in operation, and" 
which has made China what it is in a moral and literary point of view. 
Is it not to be desired that our standard of truth, our Christian revela 
tion, should attain the same prominence and occupy at least the same 
position, which the native classics do ? As the character of the one 
so highly surpasses that of the other, so may its influence ; while from 
the universality of the written tongue, the same fundamental principle 
should be sought in a common version of the Sacred Scriptures, capable 
of being read through the length and breadth of the land, and wherever 
indeed the Chinese language obtains. Are we not in this matter on the 
same, and even higher^ ground than is often said in regard to the Greek, 
when Christianity first appeared ? Its universality was a preparation, 
for the widespread dissemination of Christian truth, and it does seem 
as if the common use of the Chinese written language was intended by 
Providence to render our missionary work in a printed form, so much 
more available than it would otherwise have been. Would it not be an 
actual abuse of tho opportunity thus held out to us to have a multiplied 
variety of tho Sacred Writings, excepting indeed what is yet to be 


adverted to, -when the written form and the standard of appeal, and the 
course of instruction, and the prevailing order of minds are everywhere 
the same, in a native point of view, and seemingly intended to be taken 
advantage of ? We would insist on this on the highest grounds. One 
language of the kind in question exists in China. We have come hither 
to effect one object, and as a chief means of attaining it, translate and 
circulate the Word of God ; and whatever else may be done in the same 
line, by all means let a common version of the sacred volume be made in 
the current and approved language of the country, and let it be known 
and referred to as being what it is, the ultimate standard of appeal, from, 
which all other local versions may easily be made, and so present a similar 
appearance wherever they may be used. 
2. From the 2. The accomplishment of this object is in present 

facilities now , , , , , . ,. 

in hand for it. circumstances not a very arduous work. Much has already 
been done in preparation for it, and this, it seems to us, haa only to be 
carefully turned to account, so as to secure the end in view. Whether it 
is required at the present stage of missionary work, and whether the 
missionaries as a whole are prepared to coincide in it so far as to make 
it a practicable thing, may admit of serious question ; but granting it as 
an object to be very desirable, to wit, improvement and unification of a 
common version of the Bible, it appears to us there are men and means 
by which it may be effected, much more surely and easily perhaps than 
before. Only let a small body of representative men be chosen to do the 
work, not by spending years together in making a new translation, but a 
careful revision of what is now on hand, mainly by correspondence and 
occasional meetings, in the exercise of perfect mutual confidence, and so, 
in our view, there is a possibility of bringing it to a satisfactory issue. 
In doing this, it would be well to make the most approved version in 
style and general character the basis of operation, which would simplify 
and expedite the work, rather than by proceeding without any definite 
understanding of the principles or the form it should take. Native 
scholars would readily determine the choice to be here made, and be 
helpful in guiding the revisers as to what was most appropriate for their 
own people. It is hardly for us to assume such a position. It was the 
boast of Luther that he had made his translation of the Biblo for the 
Germans, and it has proved to be eminently the case. It is time that we 
should do the same for the Chinese ; and ia the way indicated it can be 
done. We are not speaking at random, when we assert it as our candid 
opinion, that much of the work done in the past has been without due 
regard to the taste and style of Chinese readers. Wo may havo beeii 
concerned about the close and faithful rendering of the original, which is 
a most necessary point to be attended to, but the adaptation of the work 
to those for whom it is made, is a matter that we fear has been too much 
overlooked. Let this bo kept in mind in the future, and acted on in 
what we are called on to do. As it is, wo hesitate not to say that what 
we are desiderating haa largely been mado to our hands, and at whatever 
time a final revision is carried through, it need not bo after a loug conrso 
of years, or at a very great expense. Tho labours of well qualified 

May 8th.] REV. WM. MUIKHEAD. 39 

scholars are now at our command, and the progress that 1 has recently 
been made in Biblical scholarship can easily be taken advantage of, so as 
to render the work all that can be desired in furnishing to this people the 
blessed Word of Life. 

3. These remarks in no wise militate against the idea of 
Mandarin or local translations of the book. Such is the toWtoMte-- 
peculiarity of Chinese, both in character and style, that it Versions. 00 
seems desirable, nay, necessary in some respects, to employ either Roman 
or native letters, so as to simplify the Word to a variety of readers. 
These of course require to be taught the new emendation, but we cannot 
deny the fact that though the system is not Chinese, the vernaculars, 
including the Mandarin, have been used with great advantage in the 
above forms, and we by no means discourage them. Only we strongly 
affirm the desirability of these colloquial versions being the faithful 
transcript of the standard work we have already urged, in which it is 
supposed all are agreed, and so the work in each case would be most 
easily done under the supervision of the foreign missionaries, the- 
advantage being a happy uniformity throughout. The extent to which, 
this should be carried is a matter for each local conference, or such like, 
to determine , and in every instance the work should be represented as 
the local or Mandarin transcript of the standard volume, for the infor 
mation of outside readers, together with the special object intended by it, 
so as not to cause the Divine Word to be disparaged, as it would other 
wise be by scholars and others, who might happen to see only the local 
translation. As to the utility of such local translations, we opine they 
would be used in the native Churches, schools, and gatherings of limited 
readers. We cannot expect a wide or general extension of such a class 
of books in the present constitution of Chinese society, or in the course 
of our missionary work. However difficult the acquisition of Chinese may 
be, even by the people themselves, it is not for us to transform the whole 
system of education, and endeavor to adopt a new line of things by 
making the patois of every place the criterion and extent of our opera 
tions, in the translation and circulation of the sacred Scriptures. Suffice 
it that such cannot be done with any degree of acceptance, and it were 
undesirable that it should be, when in the Providence of God such a 
sphere is open to us as China presents. By all means let the neighbour 
hood of our respective spheres of labour be permeated with the light of 
truth, but let it be in a manner that shall be best appreciated and adapted 
to the condition of things we find to be actually existing. 

4. And now a closing word as to the terminology to be 4. The termi- 
used in the sacred volume. We mean alike as to the terms n ^Psiirit. od 
for God and Spirit, and the other technical expressions necessarily 
implied. We need great grace and wisdom in the discussion of these 
important points, and only as we are so enabled, can we expect to see our 
way in the matter. We have unfortunately our individual prejudices 
and prepossessions, especially in regard to the former point, largely 
dependent on, or caused by, the associations into which we were first 
thrown, and which by continual ose have been strengthened and con- 


firmed. Ifc has thus been very much like our national sympathies and 
antipathies, but demanding very grave and solemn consideration at our 
hands. In the early history of Christian missions in China, we know 
there were similar disputes and discussions, which a long course of 
argumentation between the parties failed to settle, and it required high 
authority to bring the whole to an issue. We disclaim such an authority, 
and yet have gone on the same line of contention, to the embitterment 
often of Christian feeling, and to the weakening and separation of our 
Christian forces. However it may be excused or regarded as of little 
practical account, the fact remains that missionary work is prosecuted and 
Bible work in particular is carried on, under no small disadvantage, in 
view of this state of things. It is unseemly, unwise, unnecessary, and 
the more so when means are at hand for determining the question, alike 
in our own Christian character, and in the case of the native Christian 
community with which we have to do. We are solemnly charged that 
there be no divisions among us, and the success of our work in no small 
degree hangs upon it. What then ? It is true that God has blest all 
terms in spite of our incongruity, and if we cannot see eye to eye in the 
adoption of the same terms, may we not use the same Scriptures, with the 
variations implied, in the hope that by one means or another, we shall 
yet como to a full agreement? This was proposed by the late Dr. 
Medhurst, before the sad controversy was begun, and it may well be 
considered now, if we have any regard to the teaching and command of 
Christ and His apostles. As missionaries we have discussed the subject 
to satiety, all the time being outside the sympathies, the views, the exact 
etandpoint of the Chinese themselves. In a word, as foreigners we have 
read and written, and while taking the Chinese into our confidence and 
following their dictation, in the matter of style and idiom, have we not 
failed in eliciting their independent views and feelings on what is of the 
highest importance, the terms in which they are to express the grand 
truths of the Gospel, the Love of God and the gift of His Spirit ? As 
it ia to the Chinese these truths are to be communicated, and ~by them 
mainly to be declared to their countrymen, surely it is a matter in which 
they have the deepest interest and on which they could most clearly and 
emphatically pronounce, how and in what terms they can best understand 
and make known the message of Eternal Life. Laying this matter at 
the throne of grace and seeking Divine guidance in regard to it, let us 
act together in what we are agreed on, a common version of the Word of 
God to be read and circulated in all parts of China. 

What as to the other terms in use among us, distinctive of the 

various ideas of Christian truth ? We are indebted for many 

Other terms. of ^^ ^ tliQ Roman i stg) as they were to no small extent to 

the Buddhists and others. Not a few have been coined to meet our 
views of Protestant truth, and it is not to be wondered at they are often 
misunderstood. The language of our Lord is appropriate on many 
occasions, both in reference to the sentiment expressed and the language 
used. " How is it that ye do not understand my speech ? " This is not 
the place to enter on an analysis of our distinctive terms, which deserve 


to be carefully considered; but the fact is that whatever terms we employ, 
as in regard to the controversy above spoken of, so in this case, we must 
explain them. In the main we are inclined to agree with them, bat 
the Chinese are ignorant of the ideas we attach to them, and so tail in 
apprehending their true import. It is precisely the same in translating 
scientific works. It was no doubt the case at the first start of Chris 
tianity, and the great truths connected with it were as indefinite then- as 
they are to the Chinese, nay, what are they to many among ourselves 
even now ? Such truths as faith in Christ, union with Him, justification, 
sanctification, redemption, heaven, and all the wonderful figures alike of 
the Old and New Testaments, how strange they must have been at 
first, and how strange they are to many still ! But we are of opinion, it 
is not so much the language used to express them, as the sentiments 
themselves, that require to be explained, in order to meet the capacities 
of the Chinese. 

Reviewing the whole, we have only to hope that in this the first 
topic that has come before us, as well it may be, we shall be Final appeal 
found heartily to unite, and so, in no less degree, in regard to 
the other objects that have brought us together. Thus, united in 
sympathy, aim and effort, we may expect the Spirit of promise to rest 
upon us, and to go forth with us, in the onward progress of the Gospel 
and the conversion of China to Christ. 


Rt. Rev. Bishop Schereschewsky (A. P. E. M.) 

A SCOFFER at Missionaries once asked in my hearing the derisive ques 
tion, " When will missionaries be done with translating the Scriptures 
into Chinese ? They have been at it more than half a century and are at 
it still." 

At first sight there would seem to be some reason for asking this 
question. It is true that since the beginning of Protestant missions in 
China, the translation of the Scriptures has been going on. In fact, the 
work of translating the Scriptures was begun by Protestant missionaries 
many years before China was open to them. 

Many versions have been brought out, but no one of them seems to 
be satisfactory. This, however, need not be regarded as strange. It was 
centuries before the Western church settled upon a permanent Latin 
version. Wo know that at the end of tho second century there was 
already in cxislence a Latin version of the Scriptures, and judging from 
the language of St. Augustine, there were a multitude of Latin versions 


before that made by St. Jerome at the end of the fourth century. It 
was not before the eighth century that St. Jerome s version, the Vulgate, 
became the authorized version of the Western church. 

There were likewise many Greek translations following the Septua- 
gint, and very likely there were several preceding it. Long before the 
date of the Septuagint, the Greek had become the language of the Jews 
in Alexandria, and it is not likely that the Jews were without a Greek 
version of the Scriptures before the appearance of the Septuagint. The 
Septuagint bears marks that it is the outcome of previous attempts on 
the part of the Alexandrian Jews to render the Scriptures into Greek. 
The story that it was made by seventy elders especially invited by 
Ptolemy Philadelphns from . Jerusalem to Alexandria for that purpose, 
and who were cranted especial inspiration for the work, is a fable 
invented by the Alexandrian Jews in order to extol its origin and to 
justify its being need in the synagogue service instead of the Hebrew 
Scriptures. It is called the Version of the Seventy, because it was 
probably made or published under the authority of the Jewish senate at 
Alexandria, which, according to tradition, was composed of seventy 
elders in imitation of the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem. 

It was the same with the English Bible. As we all know, from 
Wickliffc s to King James version, many translations appeared, and it 
was centuries before there was a permanent English version of the 
Scriptures. It therefore would not be strange if it should take a century 
or two before there should be a, permanent Chinese translation. 
Need of new ^nt * s a new vers i n f the Scriptures in the Wen-li 

version. ne eded ? This question must be answered in the affirmative. 
There are, I take it, but few among the missionaries who do not feel the 
need of a new Wen-li translation. I will not attempt to enter into a 
discussion of the merits or demerits of the two principal Wen-li versions 
now in use. Suffice it to say that most missionaries are of the opinion 
that both are in a style too high for the majority of readers. It is also 
felt that neither is satisfactory as a translation. The one is too literal, 
and the other too free. We want a new translation of the Scriptures in 
the Wen-li. But in what style? There are some who think that the 
Scriptures ought to be rendered both in the antique style, for scholastic 
use, and in the modern style, for popular use. I must confess that I am, 
pretty much of the same opinion. But be this as it may, the immediate 
want is a Wen-li version in the modern style ; in a style which, whilst 
not unacceptable to scholars, could be read and understood by all who are 
not illiterate ; a style which should employ words in their primary sense 
and call a spade a spade ; which should not strive after classicalities, 
and that should avoid ready-made phrases and expressions culled 
from poetical and rhetorical compositions ; in short, a style employed 
by the Chinese themselves in their graver works and more serious 

The diction should be concise but unconstrained, avoiding diffuseness 
on the one hand, and stiffness on tho other. It should bo 
clear and idiomatic. Idiom and clearness must not bo sacri- 


6ced to literality. To translate literally Hebrew or Greek into Chinese, 
is often mistranslating. It was said long ago in the Talmud, that to 
translate a passage literally is to mistranslate it. Bat apart from the 
question of mistranslation, a too literal translation must necessarily be 
unidiomatic and to a great extent unintelligible ; and a translation which 
is not intelligible defeats the very object for which the Scriptures are 
translated. On the other hand, faithfulness to the original ought nofe 
for a moment to be left out of sight. This should be regarded as of 
paramount importance. No consideration of style ought to stand in 
its way. It is possible to be faithful to the original without being 
slavishly literal. But it is hardly possible to be faithful to the original 
and at the sam& time employ a style that will satisfy the taste of the 
Chinese literati. 

It is essential that the peculiar Biblical diction be preserved intact. 
This indeed is implied in faithfulness to the original. The Bible may be 
translated in such a way that, while a general idea of its contents may 
be given, the peculiar flavor and complexion of the original is almost 
obliterated. The peculiar Biblical diction or style is preserved in all 
standard translations of the Scriptures, both ancient and modern, and 
there is no reason why an exception should be made in rendering the 
Scriptures into Chinese. This preservation of the Biblical diction must 
necessarily lead to the preservation of the characteristics of Hebrew 
poetry the parallelism which must on no account be neglected or 
obscured. This is by no means difficult to accomplish, as there exists a 
kind of Chinese parallelism, although of a different nature from the 
Hebrew, and different in its application. This preservation of the 
Hebrew parallelism will of itself maintain the difference of style between 
the prose and the poetical portions of the Bible. There are versions 
where this difference is more or less obscured by failing to preserve the 

Ib is obvious from what has been said, that such a new Wen-li 
version cannot be mado by a mere revision of existing versions. No mere 
revision or lowering of the style of the versions we already have will 
fulfill the required conditions. I do not want to be understood, however, 
as thinking that the existing Wen-li versions should not at ueoofoid 
all be made use of. On the contrary, I am of the opinion versions, 
that everything available in them should bo adopted in making a asw 

And hero I beg leave to make a remark or two regarding questions 
of grammar. Particles and pronouns should be used as sparingly as 
possible. The Chinese and the Hebrew and other Semitic languages 
arc at opposite poles as to the use of pronouns. "Whereas, in the Hebrew, 
almost every form of tho verb, and every noun in the possessive, has a 
pronoun as a component part, either as preposition or postposition, the 
Chinese avoids expressing tho pronoun at all, which, however, is always 
implied in tho verb or noun. To follow tho Hebrew usago as to prcnonns 
is contrary to tho genius of tho Chinese language. 


, If a version in the Wen-U is important, one in the verna- 


versions. c ular is of equal, if not greater importance. Foremost among 
vernaculars is, of course, the Ktuan-hua, which may be regarded as the spoken 
language of China. At any rate, it is spoken by more human beings than 
any other language in the world. It is needless to dwell further upon the 
necessity of having the Scriptures in such a language. But a vernacular 
version must not be an independent translation. A Wen-li version having 
been settled upon, the vernacular version should be in strict accordance 
with it. The necessity of an accordance between the two is so apparent 
that I need not argue the matter. If versions in the different dialects 
are deemed necessary, it is plain that they must also be based upon the 
Wen-U version which shall be adopted as the standard. In the mean 
time, before such a standard version has been made, there is the Man 
darin Bible. It needs some revision, and I will avail myself of the 
present occasion to mention that a revision of the Old Testament was 
finished over a year ago, especial attention being given to the questions 
of grammar spoken of above, and I understand that a revision of the 
New Testament is in contemplation. 

An opportunity will now be offered to establish in China that unity 
among Protestant Christians which exists at home. It ought to be the 
endeavor of all who have at heart the interest and the progress of 
Christianity, to do away with a condition of things which may be regard 
ed as one of the hindrances to the spread of the Gospel in China. Let 
us remove this reproach of diversity of Bibles and diversity of terms. 

Is it not possible to have one Bible for China ? There ought to be 
no difficulty about uniting upon the principles of translation and settling 
upon a common version that should be used by all. 

As to the Term Question, I do not think that a compromise is 

Tcrm impossible. A compromise, of course, implies that each party 

Question, g^^ifl ]j e w illing to give up something, and with such a 

grand object in view, should we not, each one of us, be ready t give Tip 

as far as may be, cherished views and individual preference ? 

It is to be hoped that this Conference may see fit to appoint a com 
mittee to take these matters into consideration. 

Surely there could be no more important result of the Conference 
than to bring about an agreement upon that which has disunited 
Protestant missionaries ever since the beginning of their work in 



Rev. John Wherry, A. P. M. (North,) Peking. 

THE sacred books of each of the great religions of the world were origi 
nally written in the common language of the people to whom they were 
addressed. In the single case of the Chinese sacred books, this language 
was destined to remain for ages one style of the ordinary literary 
language of the empire. As to the others, the lapse of time rendered 
them first antiquated, then entirely unintelligible to all, except priesta 
or scholars who had made them a special study. If the doctrines 
they inculcated had been conceived by those who accepted them, as of 
supreme importance to the very highest interests of each and every 
individual of society, as religion, if true, must be, we should have 
expected them to have been from time to time translated and retranslated 
into the current speech of the day. This, indeed, has been the case, to a 
certain extent, with the Jewish Scriptures, the Greek-speaking Jews in 
early times having their Septuagint, and the Aramaic-speaking Jews their 
Targums, which were in a sense both translation and interpretation. It is 
rather, however, by the study of their own sacred tongue than by 
translations, that modern Jews of a religious turn of mind get at the 
heart of their Scriptures. The Christian Church, under the impulse of 
the tremendous importance it attached to spiritual life, and its culture 
through revealed truth, at a very early age began to put her sacred books 
into the vernacular of the nations to which her religion had spread. 
There still remain to us Syriac, Latin, Ethiopia, Egyptian, Armenian, 
Gothic, and other versions of tho Old and New Testaments, to testify to 
the zeal of the early Church to make known to all the Word of GOD. 
As the first fervour of the Church cooled, and worldliness and formalism 
took its place, this effort to diffuse Scripture doctrines among tho common 
people died out, and as all European languages were undergoing great 
changes, the Bible soon became, even for the great mass of Christians, a 
sealed book. Happily the day of darkness was short. At the very 
earliest dawn of the Reformation the cry arose for the Bible in the vulgar 
tongue of every man. This became, and remains, a cardinal principle of 
Protestant Christianity, one of the chief reasons for its existence at all . 
And from the days of Luther and his German Bible, down to the present 
time, intense activity has been shown in the translation and diffusion 
of the Scriptures, in evangelized and unevangelized lands; an activity 
never greater, better directed, nor more persistent, than in the present 

It is no unimportant evidence of the worth the votaries of otner 
religions attach to them, that their sacred books, the authoritative 
expression of their tenets, have been allowed to remain locked up in 
dead tongues ; their teachings, if insisted upon at all, being retailed 
second-hand through a priesthood, Evidently they are not looked upon 


as overwhelming truths that man must know, that he must have pressed 
upon his understanding and conscience in all their original integrity 
and freshness, or else remain in darkness. "We are often told that all 
religions contain some truths. We need not dispute this, or that some 
of these truths are important. But are not the truths of false religions 
the same truths which lie imbedded in man s moral nature, and which 
need no book to reveal or preserve them ? And is it not a consciousness 
dim, perhaps, but still felt of this fact, and of the further fact that 
what in their systems is not thus man s common moral inheritance is 
false or worthless, that permits their votaries so placidly to let the only 
authorized expression of their creed remain virtually inaccessible to the 
multitude ? Pushing the argument but a step farther, is it not legiti 
mate to take the desire to make the Christian Scriptures known to every 
man and child as the very Word of GOD to his soul, as the measure of 
the life of each of the three great divisions of the Church at the present 
day, as well as of the life of the denominations, and, lastly, of the 
individuals of which these are composed ? We may at least take it as a 
real evidence of their profound belief in the divine origirn and excellence 
of their Scriptures, and of the real power these Scriptures exert over 
their own lives, that Christians in these daj>s are systematically exerting 
themselves to give the whole Bible in an intelligible and acceptable form 
to the world. 

In this undertaking it would not be possible that China, so vast^so 
populous", so dominant in the larger part of the largest continent, should 
be forgotten. The task in all its vastness still remains to be done ; but 
it augura well for its final success, that through the dauntless courage 
of some, at least a small beginning has been made, and that it is possible 
for the eye of faith to see the day when to China s teeming millions the 
Bible will be as familiar and precious as it now is to those heroic souls 
whose faith in the coming of that day refuses to be damped by any 
difficulty in bringing it about. 

It is the design of this paper to briefly sketch the steps that have 
already been taken to effect this project, and to offer a few criticisms 
which the partial success or partial failure of these steps may suggest. 

The As is well known, the Nestorians were the first Chris- 

NestorianB. t j an3 ^ Q ^ to Qur ^^3^ knowledge, attempted to propagate 
their faith in China. Syriac was their sacred tongue. Did they content 
themselves with the Bible in that tongue, or did they render it, as 
modern missionaries do, into the familiar language of the people ? From 
the inscription on the famous stone tablet of Hsi-an fu, in Shen-hsi, 
which after a burial of eight centuries was brought again to light in 
1625, and from a few cursory references in the sketches of Mohammedan 
Arab, and Monkish Christian travellers in the middle ages, it has been 
argued that at least the New Testament had been translated into Chinese 
by the Nestorians as early as the first half of the seventh century that 
is, twelve hundred and fifty years ago. The late Mr. Wylie, for whose 
Chinese learning one can only have the profoundest respect, sums up 

May 8th.] EEY. j. WHEEEY. 47 

the argument as in favor of the probability of such a translation.* If 
really made, the number of copies would, in the days before printing, 
be necessarily limited. Certainly, so far as is known, none have come 
down to the present. Why was so rare a book as the Bible left by a 
literary people, like the Chinese, to perish ? To the writer it seems 
probable that, as at that time Syriac had already become to the Nestorians 
a sacred language, in which the Word of GOD and all the Church ritual 
had been finally embalmed, and to exchange which, in public worship, 
for Chinese would have been vulgar profanity, such a translation, if it 
really existed, must have had a very subordinate importance, that little 
or no use could have been made of it in the ordinary instruction of the 
people, and that it was just because of this lack of Biblical teaching that 
Nestorian Christianity, which had rapidly degenerated into a superstition, 
soon died entirely out of China, almost out of memory even, and left 
scarcely a trace of influence on the Chinese nation. 

Near the end of the thirteenth century, the Franciscan monk, John 
de Monte Corvini, was sent by Pope Nicholas IV. as embassador to 
Kublai Khan at Cambalu, and was afterwards made bishop of that 
diocese. In the account of his work which survives, he claims to have 
made a translation of the New Testament and of the Psalms into the 
language of the Tartars, that is, of the Mongols, who then held the 
empire of China. But though the Mongol dynasty continued many 
years, the Mongol Emperors did not accept Christianity ; and if they had 
they could probably have done but little to impress it upon their Chinese 
subjects. It is not strange, therefore, that this translation, too, soon 
disappeared and was forgotten. 

The end of the Ming dynasty, and the beginning of the present 
Ta Ch ing, were the palmy days of Jesuit missions in China. Catholic Trans- 
At that time portions at least of the Scriptures were trans- lations. 
lated into Chinese and printed for general use. It is not improbable, 
indeed, that the whole of the Scriptures were translated, though they 
were never printed, and therefore never got into general circulation. A 
manuscript copy of the New Testament in seven volumes, now preserved 
in the library ot the Propaganda at Rome, may belong to this period. 
We could not expect Rome to give her people freely whole Bibles, not 
even New Testaments ; but much of the substance of the Gospels, and 
sketches of the more interesting historical narratives of the Old Testa* 
ment, were made at different times by different men, and neatly printed 
and widely circulated. Copies of these, some yellow with age, some later 
reprints, may still be found in the possession of old Catholic families in 
Peking. They are written in a simple though not uniform style, much of 
which differs little from the Kuan-liua of tho present day. 

Bible translation has, however, never been the policy of the Roman 

Church. The sacred Scriptures, and the almost equally sacred ritual 

which embodies much of her traditional wealth, are in the sacred tonguo 

of Rome. To keep them there is Rome s cherished and well-nigh fatal 

* See first volume of the Chinese Recorder. 


Eomish super- superstition. Let the people have their share of spiritual 
etition. food, but let it be meted out to them in form and measure 
suited to their capacity, and, above all, let it come to them through the 
regular channels of a consecrated priesthood, to whom, as in the apostol 
ic succession, are committed the oracles of GOD, and for the right 
interpretation of which they alone are responsible. An interesting 
triangular discussion of this very point is now in process in Shantung, in 
which Mr. James, supported by Dr. Nevius, is found on one side, and an 
anonymous Roman Catholic writer, who does not venture in print, how 
ever, is found on the other. The latter distinctly avows the inexpediency 
of giving the most sacred Word of GOD to the laity, defending his thesis 
by such Bible texts as "casting pearls before swine." I have spoken of 
this as a well-nigh fatal superstition. It is safe to say that while Roman 
Catholic Missions in China have not failed of a large direct influence over 
their converts, nor a small indirect influence on the country at large, 
they have not had the commanding influence which they might have had 
over both Church and nation, if during these two last centuries they had 
given the Bible freely to the people. The Protestant branch of the 
Christian Church takes the Bible, instead of tradition, as its creed, 
and believes that an intelligent, personal acceptance of this creed is 
essential to the spiritual welfare of every man. Hence the translation of 
the Bible into Chinese at the very beginning of the Protestant missionary 
work for China was not a mere incident of the work, but the ruling cause 
of its inception. It began with the beginning of the present century, 
before even the missionary had an entrance into China itself. The first 
complete Chinese Bible, Old and New Testaments, ever printed was 
Serampore ^ ssue ^ from the press at Serampore, India, in 1820. Its trans 
pose. lation was begun by Joannes Lassar, originally an Armenian. 
Christian born at Macao, and who had been made professor of the Chinese 
language at the College of Fort William, Calcutta. But though Lassar 
continued his work upon it until the end, the version has been known to 
the world as Marshman s, the Rev. John Marshman, an English Baptist 
missionary, having been the ruling spirit in its production, 

and having given to it eleven or twelve years of unremitting 
hard labor. It is now antiquated, and has long since ceased to be 
printed. Copies are found in museums, collections of old Bibles, and 
in the older mission libraries of China ; but few of the present generation 
of missionaries have had the opportunity of seeing, much less of critic 
ally examining, a copy. I am indebted to my friend Dr. Blodget for 
the examination of one in manuscript, which, with five other early 
versions in parallel columns, was left as a legacy by Dr. Bridgmau. As 
the earliest Chinese Bible, it is an interesting study. It need hardly be 
said that compared with the Bibles in current use to-day the style is crude, 
often painfully so. Its infelicities are due to too great an effort after 
literalism, to narrowness of range in the translator s vocabulary, unfarnil- 
iarity with important principles of grammatical structure, to the lack of 
Chinese terms, at that early date, to express Biblical and Christian ideas, 
and, in general, to the want of Sniahed scholarship on tho part of tho 

May 8th.] REV. j. WHERRY. 49 

Chinese assistants. Still, it is surprising how much of the actual contents 
of the book is good current Chinese, and what a large proportion of it 
appears, ipsissimis verlis, in subsequent translations. Indeed, the verbal 
coincidences between this version and Morrison s, at least in the New- 
Testament, are so -numerous and striking as to compel the assumption of a 
common basis, which was no doubt the manuscript in the British Museum, 
of which I will speak below. Its main defects being gram 
matical or structural, rather than in choice of words though Its defects - 
the range of these, as above stated, is narrow it would be possible for a 
competent scholar, with but little labor in erasing and in inversion of 
clauses, with here and there new connectives, to make of it a version 
that could still be read with profit. 

In it the word j$ is used for GOD, jjjf ; jg, f or the SPIRIT of GOD as 
in Genesis, ^ fa for Holy Spirit, fl for grace, & for law, & % g| f or 
justification, and $| for baptism. 

On the other hand we have the familiar terms, $g for Scripture, 
Jt for faith, & for love, ^ for righteousness, j$ for sin, f$ A for sinner, 
SiJf p for prayer, and g for glory. In the transliteration of proper 
names, some appear in familiar forms, -as those of JESUS, Abraham, Mary ; 
while many more are strange, as gg ^ ^ for Adam, ^ g $J for Joseph, 
1U S Jf for Israel, Jg Jt If %J for Gabriel. 

A second complete version of the Scriptures was in preparation 
simultaneously with Marshman s, and appeared two years later. It is 
known as Morrison s, though not wholly his work. Robert Morrison will 
ever be remembered as the first Protestant missionary who lived in 
China. But though he attained this coveted privilege, it was under such 
conditions in the service of the East India Company as to give him little 
or no opportunity to preach, and therefore all the more Morrison s and 
earnestly did he set himself to the task which he had Milne fl - 
conceived and made preparation for before leaving England, of giving 
the Bible to the Chinese in their own language. There had been in the 
British Museum for some years a Chinese manuscript of unknown 
authorship, but no doubt Catholic, containing a harmony of the Gospels, 
the Acts of the Apostles, and all the epistles of St. Paul, except 
Hebrews if this be an exception. This manuscript, Morrison, partly 
by his own hand, and partly by the assistance of a Chinese scribe, 
whom he had found in London, had copied, and this he made the basis of 
his version. Having already a little knowledge of Chinese, he began work 
on it almost immediately on his arrival at Canton in 1807. Six years 
later, in 1813, Rev. W. Milne, missionary to the Chinese at Malacca, 
proffered his assistance, which was accepted. Milne s work, though 
original, that is, on fresh portions of Scripture, was revised by Morrison, 
who boro the responsibility of the final text. The whole Bible was 
finished in 1822 and printed the next year; Milne, one of the authors, nofe 
living to see it through the press. The completion of this Bible excited 
great interest in England. A copy was presented to King George IV, 
who accepted it with royal favor, and by it a now impulse was given to 
the desire to evangelize China. 


A comparison of it with Marshman s does not reveal a great 
superiority, though it was more generally adopted and more widely 
circulated. In the New Testament portion there is, as has been said, 
very much that is common, the result no doubt of a common basis, 
though I have not seen the fact thus accounted for. Here the virtues 
.and faults of the one are very similar to the virtues and faults of the 
other, often identical. Where they differ, the advantage may be generally 
with Morrison, who, as a resident of China, could command native 
scholarship of a higher order ; but this is by no means universally the 
rule. In general, given one of the versions, there does not seem to have 
"been sufficient reason for the production of the other, though both will 
ever remain noble monuments to the piety and learning of their authors. 

Morrison also used jt$ for GOD and ii & for HOLY SPIRIT, and, in 
general, all the other nomenclature of Marshman. He, however, adopted 
H for SPIRIT and Jfe for baptism. In the transliteration of names the 
two versions are almost identical, though there are a few unaccountable 
differences. As the choice between the two versions was not very 
obvious, the Baptists continued for many years to print and circulate 
Marshman s, while other denominations accepted Morrison s. 

In the succeeding decade several new missionaries of talents and liter 
ary taste arrived in China, who, with better facilities for learning the 
language than their predecessors had had largely indeed their legacy 
soon became familiar enough with Chinese to see that neither Marshman s 
nor Morrison s version of the Scriptures was in a form to be attractive 
to cultivated literary men. A new version was therefore undertaken, in 
which the Rev. W. H. Medhurst of the London Mission, the Rev. C. 
GuuKiid Gutzlaff of the Berlin Mission, and the Rev. E. C. Bridg- 
Bridgman. WfiU o f the A. B. C. F. M., took part. Mr. J. R. Morrison 
had been expected to join the others, but the death of his father, Dr. 
Morrison, and his succession as interpreter to the East India Company, 
prevented this, though his unusual attainments in Chinese were availed 
of in the way of criticism and polish. The New Testament was finished 
in 1835, and editions printed at Singapore, Serampore and Batavia. 
The Old Testament, which was mainly the work of Medhurst and 
Gutzlaff, especially the latter, appeared several years later. 

This version is interesting chiefly as marking a transition in style 
and nomenclature between an old order and a new. Far from perfect, 
and of a brief day, it was the stepping stone to what has proved largely 
acceptable and permanent. As the work was but the apprenticeship, 
so to speak, of the authors, who will all be remembered as. great Bible 
translators, it is not necessary to criticise it, especially as it never be 
came prominent. 

In the year 1843 the island of Hongkong was ceded to England, 
and five new porta in China were opened to foreign trade. On the 
22nd of August of that year, Messrs. Dyer, Hobson, Legge, Medhurst, 
Milne, arid A. and J. Stronach of the London Mission, Messrs. Bridgman 
and Ball of the A. B. C. F. M., Messrs. Dean and Roberts of the 
American Baptist Mission, and Mr. Brown of the Morrison Educational 

May 8th.] REV. J. WHERRY. 51 

Society, met at Hongkong to inaugurate a new version o the Scriptures 
which should be "better adapted for general circulation than any 
hitherto published." The basis of the New Testament part, it waa 
decided, should be the latest version, which they united in acknowledging 
superior to all previous versions, but which still required a thorough 
revision, while the New Testament, as thus revised, was to be the model 
for the Old Testament which was to follow. Four other meetings were, 
held within a week, and another on the 4th of September. At the second 
meeting, in addition to the above-mentioned persons, Messrs. Shuck and 
McGowan of the American Baptist Mission were also present. On .the 
28th they were joined by Walter C. Lowrie of the American Presbyterian; 
Mission, one whose talents and rapid acquisitions in the Chinese written, 
language would undoubtedly have given him a high place even among 
these distinguished names if his life had not been cut short at the hands 
of pirates. 

At these meetings the textus receptus was chosen as the basis of the 
proposed version, and among other things it was resolved that : Any 
translation of the sacred Scriptures into Chinese, issued with the appro-* 
bation of the body of Protestant missionaries, be in exact conformity to 
the Hebrew and Greek originals in sense, and so far as the idiom of the, 
Chinese language will allow, in style and manner also ; that no periphrasis 
be substituted for the possessive pronoun when used in con- ^^ Q Dele te , 
nection with the name of GOD ; that interchange of noun and Version, 
pronoun be allowed when deemed necessary by the translators, and that 
euphemisms in the originals be rendered by corresponding euphemisrna 
in Chinese. 

It was also agreed that the whole body of Protestant missionaries 
should form a General Committee, to be divided into local committees o 
stations, each to consist of all the missionaries at that station. Amongst 
these local committees the work was to be subdivided, and transcripts 
of the revisions of each were to be sent to all the others for revision, to 
be returned, however, to the original revisers. When the whole of the 
New Testament had thus been revised, a general meeting of delegates, 
chosen from the most experienced of these station revisers, was to be 
called to judge finally of the revision, which was then to be submitted to 
the Bible Societies of Great Britain and America for their acceptance. 

As no word to translate "baptize" could be found satisfactory ta 
all parties, it was agreed that when the version should be completed, 
separate editions might be published with different terms for this word. 
The word for GOD was left an open question for the time, to be settled by 
the general committee. 

Nearly four years were spent in preparatory work by the local com 
mittees. In the meantime the Baptist missionaries had withdrawn from 
the Union. The committee of delegates, as originally provided for, then 
met at the house of Dr. Medhurst, at Shanghai, in June, 1847. These 
vrere the Rt. Rev. Bishop Boone, the Rev. Dr. Medhurst, the Rev. Dr. 
Bridgman, the Rev. J. Stronach and the Rev. Dr. Milne. During the 
next three years, with bat a short intermission during the first summer, 


almost daily meetings from 10.30 a.m. till 2.30 p.m. took place at Dr. 
Medhurst s house, at which the work of the local committees was gone over 
verse by verse, each delegate possessing the right to propose any changes 
that he, or his Chinese assistant, also present, might think desirable. 

This is the origin and history of what is now known as the delegates 
version of the New Testament. Though called by its authors a revision, 
and though adopting whatever was suited to its purpose in previous 
translations, yet it is essentially a new version. As might be expected 
from the scholarship of the chief revisers, the great advantages they 
enjoyed in the way of native assistance, and the very great pains they 
took with their work, it was a marked advance over all previous efforts. 

As a literary work ifc has altogether a new flavor. It is compara 
tively free from harsh and forced constructions. A more elegant, and, in 
general, more accurate and appropriate terminology has been employed. 
The transliteration of names has been simplified and improved. Of course 
much remains, and in any literal translation will remain, that is not in 
perfect accordance with present Chinese taste. The genius of Greek and 
of Chinese composition differ too essentially to be harmonized except by 
recasting, not only grammatical structure, but in many cases shades of 
thought, which is not to be conceded in dealing with the Word of GOD. 
We must wait until the national taste is modified by the assimilation of 
Scriptural and Christian truths and words, before we can hope that any 
possible translation will prove wholly acceptable to the polished literates 
of China. In the meantime this version will not only remain a monument 
to the erudition of its authors, but be read with pleasure and profit by 
the spiritually minded, even of ripe scholars. It may be added, too, thafc 
it will give character to every subsequent version of the New Testaments 
that may be attempted in the higher literary styles of Chinese. 

Adverse ^ke mos t frequent adverse criticism of it is not against ita 

criticism, literary polish, but that it does not sufficiently conform to the 
rule laid down at ita inception, of strict adherence to the sense of the 
original always, and to the form as far as possible : that important 
shades of the truth have been sacrificed too freely to mere rhetoric ; that 
too often combinations of characters are found more suggestive of the 
doctrines of the sages than of the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, 
now for the first time revealed: that on the one hand, to ovea the 
experienced spiritual reader, the diamonds are too much eclipsed by their 
settings, while on the other the inexperienced unspiritual reader, deceived 
by the familiarity of the rhythm, is liable to mistake CHRIST for Confucius, 
to his peril. While not denying that there may be some foundation for 
this criticism, I cannot but think that it has been pushed in some 
quarters much farther than the facts will warrant. 

The choice of the best terms for GOD and the HOLT SPIRIT, which 
had been held in abeyance, started a most elaborate and heated discus 
sion, which still after forty years has scarcely died out. The views off 
Medhurst and Gntzlaff prevailed, and Ufa was replaced by ^, aiid IS 31 
by SS W. This New Testament at once took a leading position, and many 
tens of thousands of copies have boon printed and sold. 

May 8th.] REV. j. WHEBRY. 53 

As originally" proposed, the revision, or rather the re- translation, of 
the Old Testament began on the model of the New. But it had proceeded 
but a little way to the middle of Exodus before it became manifest that 
the divergence of views which had already arisen between the liberalists 
and the literalists was growing too pronounced to permit them longer to 
continue the union. Accordingly Dr. Bridgman withdrew, and associating 
with himself Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Culbertson of the American Presbyterian 
Mission, began a new version of the whole Bible that would more nearly 
embody their views. Messrs. Medhurst, Stronach and Milne completed the 
Old Testament on nearly the same lines as those on which it had been 
begun. This was finished and printed in 1 853. Bridgman and Culbert- 
son s new version appeared nine years afterwards, in 1862. Bridgmau 
So far as the New Testament is concerned, this latter version Cuibertaon. 
made free use of the common labors of the delegates version. Much of it 
therefore differs from that but slightly. It is in the epistles of the New 
and the poetical and prophetical books of the Old Testament especially 
that a marked difference in spirit and style appears. While the Bridgman 
and Culbertson version aims, like its rival, at elegance of language, as far 
as attainable under its principles, it quite subordinates this to strict 
fidelity, even to the minutest shades of the thought of the original. 
The result is often a degree of obscurity to one who is unfamiliar with 
Biblical and Christian literature, and a degree of harshness to one whose 
taste has been formed on Wen-cliang models. On the other hand, the 
earnest reader who has become acquainted with its peculiar phraseology 
often obtains a much deeper insight into the truth in its original 
settings, and is less likely to mistake divine teaching for common-place 
Chinese morality, than in reading some of the freer versions. Whether 
sharpness and definiteness in the reproduction of the original is a 
sufficient compensation for lack of smoothness and agreeableness of style, 
is a question I will leave to my readers to decide. Certainly this Bible 
is a valuable aid to the theological student or the preacher who wishes 
to get at the exact mind of the SPIRIT, and is a safer basis on which to 
build a textual discourse than the previous translations. The orfly 
other criticism I will make upon it is that, in some instances at least, 
where the original is ambiguous, the desire to be literal has been 
carried too far, and the ambiguity is perpetuated in the translation. As 
a rule, one of two or more senses is the correct one, and it is the business 
of the translator, not of the reader who seldom has the requisite learn 
ing or appliances to settle which this is. In cases difficult to decide, 
alternate marginal readings will remedy the presumption of private 
Interpretation. This Bible retains W for God, as in Marshman s, Morri 
son s and the older versions, but adopts i& H for HOLT SPIRIT. Other 
wise the terminology, so far as peculiarly Biblical, differs but little from 
that of Medhurst s. 

In Dr. Marshman s translation, as we have already stated, " baptize" 
was translated by IP instead of $;, as in the other versions. For this 
reason, and because it was made by one of their own missionaries, it 
long continued to be printed and circulated by all Baptist Missions. By 


contrast, however, with the scholarly versions, which had superseded 
Morrison s in other missions, its imperfections became more and more 
apparent. Hence Rev. J. Goddard of the American Baptist Mission, 
who arrived at Bangkok in 1839 and in China in 1848, was chosen to 
undertake its revision. He lived to see the New Testament finished and 
published in 1853, but, dying the next year, left the Old Testament 
scarcely begun. His New Testament was subsequently carefully revised 
Goddard and by Dr. E. C. Lord, American Baptist Missionary at Ningpo. 
revision. A handsome edition of it, with references by Rev. H. Jenkins, 
was printed at Shanghai in 1883. This version, though little used or 
known outside of Baptist circles, is in many respects admirable. Though, 
like all later ones, indebted to its predecessors for much of its substance 
and form, it yet shows great independence in deciding the thought to be 
expressed, and selecting the language for its expression. Everything ia 
rejected or remodelled which does not harmonize with the translator s 
plan. In general, it adheres more closely to the grammatical form of the 
original than the delegates and Medhurst s versions, and yet succeeds in 
a manner, often remarkably happy, in obtaining an easy and agreeable 
flow in polished Chinese. Should a new version of the Scriptures in 
higher Wen-li be undertaken, Dr. Groddard s translation will be an indis 
pensable help. In it jfifi is used for GOD, as in Marshman s, but 5 SI 
supplants J JR for HOLT SPIRIT. 

Besides assisting in the preparation of the delegates New Testament 

Gntziars an< ^ ^ r Medhurst s Old Testament, Dr. Gutzlaff prepared a 

version, version of the Scriptures of his own, which, though now 

almost forgotten, bid fair at one time to become the most successful of 

all, it having been adopted and printed by the T ai-p ing rebels, who so 

nearly secured the control of the empire. In phraseology it varies largely 

from each of the versions mentioned above, sometimes for the better, 

perhaps ; but on the whole the judgment of the missionary community 

has been against it, and its publication has long been discontinued. 

Versions of the New Testament have also been made by Dr. Dean, 
American Baptist missionary to the Chinese at Bangkok, Siam, and by 
Mr. Hudson, a Baptist missionary at Ningpo, bat as I have not seen 
them I can offer no criticisms upon them. 

A version of the New Testament was also made by M. Goury for 
the use of the Greek Church in Peking. It is based on Protestant 
versions, but is of no great excellence, and its circulation and use are 
almost nil. A new edition of the Gospels in this version, with brief com 
ments by M. Flavian, was printed a few years ago at the A. B. C. F. M. 
Press in Peking. 

Colloquial Versions in colloquial dialects, especially of the New 

versions. Testament and Psalms, are numerous, some being printed ia 
Chinese character and some in Roman letters. In the early stages of 
the Christianization of China these will have an important place. Indeed, 
they are almost a necessity to the unlearned, especially womoii, who, 
coming into the Church in middle life, have a desire to learii to read 

May 8th.] REV. j. WHERRY. 55 

the Word of GOD. The consideration of these, however, is* outside of the 
scope of this paper. 

With Mandarin translations the case is very different. Not only 
is ihe field covered by those who speak one form or other of this dialect 
immense, hut, outside of this field, written Mandarin is quite current aa 
a vehicle for certain kinds of literature. Hence in universality of use it 
is only surpassed by Wen-li, while it has the decided advantage over at 
least the higher styles of Wen-li in intelligibility, addressing Mandarin 
itself, as it does, not only to the eye but to the ear, so that Ver8ion8 - 
understanding may as often come by hearing as by sight. It also puts 
at once the facts and doctrines of our holy religion into the language > 
daily life, and thus facilitates the repetition of the Gospel story by 
unlearned Christians. 

The earliest attempt to put the New Testament into Mandarin was 
made under the direction of Messrs. Medhnrst and Stronach at Shanghai 
about the year 1854. It was but little more than an un- Medhur8t and 
skillful rendering of the delegates version into the Nan- Stronach. 
king dialect by a youthful native. The style, though idiomatic, is by 
no means of a high order; is well interspersed with localisms, and ia 
injured by undignified and unworthy expressions, such as 1?, to kill, as 
a sign of the superlative. A good many copies have been put into 
circulation, but it cannot be called a great success. 

When, after the war of England and France against China in 1860, 
Peking was opened to the residence of foreign missionaries, it was soon 
occupied by representatives of the leading societies, both of England 
and America. These, feeling the need of a Mandarin version for their 
own use, and believing that a version carefully prepared at Peking would 
be generally acceptable in all the Mandarin-speaking provinces which, 
roughly speaking, comprise two-thirds of the population of China a 
Committee was formed of Messrs. Burdon (now Bishop of Victoria) of the 
Church of England Mission, Dr. Blodget of the A. B. C. F. M., Dr. 
Edkins of the London Mission, Dr. Martin (now president of the Peking 
College) of the American Presbyterian Mission, and Mr. (now Bishop) 
Schereschewsky of the American Episcopal Mission, to prepare such a 
version. The various books of the New Testament were portioned out 
and assigned to individuals for the first drafts. These, when finished, 
were circulated among the other members for criticisms and emendations, 
and then, sent with the drafts to the author, were, so far as they com 
mended themselves to his judgment, used in the formation of Pe ki ng 
new drafts. These new drafts, with the notes which the first version, 
drafts had called forth, were again circulated amongst the other members 
of the committee. Thus the preliminary work was largely done by the 
members separately, with the help of their Chinese scribes. The com 
mittee then met to discuss and determine finally upon this preparatory 
labour. Verse by verse, almost word by word, it was submitted to the 
searching criticism of the Committee, assisted by competent native 
scholars, a majority of the Committee deciding finally in all cases of 


disagreement. Eight years were thus passed before the whole was ready 
for the press. 

It would have" been strange if a version, so carefully prepared by men 
so competent, should not have met with a degree of approval by mission 
aries and natives in Mandarin-speaking fields. But even the Committee, 

conscious as they were of the painstaking of their labours, 

Its success. * , , 

could not have anticipated a success so immediate, so wide, 
and so permanent as fell to the lot of their work. Almost immediately 
in one half of the empire the new Mandarin Testament supplanted the 
We>i~li in the family, the class-room, the street chapel and the Church 
services of the Sabbath, and has bold its place securely ever since. The 
Old Testament soon followed, though this, unlike tbe New Testament, 
was substantially the work of one member of the Committee, Dr. Sche- 
reschewsky, who by education and taste was specially fitted for it. In 
this version ^ , the term finally adopted by the Roman Catholics, was 
used for God, though many editions with other terms have since been 

The success of this version is due partly to its inherent excellence 
as a new and independent rendering of the Bible into Chinese, and partly 
to the fact that it is in the familiar speech of the people to whom it was 
given. It was, though to a less degree, to the unlearned of North 
China what the- Bibles of Wycliffo and Luther were to tbe English and 
Germans. The style is vigorous, torse, clear. It is free, or nearly so, 
from localisms, and is sufficiently removed from common-place to be 
dignified and reverent without being pedantic. Whilst not perfect as 
a translation, and not what the final Mandarin Bible will be when the 
assimilation of Christianity by the people has perfected the dialect of 
the kingdom, it yet fairly meets not evades the difficulties of the 
original, and for the most part gives the sense as closely as the present 
intelligence of the Church can without the use of periphrasis com 
prehend. A speedy call for new editions of the New Testament afforded 
opportunities for slight revisions. The Old Testament has also been 
revised by Bishop Schereschewsky, and a new edition, considerably 
improved, will no doubt soon appear. Recently a modified form of this 
New Testament, with emendations and certain other changes to adapt it 
to use in central China, has been prepared by Dr. Griffith John of the 
London Mission at Hankow. 

The success of this Mandarin version has given rise within the last 
decade or more to the idea of an easy Wen-li version, which would com 
bine, so far as possible, the advantages of both styles. Very many of the 
people of North China, while using a form of Mandarin in their daily 
speech, are not accustomed to see it in print. Not only do they stumble at 
its unfamiliar particles and form, but at first sight it seems to them un 
dignified to use colloquial as the medium for expressing sacred and lofty 
truths. There are also others who, though not thorough scholars, yefc 
rank themselves in the literary class, to whom it is a matter of pride not 
to read Mandarin books, while still incapable of fully comprehending the 
higher styles of Wen-li, especially when concerned with matters with 

May 8th.] EEV. /, WHEEEY, 57 

which they are wholly unfamiliar. Again, on the border lands of the 
Mandarin-speaking provinces, and even further South, there is a multi 
tude of dialects which, not Mandarin, yet approach it closely Eapy Wen .n 
at many points. A simple Wen-li version, especially one in version, 
which double characters were freely used, could, by a slight change of 
particles and order of clauses, easily he read into any of these dialects by 
missionary or native preacher ; and possibly such a version, while meet 
ing present need in large areas unprovided with vernacular Scriptures, 
might serve as a connecting link between true Wen-li and colloquial, 
even better than a Mandarin version itself, to unify the language of 
China, which under the impetus of Christianity all hope will finally be 

For these and other reasons the members of the original Committee, 
who still all survive, have long had it in mind to render their version, 
as could be readily done without destroying its present grammatical 
structure, into an easy double-character Wen-li. The ill-health and 
departure from China of Bishop Schereschewsky, the change of residence 
and the assumption of onerous duties by Bishop Burdou, and other causes, 
delayed the carrying out of this scheme, which, however, so far as the 
New Testament is concerned, has at length been accomplished, while the 
Old Testament is well in hand. 

As the Peking Mandarin and this easy Wen-li versions run parallel, 
it is not necessary to offer a separate criticism of the latter. If the one 
is a clear and accurate expression in Chinese of the original Scripture, 
the other must be also. They are almost like the same Bible printed in 
two different alphabets, as is done in India to suit the tastes of different 
classes of readers. And it is evident, and this is a great advantage, that 
any emendations of the one, slight or extensive, will bo immediately 
applicable to the other. 

While this easy Wen-li version was in preparation, but before any 
part of it, except the Book of Psalms, had appeared in print, a work 
closely allied to it was begun on the New Testament and rapidly carried 
forward by Dr. John of Hankow. This, too, follows largely, though not 
wholly, or closely, the Peking Mandarin New Testament, borrowing 
freely from other current Wen-li versions, with not infrequent changes 
wholly new. The principal differences in the two are that in ^ G John s 
Dr. John s, besides emendations changing the thought, and cag y W en ~ 1 * 
an occasional substitution of words more current in Central China, the 
structure of sentences follows more largely the higher Wen-li usages, and 
single, rather than double characters, form the elements of expression > 
while in the other the grammatical structure and double-character words 
of the Mandarin are, as a rule, retained. Thus the former, like higher 
Wen-li, has the advantage of brevity, and appeals more largely to scholarly 
taste, while the latter is more easily rendered into any vernacular, and is 
more intelligible to those who hear it read aloud. There still remains so 
much similarity as to almost make them rivals. 

This suggests the question of one common easy Wen-li version which 
will receive the sanction cf all Protestant missionaries from all lauds, and 


which will be accepted and published by the three leading Societies 

which are doing so much to make the Bible a household book in China. 

How this is to be brought about it is not for the writer to say. But 

Desirability ifc sbould be the joint production in draft, criticism, and final 

of a union adoption of text, of a committee fully representative of the 

version, leading societies of Europe and America. Any production of 

individual men, or of a non-representative committee, however good ifc 

may be in itself, will not be likely to be accepted, and will only add 

another to the numerous private translations of the Scriptures. The 

new English translation of the Scriptures should be the basis, not the 

textus receptus, which is universally admitted to be full of errors which 

should not be perpetuated in China. 

Is the time ripe for it? The increasing numbers of spiritually 
educated men in the Church of Christ is hastening the formation of a 
definite Christian terminology and vocabulary. Many crude and imper 
fect expressions for Biblical thought have been discarded, as the thought 
itself has become more familiar and clear. What has taken place in the 
English language is now taking place in the Chinese. Happy theological 
expressions, becoming more and more current, remain as a permanent 
part of the language, while unhappy ones are discarded or amended until 
The time ia they, too, suit tho genius of tho regenerated and sanctified 
ripe for it. Chineso tongue. While this growth, which cannot bo forced, 
is taking place, a permanent, final version cannot bo expected, but a new 
version may gather up and preserve what has already been attained. 
Finally, the translators of the new version, if one be made, should be 
perfectly free to use in their own way and to any extent all the existing 
material that will further their purpose of giving tho pure Word . 
GOD in the most acceptable form to this most needy people. We can 
well afford to lay asido any prejudices that may stand in the way of an 
end so desirable* 


Mr, John Archibald (N. B. S., Hankow.) Mr. President and Mem 
bers of Conference, It is with much diffidence I venture to address you. 
Not only are there so many here who are held in high reputation 
amongst us, before whom it is trying to speak, but I also feel that 
whoever addresses you should do so under a deep sense of the serious and 
far-reaching responsibility which doing so involves. 

I wish to point out that there is a factor in this question of how to 
secure a standard union version for China, which we must on no account 
ignore, and that is, the action which the three Bible societies at work in 
the China field may likely take with regard to it. It is obvious that 
Bible societies unless these three will mutually agree to support the about- 
muBt unite, to-be-authorised one, and to discountenance all others, other 
versions will still bo demanded, and other versions will continue to 
eirculate, to the confusion of the scheme. Under these circumstances, you 
must be prepared with very strong arguments to induce these societies to 
unite, and many more, stronger ones still, to keep them united. Now, 
what action other societies may take in the matter I cannot tell you, but 
I can tell you how our society is at present advised, and what the advice 
is which it will follow, unless most potent arguments to the contrary can 
be placed before it by this Conference. 

This advice is contained in a report to our directors by one of its 
Secretaries, Mr. Slowan, of which I have here a copy. Many of you are 
aware how he was senfc out a year and a half ago to enquire into the 
various problems Bible work in China presents, and how he visited all 
the leading mission stations from Canton to Peking, seeking light on this 
and other questions. In Section 46 of this report he says : " Amid 
conflicting statements it is clear that no scholar or mission is perfectly 
satisfied with any of the existing versions. There is a general desire 

for a union version, bat the impression prevails that the time ,. 

t , v. mi , , Time not come 

lor it has not yet come. There is not yet entire agreement for union 

on the term question. Nor are scholars at one in the use of version. 
the language itself. Native scholarship must have timo to ripen. It is 
impossible for any foreigner to translate into absolutely pure and 
idiomatic Chinese. The number of versions is not a disadvantage but 
a preparation for union. In the meantime it may be better to wait 
rather than make a premature effort for union, which must ultimately 
come out of the heart of China itself. The subject will doubtless have 
attention at the Missionary Conference to be held in Shanghai in 
May, 1890." 

You will note, then,, that according to Mr. Slowan the number of 
present versions 13 not a disadvantage ; and that he thinks the time for 
union has not come. He gives as his reasons the present non-agreement 
of missionaries in general as to terminology, and of our scholars in , 
particular as to their usage of the language, which means that they are 
not in harmony with regard to many other things besides terms ; and 
points out the desirability of giving native scholarship time to ripen. Of 
course he may be mistaken, but unless this Conference can show that he 
is, I think our Society will not join in adding yet another version to the 
number of those already existing. 

Personally, I believe a union version ia not only not feasible at 
present, but also not desirable. One of the chief glories of union version 
the past decade has been the deeper interest taken in Scripture undesirable, 
translation. Faithful men have been doing much valuable work in this 

DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

department, and tbo church of China 13 all the richer for it; and we 
trust the work of improving will go on till perfection ia reached. Had, 
however, Morrison, Grutzlaff, the delegates, or any other been able to 
stereotype their works as union, or authorised versions, the result would 
have been to block further effort in this direction ; and why should we do 
this for those who follow us ? 

Tf a union version could bo made, the plan suggested by tho able 
writer of the paper is no doubt the simplest and best. He bids us take 
some present version as a basis, and import into it all tho good points of 
all the others. But what version shall wo tako for our basis ? Tho 
delegates? Half of us have never recognised it. Tho Bridgman and 
Culbertson ? Tho other half of us have never recognised it. Any of tho 
newer ones ? Many of us have not made up our minds about them. If, 
then, we cannot agree as to tho foundation, I thiuk it is no use talking 
about the superstructure. As to tho plan itself, allow me to tell a little 
story. Once upon a time a Christian minister iu his wanderings lighted 
upon a village where there was no place of worship. He was much, 
distressed to find a community living in heathen darkness, so he collected 
funds and built a chapel. Afterwards a brother of a different denomina 
tion came along, and feeling sorry that tho people should bo deprived of 
the benefit of his wa^ of presenting the truth, he also collected funds and 
built another. But other brethren came, and reasoning in tho same way 
built more churches and chapels till all denominations wore represented 
in the village, now grown a goodly town. At last came a Plymouth 
brother, and being much scandalised and grieved at the divisions of the 
Christians in tho place, ho started still another, a Union meeting place, 
with tho object of gathering into it tho good people out of all the 
churches, and, Mr. President, the union attempt was the poorest success 
of all ! 

Now, no one can object to tho improving of old versions, nor even to 
the preparation of new ones, if needed ; only don t let the latter bo 
advocated in tho delusive name of union. Brethren, it will be worth our 
while to watch well that word union throughout this Conference, and 
whenever wo find that uniformity is being demanded iu tho name of 
union, oppose it. It is an idea in which there is much essential falsehood. 
True union we have already, let us prize and cultivate it, but to force 
on uniform Scriptures, uniform terms, uniform methods and uniform all 
things else, before their time, tends not to draw us together, but to 
drive ns asunder. 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. (Editorial Secretary of tho B. and F. B. S.): 
Mr. Chairman and dear friends, I am here as the representative of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, chiefly to hear and learn your wants, 
and report to my Committee. It is not my duty to try in tho least to 
influence your decisions, or to place arguments of any kind before you, 
but Mr. Archibald s address obliges mo to speak when I should have 
preferred to bo silent. ,. , .... , 

Mr Archibald has tried to impress upon you tho impracticability of 
producing united versions of the Scriptures which you seem so much U> 
desire, and ho lays the blame on Mr. Slowaii and the National B.ble Socie 
ty of Scotland. I am iu a position to tell you that the blame iii this 

May 8th.] REV. w. WEIGHT, D.D. 61 

matter does not rest with either Mr. Slowan or the Society which he repre 
sents. My committee are exceedingly desirous that such versions should 
be undertaken, and that the version-strife of forty years be brought to a 
close. In 1887, on behalf of my Committee, I entered into correspond 
ence with the National Bible Society with a view to the production of a 
version of the Scriptures which should unite the highest intelligence and 
the best scholarship of the entire missionary body iu China, and in which 
the Bible Societies should all share. During the discussion of tha ques 
tion I had the honor of appearing before tho Committee of the National 
Bible Society of Scotland, and I found tho gentlemen on that Committee 
as anxious to produce a version which would be satisfactory to tho 
greatest number of missionaries in China as wero tho members of my own 
Committee. On this matter there rests not tho shadow of a doubt. It 
was their wish to give to China not a one-man version, but the very 
best version that tho united scholarship of tho various missions could 


I do not believe in tho impracticability of this undertaking. Tha 
difficulty is not at home, but here. I think with Bishop 
Burdou, that the preparation of such "a version for the 
whole of China would be one of the best results that could 
arise from this Conference." 

Nor do I believe in tho impossibility in China. I am told that a 
committee of China missionaries could not agreo to work on 
such a version. I do not believe that tho gentlemen whom I ^poseibTc 81011 
have met iu China are wanting in tho Christian courtesy and 
grace of forbearance necessary to successful co-operation in this great 
work, especially as it is for the good of the Chinese people, whose salvation 
they seek. 

I speak not to influence your decision, but to < remove misapprehen 
sion. At the same time I am conscious of tho momentous Momculou8 
importance of tho decision at which you are about to arrive, importance 
Tho best of all books should be given to the people in the 
very best form. Tho highest intelligence and the maturest learning 
should be devoted to this work. This you will not grudge as it is a 
question of enabling the Chinese people to hear God speaking to them 
in the simplicity of their own mother tongue. When it 19 a question 
of the advancement of tho Redeemer s Kingdom I am sure you will not 
permit any petty or personal question to stand between you and these 
people whom you love. I trust that the decision of this Conference will 
not only express the wants of the people of China, but bo ad unequivocal 
call to the Bible Societies, 





Bev. John C. Gibson (B. P. M. f Swatow.) 

L Review of the various Colloquial Versions. 

THE subject allotted to me 3 so wide that I must strictly select my 
topics and set limits to the discussion of them. It is also one on wluch 


here is still some difference of view among us, and as I 

of all 

ere s 

to give no offence to any who may differ from me so I will 
Lear without prejudice, remembering how solemn is our ^po-b.hty u 
choosing the methods to be adopted for putting the Word of Life withm 
the reach of all those to whom the Lord has sent us. 

Before entering into details I will state one view-which must 

be held firmly in discussing all questions of versions of the 

Two purposes Bib i e _that the nature of any version will be largely deter- 

"iSST mine d by the class of readers for whom it is intended. A 

translation may be for either of two purposes : 

Either (1) To give a suh 3 tantially faithful presentation of tl 
s of Scriptur! to non-Christiau readers, either with a direct 
their enlightenment and conversion, or for general apologeti 

To supply Christian readers with as faithfol a text as can 
given, to form the basis for a minute and loving study 
of egression, and the minuti, of distinctively Christian 

ar to me that the distinction between these two 

PP obLt has not been sufficiently adverted to Speak- 
inl broadly, one might say that the ^J**~ 
" tho one wnichthe earlier translators had view- The e 
was then no Christian church China, and the thought 
alwaya present to a translator s mind was, necessanly and rightly, 


May 8th.] REV. JOHN c. GIBSON 65 

how to make the great facts of Christianity and the broad outlines of 
Christian thought most accessible to a non-Christian reader. To disarm 
prejudice and bespeak a favorable hearing, it was necessary further to 
cultivate refinement of style, and the peculiarities of Christian teaching 
Were sometimes sacrificed to the requirements of elegant style or of famil 
iar idiom. It is to its happy meeting of these requirements that the 
" Delegates " version owes its wide popularity among us. Its style, from 
the Chinese point of view, is faultless ; its narrative portions are clear and 
pleasant to read ; the Psalms and the prophecies are appropriately render 
ed, if not accurately translated, iu the measured and elegantrhythm which 
lends itself naturally to the expression of poetical thought ; while the 
profounder discussions of the Epistles are rendered with a general faith 
fulness which yet retains a Chinese cast of expression, and avoids 
embarrassing an uninstructed reader with the subtler profundities of 
Christian theology and ethics. 

These are high merits, and have rendered this version a valuable 
instrument for the evangelization of China. In it we have a jt a merits. 
version which can stand on its own merits as a work of scholar 
ship, and one is not afraid to put it into the hands of the most prejudiced. 

But for the second purpose of a translation, these high excellencies 
assume a different aspect, and some of them become positive defects. 

On the one hand, the style of this version, though admirable for good 
scholars, is too high for even the more educated part of the 
membership of the church. On the other, its renderings, 
though faithful to the main lines of Christian teaching, are not so minutely 
exact as to lend themselves to detailed exegetical and expository treat 
ment in the hands of Christian students and preachers. 

These are grave defects, not reflecting any discredit on the original 
translators, who had a different object iu view, but grave enough to 
justify and explain the widespread feeling now arising that for the use of 
the Christian church a better translation is now required, one at onco 
more simple and more exact. 

It may be possible ultimately to construct a version so perfect as to 
serve both purposes ; but it may also be that, for a lonaf time New version. 

,i 11 ,< T- i , desired for 

to come, the old .Delegates version must continue to be t,iie church. 
used for the purposes for which it is so well fitted ; while a simpler and 
roore faithful, though perhaps less idiomatic version, may be found to 
minister better to the edification of the church. 

Should this latter version bo one iu Wen-li for the whole empire, 
or should there be one for each section in the local verna- Wen-U or 
cular ? Again, should vernacular versions be written in vernacu]ar * 
character or in Roman letter ? 

These are the questions, the discussion of which has been allotted to 
me. The utility of one version, in the best style of Wen>li, to represent 
Christianity to the non-Christian scholars of the whole empire, I take to 
be conceded on all hands. 

Is this enongh also for the whole Christian church in China, or are 
" colloquial versions " necessary besides ? 


Here let me say that the use of the word " colloquial " in this 

w connection is unhappy and misleading. It suggests a local 

"iSffifi. ynglar patois, confined to the uneducated, and hides the fact 

that the so-called " colloquials " are spoken by all classes alike. And tha 

parallel use of the word " dialects" confirms the mistake. 

When it is realized that these "dialects" are spoken by numbers 
varying from four to twelve millions in the coast dialects, and up to much 
lamer numbers in the various forms of the Mandarin, wo shall be better 
prepared to appreciate their importance We shall feel that if, out of 
regard to the underlying unity of all the forms of Chinese, we cannot call 
them distinct languages, neither can we call them colloquials 
"Vernacular" I prefer to use the word "vernacular, which avoids 
preferred. e ^ Qr ex treme, and has this advantage besides, that it con 
veniently marks the distinction between all the spoken forms of Chineso 
and the written language, or " language of books.-" 

I will therefore use the word " vernacular in place of colloquial 
in what follows. I am quite aware of the advantage I thus gam in 
argument, an advantage which, to some, may seem to lie in an unfair 
beting of the question. If it is once conceded that the discussion 
relates to the necessity or value of vernacular versions of Scripture, then 
amono- Christian men there is no room left for discussion. It is a settled 
principle with us that the Word of God must be given to all peoples i 

their vernacular. . . 

The "vernacular" is, in each, part of the empire, the universal 
language of all classes of the people, rich and poor, learned and un 
learned I have beard a Mandarin of high rank speaking in his native 
district the very same dialect, even to its broadest local inflections, as the 
most unlettered peasant in the district. 

" Colloquial," then, in the subject allotted to me, means, not a vulgar 
..conceal" patois, used only by the ignorant, or occasionally by 1 
not to"s ffar learned and refined in moments of condescension : 
language for all purposes and at all times, spoken habitually by all ranks 
and conditions of the people of one section of the empire 

It is Cantonese in the Central and the Western parts of the province 
of Canton, and the Swatow dialect in the North-eastern, It is Hakka ir 
parts of Canton, Fuhkien and Kiang-si. It is the Amoy dialec : 
Formosa and half the Fuhkien province, and the Foochow dialec in 
^e otter half. It is Mandarin in Peking and the North another 
Mandarin in Nankin and the neighboring provinces, and it is Mandarin 
still though of another strain, in the Western provinces It is the 
Sh^ghai Dialect in Shanghai, the Ningpo in Ningpo and t e ne; gh 
borhood, and the Hainanese in Hainan. But each o these is a t u 
"vernacular "-a dialect if you will-almost a language, bat not a 
"^Ir and not a "patois." Undet -each of these there are 
"colloquial" ami vulgar forms, to bo avoided m refined speech. There 
are also minor variations, which may fitly be described as patois, but 
throughout each great section of the empire the substantial unity of (to 
mother toiwjno of the people constitutes a true vernacular. 

May 8th.] BEV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 65 

When this is clearly seen, the conclusion is inevitable that the Bible 
must be translated into each of the vernaculars. Whatever be ^f n h ^j^ 
the -usefulness of a first-class Wen-li version, China cannot be tongue. 
znade an exception to the universal rule that everywhere men must have 
the Word of God given to them in their mother tongue. 

The argument can be carried one step further, and still carry uni 
versal agreement. In reality we are all agreed that the Scriptures must 
everywhere be translated into the vernacular, and the practice has been 
pursued by the Protestant missions in China, " semper, ubiq_ue et ab 
omnibus" always, everywhere, and by all. I suppose that where the 
Bible in Wen-li is used in churches it is never read only in the Wen-li 
text. The text may be read aloud from the printed page as it stands, 
but it is always translated on the spot into vernacular. The process may 
be called shwoli (It), as in Swatow and by some Hakkas, or Jciang (IS), as 
fry other Hakkas and in Amoy, but the essence of it is simply a transla 
tion into the vernacular, the translation being an extempore one, drawn 
from the printed text by the reader. Two elements, therefore, determine 
the quality of the resulting translation ; first, the quality of the Wen-li 
version from which it is made ; and, second, the ability and care of the 
reader who makes it. 

But we are all at one, natives and foreigners, in holding opinions vary 
it necessary everywhere to translate the Scriptures into ^& & \^S^ g 
vernaculars. Strangely enough, however, at this point dif 
ference of opinion arises, and it is this difference that calls for the present 

We fierce in offering the Christian people, when met for worship, 
a vernacular version. Some. of us say that this version should be care 
fully prepared beforehand and printed for permanent use, to be a KTT/JUO. 
etc aet, a possession forever for God s people. Let the vernacular version 
be made, in China as elsewhere, thoughtfully, with care and toil and 
prayer, with the best skill that can be had ; let it be uniform and perma 
nent, and let it lie open always to all the people. These conditions seem 
reasonable, and, to me, inevitable. 

But in China alone, of all countries that I know of, a new and strange 
method is put forward, and has hitherto been too generally practised. 
"No," say some brethren, " Let us not print the vernacular version. Let 
us set forth the Scriptures in another language the Wen-li ; let all who 
will and can, laboriously acquire the command of this elegant literary 
artifice, and then let each preacher, nay each reader, construct anew of his 
own abilities a vernacular version of his own for every occasion when 
the Bible is read." This is no caricature. It is simply the practice, which 
lias too long prevailed among us, stripped of its disguises. 

I am not at this moment arguing that it is wrong, but only pointing 
out that it is odd, and that tho burden of proof lies, not upon us who 
propose, in China as elsewhere, to print in the vernaculars, but upon those 
who make objection and propose to us this other and singular method. 

I repeat, because it is too often forgotten, that we are all at one in 
aiming at a vernacular version reaching the ears of. all the. Christian 


people. The natural and obvious course is to prepare it carefully and 
print it. Those who say, " No, let-us have-it-always as the-fresh outcome 
of a chapter of accidents," are they who should show cause for the 
acceptance of this method. 

I note with much pleasure that iew-are-now out-and-out advocates 
TWO misap- ^ ** ^ was pursued for long under two great misappre- 

1. An exaggerated idea of the -power -of th& book-language- and the 
poverty of the vernaculars. 

2. An exaggerated idea of the- number of those who can read in 

1. In the older descriptions of China, it was made to appear a land 
of unparalleled marvels. Language, customs, productions, all were 
described in exaggerated language. Some vague idea of the syllabic 
poverty of the language and of the use of tones was made the basis for 
such statements as the following, made fifty years ago by a naval surgeon, 
who describes himself as having had "singular opportunities for in 
vestigation : " 

"The oral tongue," he says, "is much more imperfect ; to such an 
extent that the Chinese will scarcely answer the most simple question 
unless it is expressed in writing. . . . This poverty of language obliges 
the Chinese to appear a very grave, reserved people, as they sit together 
frequently for a length of time without exchanging a word, and when 
they do speak, the sense is made out rather by observing the countenance 
and action of the limbs than by articulate sounds." ("The Fan-qui in 
China," Vol. I., pp. 172, 173.) 

This extraordinary conception of a spoken language little better 
than a gibberish, insufficient for the ordinary purposes of daily inter 
course, eked out by the universal use of a written medium, could not, of 
course, be accepted by missionaries living in the country, but there is no 
doubt that similar ideas have left behind them an undue depreciation of 
the spoken languages. 

2. Along with this went another mistake in the direction of an 
Number of enormous exaggeration of the practical use of the written. 

re chfna. m language. On this subject there is even yet some difference 
of opinion, but the tendency of careful investigation has been to lower 
greatly the general estimate of the practical use made of the written 
language, and of the number of persons who can really make use of it in 
reading and writing. 

As I have already had occasion to examine this subject elsewhere, I 
will make some use here of what I have already written : 

The state of education varies in different classes of society, in town 
and country, in Northern, Central and Southern China, and it is extremely 
difficult to make a general estimate. Different estimates may be mado 
also according to the view taken as to what constitutes any one a reader. 
Many know the forms and sounds of a few characters without being able 
to understand the meaning of a sentence in the simplest book. Trades 
men of ten learn a few characters used in their trade, so as to be able to read 

May 8th.] REV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 

and keep accounts, and yet could not read anything else. The true test is 
ability to understand a book written in a simple style upon any non 
technical subject. I limit the test to " non-technical " books, because any 
work on a special subject is likely to contain a number of unusual 
characters, each of which would be a stumbling-block even to a fairly 
good reader. 

Let us take the whole population at 300,000,000. From this total 
we must first deduct the number of children who are too young to read, 
say under ten years of age. Taking these at 25 per cent, of the popula 
tion, they would number 75,000,000 in all. Deducting these, we have 
225,000,000 as the adult population with which we have to deal. It may 
be taken as roughly correct that half of this number are men and half 
are women. The women, as a rule, do not read. There are exceptions, 
and there are occasionally women distinguished for scholarship. All 
cases will be covered if we estimate that of the 112,500,000 women, 1 per 
cent., or 1,125,000 in all, are able to read. Of the 112,500,000 men it is 
a liberal estimate to say that 10 per cent., or 11,250,000 in all, may be 
reckoned as readers. 

Putting this in tabular form we-have 

Total population 300,000,000 

Less children under -ten, say t 25 per cent. ... 75,000,000 

Total adult population 225,000,000 

Dividing by 2 this gives us 

Of 112,500,000 men, 10 per cent 11,250,000 

Of 112,500,000 women, 1 per cent 1,125,000 

Total number of readers 12,375,000 

But Dr. Martin of Peking states the case even more strongly. He 
says : 

" A shopkeeper may be able to write the numbers and keep accounts 
without being able to write anything else ; and a lad who Dr Martin s 
has attended school for several years will pronounce the estimate. 
characters of an ordinary book with faultless precision, yet not com 
prehend the meaning of a single sentence. Of those who can read 
understandingly (and nothing else ought to be called reading), the 
proportion is greater in towns than in rural districts. But striking an 
average, it does not, according to my observation, exceed one in twenty 
for the male sex, and one in ten thousand for the female." 

This estimate by Dr. Martin reduces the number of readers to 
5,737,000, or under six millions, and I am not prepared to say that it is 
too low. 

Since publishing my estimate I have received many communications 
from different parts of China, expressing concurrence in it. confirmed by 
I have before me a list of twenty names, chiefly of mission- many othera - 
aries, none:of whom have been less than ten years in China, who have 
expressed more or less strongly their agreement with me in my estimate 
of the number of readers, and also with the plea which I based on it for 


poshing the use of Roman vernacular. Besides these I have some six 
other estimates agreeing with mine or falling below it ; and at the lasl; 
General Conference three esteemed brethren, no longer with us, gave 
voice to a plea on behalf of Roman vernacular. 

In view of all these testimonies, I believe I may take it, then, as 
shown by the careful inquiry and observation of many independent and 
competent judges, that not more than 10 percent, of the men and 1 per 
pent, of the women can read ; in other words, that there are less than 
twelve millions of readers in China. 

Contrast this with the percentage of readers in the United States, 
where I find that in 1880, in 21 Northern States, those able to read 
formed 95.5 per cent, of the entire population over ten years of age, 
leaving an illiteracy of only 4.5 per cent. 

In regard to China, I find, further, a general consensus that within, 
the Christian church the number of those who, being baptized as adults, 
afterwards learn to read and write in the native character, is not large., 
This is accomplished to a limited degree in exceptional cases, but, as a 
yule, the difficulty is too great to be overcome. 

There is also a universal feeling shown in many ways, that the Book 
Wertrii failed language, as hitherto used, has not met the case, and that 

to meet wants , . 

of Christians, something must be done to enable the Christian people to 
read. The methods proposed vary, but none now take their stand upon 
Wen-li versions and say that these are sufficient. Dr. Griffith John and 
Drs. Bnrdon and Blodget have published versions in what is called an 
easier Wcn-li; others propose that Mandarin written in character be more 
\videly used, while many believe that the use of Mandarin and the other 
principal vernaculars, each Romanized for its own section of the country, 
js the real solution. 

But there is now a frank and general, if not yet quite unanimous, 
recognition that a high-class Wen-li, such as we in the South have 
used hitherto, has failed, and will fail to reach the bulk of our Christian 
people. Dr. Blodget writes, "I fear lest in time past the effort has not 
been faithfully made to bring the written language to its most simple 
orms for our religions books." 

It is a great matter that this fact has become so generally recognized. 
Brethren in Mandarin-speaking regions, who are accustomed to use the 
" Mandarin colloquial " versions, are perhaps not sufficiently aware how 
absolutely we in the South have depended hitherto on the Wen-li versions. 
Extempore It is from them the extempore translations heard in our churches 
be deprecated, are made, and those who are not constantly hearing them read 
in this way cannot appreciate how poor, confused and inaccurate these 
translations often are. I am not speaking of persons who cannot read, but, 
of preachers, catechists, students and others. I doubt whether there is any 
missionary who could stand up and read at sight, from any part of the 
Wen-li Bible ad aperturam, a good translation into his vernacular. I 
think no one ought to undertake it. To give a good oral version in 
vernacular requires not only a good general knowledge of character and of 
the syntax and structure of the Book language, and a nice discrimination 

May 8th.] EEV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 6 

of the effect of the particles and their relation to the context, but also a 
ready command of good vernacular, and ability to give, not merely a bald 
or loose paraphrase, but an apt and idiomatic version, neither slipshod 
nor redundant, in sentences not too long to hold the hearer s attention, 
and not so short as to lose the thread of the meaning. It requires, too, a 
certain boldness and tact to know how to take firm hold of the character 
sentence as a whole, sometimes following its order, sometimes turning it 
end for end, sometimes bringing together characters widely separated 
in the book text, sometimes breaking up compact phrases of the text 
into separate clauses, so as to secure the life and freedom of the 

When it is remembered that all this has to be done in interpreting to 
men that Word of God which we have no right to add to, to take from, 
or to change, surely one may well say that no one should dare to 
attempt it extempore. Even natives who are fairly, good scholars, fail 
greatly in this most difficult task. Their translations are sometimes 
loose, sometimes inconsecutive, often stiff and obscure, frequently incor 
rect, and sometimes wholly meaningless. 

I have frequently noted such translations from the lips-of native 
preachers, and on consulting them afterwards found mistakes common 

SUCh as these : mistakes. 

1. Sentences uttered which could not be understood, because they 
belonged to the book-language and wera -unknown in vernacular. 

2. Sentences which, though good vernacular, were of a different 
meaning from the text in hand. 

3. Sentences in which all the several words belonged to the vernac-* 
tilar, but which, as spoken, contained no meaning at all, the worda 
having been arranged according to the order of the character text. 

Of these and others I could give instances, but to those not familiatt 
with the vernacular in question the point of the illustration would not be 

I have dwelt upon this point to show brethren who habitually use in 
public reading the Mandarin versions, how urgent for us in the Southern 
dialects is the need of something better than the Wen-li. 

At this point a question will arise in many minds and cause hesita 
tion about the unreserved use of vernacular versions. 

It maybe asked, "Is not the Wen-li a highly cultivated language/ 
able to adapt itself to any class of subjects, with a much ampler and more 
exact vocabulary than any of the hitherto unwritten vernaculars ? Is ifc 
not capable also of far more refinement of style ? Why abandon it for the 
comparatively coarser style and poorer vocabulary of the vernaculars ? " 

I grant at once all that can be said in praise of Wen-li as a vehicle 
for embodying and conveying Chinese thought. To a foreigner it ap 
pears at first to be stiff, and too much limited to the concrete. But one 
Las only to dip into such a book as the Tao-teh-king or the Nan-Jiwa to 
see how well it lends itself to subtle speculation. But it is quite a 
mistake to make the subtlety and range of the Wen-li a reason for ref us 
ing to use the vernaculars in versions of Scripture. 


Scripture, like every other book, must ultimately be apprehended by 

most of its readers, and by all -who only hear it read, in the form of a 

Wen-n not vernacular version. No one speaks Wen-li, and hardly any 

fangXe? one would understand it if it were spoken. We are all 

agreed, as already said, that our congregations must hear the Word in, 

vernacular. We do not preach to them in Wen-li, we do not even read 

the Bible to them in Wen-li, or if we do, we follow it at once with a 

vernacular version. There is not really among us any question as to the 

use or non-use of vernacular versions. The only question is, as already 

pointed out, shall our vernacular versions be printed or not ? 

If, then, any one considers the vernacular a comparatively imperfect 
Vernacular vehicle for Christian teaching, he is the more bound to insist 
Te bTJ?LS ld up on written and printed vernacular versions. This is no 
paradox. If a vernacular version is likely to be imperfect, so much the 
less can we suffer it to be made extempore by each reader. All the more 
ought it to be prepared with labor and care, and brought by revision and 
printing to the highest perfection possible. If there are reasons for 
fearing that a vernacular version may be imperfect, at least a printed one 
is least likely to be so. I claim, therefore, for vernacular versions the 
support especially of all those who consider the vernacular inferior to the 
Wen-li as a vehicle for Christian truth. 

If in reviewing the existing vernacular versions we find defects, that 
is no reason for condemning vernacular versions. On the contrary, we 
should reason, if there are defects in versions carefully prepared, revised 
and printed by trained missionaries with the aid of native scholars and 
every other help, how tenfold defective must be the extempore vernacular 
readings made from the Wen-li by preachers and teachers thrown on 
their own resources to meet the exigencies of the moment ! 

But is the vernacular in all respects inferior to the Wen-li ? As it 

Wen-li and stands it is generally inferior in subtlety and precision. But 

cornered! other qualities besides these go to make a good literary vehicle. 

TheTvernacular has the one fundamental requirement that it reaches the 

teart direct, without arresting on itself an undue intellectual effort. Its 

poverty is chiefly in the region of abstract ideas. In concrete terms, in 

oiames of objects, and in words of passion and of action it is often richer 

than the book-language. 

Again, the particles, filling the places in Wen-li composition of the 
conjunctions and prepositions of English grammar, contribute to the book- 
Janguage much of its flexibility and precision, and appear to give it a 
great advantage over tho vernaculars. But even here the latter are by 
no means so poor as might appear. Sometimes by the use of particles, 
either common to the book-language or independent of it, sometimes by 
niceties of construction and of position, the vernaculars are well supplied 
with the forms required for the articulation and discrimination of 
the parts of the sentence. Those who are accustomed to read from a 
Wen-li text, trying to construct as they go a vernacular version forcibly 
Conformed to the text before them, will no doubt often feel as if the 

May 8th.] KEV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 71 

vernacular were poor Indeed in comparison, because its forms cannot be 
crushed into tne Wen-li mould. The result is a compound which is 
neither Wen-li nor vernacular. But if the Wen-li be either laid aside or 
freely handled, and the meaning of the passage boldly expressed directly 
in vernacular forms, these will often be found to have an appropriateness 
and force of their own ; and the version so made may be found in no way 
inferior to the Wen-li text as a rendering of the original. 

Consider further, that most of the vernaculars are as yet in the main 
unwritten. They exist for the most part only on the lips of those who 
speak them, and of these many speak carelessly, in haste, without regard 
to balance of sentences or beauty of arrangement, and heedless even of 
accuracy or grammatical completeness. The elimination of these faults can 
only be achieved by the reduction of the language to writing. It is easy 
to discover that even among comparatively uneducated people, and still 
more among the commercial but not literary class, who have some educa 
tion but no pedantry, there are persons who seem to have a natural gift of 
language. There is a natural grace in their ordinary speech, and if we 
are happy enough to number one of these among our preachers we always 
find that from his first sentence he can hold an audience. It is a pleasure 
to listen, and it is a revelation of the possibilities of the vernacular. 

The spoken style of such men, reduced to writing, enriched and com 
pleted by combining the excellencies of many speakers, will produce by 
degrees a language far removed from careless vulgarity on the one hand, 
and on the other fairly comparable, even in richness of vocabulary, with 
the book-language, and for popular use far exceeding it in force. 

Add to this that, as a vernacular literature begins to grow, the 
thought and speech of the readers will be widened and raised ; and the 
technical and other terms at first lacking will bo speedily supplied by 
"borrowings from the book-language, and assimilated by the plastic power 
always inherent in a living language. 

The ultimate possibilities of the vernaculars, therefore, must not be 

judged from the so-called " colloquial " versions which we at present possess. 

Let us look at these as they now stand. They fall into two classes : 

1. Versions in " Character Colloquial." 

2. Versions in Romanized Vernacular. 

Of these I will give in tabular form at thend-of~this essay "a- more 
or less complete list.* 

I have been asked to furnish a review of these versions, but my 
review must be very brief and incomplete. 

I take first the Amoy vernacular version, which contains the whole 
of the Old and New Testaments. It exists only in Roman Amoy 
letter, the local scholars declaring it impossible to write their R mai zed. 
dialect in character. It was prepared by the co-operation of three mis 
sions,, one American and two English. I believe it is thoroughly vernacu 
lar throughout, easily read and easily understood, and it is in constant 
use by a large number of readers in the prefectures of Chang-chow and 

* See Appendix B. 


Chin-chew, and throughout the Island of Formosa. Its chief fault is its 
following too closely the Delegates version. The passage Heb. vii. 16 
gives a "signal proof of this, being rendered " not after a changeable law 
but after an unchangeable command;" the character ming (ift) of the 
Delegates version having been evidently rendered by a Chinese translator 
in its sense of command, as suggested by its antithesis to fah (&), a law, 
instead of in its sense " life," which is of course the true one. The snare 
is one which not one Chinese reader in a thousand could escape, and I 
note that the same mistake has been made in the Southern Mandarin 
character version. 

Again, the particle die (^) in the Wen-li is evidently the origin of a 
series of unfortunate renderings in the Amoy version. These have arisen 
from neglecting to notice the use of die (^) as a particle to mark an 
abstract noun. Hence, where an abstract noun, such as " wisdom," occurs, 
it has been altered into the concrete, " a wise man," with occasionally 
curious results ; as in Prov. ix. 1, where for " wisdom has builded her 
house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars," the sense given is, " when a 
wise man build&a house he hews out seven pillars," and so on. This also 
is a typical mistake into which most Chinese readers of the Wen-li 
would fall. 

Again, the Wen-li version is responsible for the phrase used through 
out the book of Jonah, " the resting-place of Jehovah s feet," instead of 
" the presence of Jehovah." Compare also the translation of Is. ii. 22, 
where sz-jen ($f A) has been misunderstood, and the rendering is, " This 
kind of people who breathe with their mouth, how can they help ? " 
which hardly even suggests the memorable text, " Cease ye from man, 
whose breath is in his nostrils." 

I note these blemishes as instructive proofs of the hurtful effect 
which a too close following of the Wen-li has had upon this version. 
Some of them are the result of .mistakes in translating character into 
vernacular, and if slips like these occur not unfrequently in a published 
version, what must be the defects of the oral versions read at sight from 
the character text ! 

But it would be doing a gross wrong if I were to suggest that these 
specimens give a just idea of the quality of this version as a whole. la 
the New Testament, at least, it is as good a version, generally speaking, 
as the Delegates , of which it is a close reproduction, and it has been of 
the greatest service in building up the native church wherever the Amoy 
dialect is spoken. Its New Testament is now under revision, and this 
faulty adherence to the Delegates version will not, I believe, reappear in 
its revised form. 

It is unique as the only complete version we possess in any of the 
Southern dialects, and it is the only complete version in Roman letter in 
the empire. May it be the forerunner of others till each of the main 
vernaculars shall have its own. 

The only other vernacular containing a complete Bible, so far as I 
Mandarin. kn w, is the Mandarin, and in the presence of so many Man 
darin speakers I will not presume to remark upon the various 

May 8th.] KEV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 73 

Mandarin editions. I will only note that in Heb. vii. 16, the Southern 
Mandarin falls into the same error as the Amoy version iu translating 
ming (ift), "life," by ming-ling (tff <$), "a command." The only com- 
plete Mandarin version of the Bible, and the one most widely used, is one 
of which the Old Testament was translated by Bishop Schereschewsky in 
1866 and subsequent years ; and the New Testament by a Committee, 
meeting at Peking during the years 1864-1872. This translation claims 
to be an original version, not following a Wen-li text, but drawn direct 
from the original. Its Mandarin style and general faithfulness have been 
highly praised, and while I can offer no opinion on the former point, on 
the latter I believe this praise is well deserved. It is probably on the 
whole the most valuable vernacular version we possess. 

An edition of this New Testament, transliterated into Roman letter, 
has recently appeared. It was printed in 1889 by the Rev. W. Cooper, 
assisted by other members of the China Inland Mission, at the request of 
Mr. Hudson Taylor. It is in a clear type, and forms a handsome and 
convenient volume. 

An interesting vernacular version, and one that has found many 
readers, is that in the Ningpo dialect in Roman letter. It was 
published in complete form as early as 1868, and was after- 
wards revised and reprinted in 1887. Both editions are printed in a 
convenient form, and references are added. This translation was made 
by Mr. Hudson Taylor along with Mr. Gough of the Church Missionary 

In the Foochow dialect the whole New Testament in character was 
published in 1863, and the latest revised version in 1886. p ochow 
The Gospels of Mark and John have been transliterated and char *cter. 
printed in Roman letter. Other portions are likely to follow^ the trans 
literation being now completed in manuscript for the whole New 

The character editions of the Foochow version are chiefly remarkable 
to an outsider for the extraordinary freedom with which characters are 
used to represent sounds, without any regard to their real meaning, and 
that, often, without any indication of this phonetic use. For example wu 
(), to attend to, is used for yiu (^), to have ; li (^), a pear-tree, for 
lai (2fc), to come; and so on. Again, characters are used to represent 
local words- for which, perhaps, no characters can be found, and in senses 
which do not belong to them. Thus li (iH), ceremony, is used as a 
particle or preposition ; poll, (3HJ), to flay, is used for "will"; pa7i (y^), 
eight, is used for "to know *; tung (*), winter, is used for " what ;" 
vnai (g), to sell, is used for "cannot" and "is not"; while the character 
Tiiai (li), "shoe," with the radical "man" (fi) at the side (^) signifies 
"can." T eu (H), the head, is used with shdng (^), "life," to denote an 
animal, and in I. Cor. xv. 39 we find the odd-looking combination t eu- 
sMng-k i-t i (IS . & II), which to a reader of Wen-li suggests, not " one 
flesh of beasts," as intended, but rather, " the head produces its form." 
In the same passage we find t ien-li (5 li) and ti-li (t-fi H), and in I. 
Pet. iii. 19 even ti-yuh-li (t-ffi it H) where, although the character li (if), 


"ceremony," is meant, aa noted above, to denote a colloquial particle, it 
gives from its proper meaning a strong suggestion that for heaven and 
hell, as for a Chinese yamen or prison, there are payments which can 
procure entrance or exit. Not withstanding all these liberties, a good 
many vernacular words are noted in Maclay and Baldwin s dictionary 
for which no character is suggested. 

Probably the best that can be done has been done, and I give these 
few illustrations to show what confusion results from rising Chinese 
characters to represent some of the vernaculars. 

In the Cantonese character colloquial version, so far as I can 

Cantonese judge, this conf usion is avoided by the consistent use of the 

character. ra( j ical mon th " (p) to mark all characters which are used 

phonetically, although to the eye there is an unpleasant effect produced 

by the frequent occurrence of such characters, even when thus guarded. 

Of the Cantonese version I am not able to speak from personal 
knowledge. It contains the whole New Testament and some of the 
earlier books of the Old. The vernacular is, I believe, pronounced very 
good by competent judges. Steps are now being taken for the translitera 
tion of this version into Roman letter. 

The Hakka version has been produced by different hands, members 

of the Basel Mission. The earliest portions of it were in 

Roman letter, and were published in separate volumes until 

the whole was complete. My copy of Matthew is dated 186G, and some 

parts may have appeared earlier. The latest part, concluding the New 

Testament, is dated 1883, but Matthew was revised and reprinted in 

1887. The renderings of this version are characterized by more than 

usual freshness and independence, which makes them peculiarly valuable 

and suggestive to translators in other dialects. 

An edition of the Hakka New Testament in character was published 
in 1883. It appears to follow the Romanized editions, but is not rigidly 
conformed to them. It also is disfigured by the use of characters to 
represent sounds without regard to meaning, such as the following : 

pan C$) to flee, used in the sense of give, and as sign of the passive. 

yu (&) a monkey, you, or tJiou. 

yai (M) a precipice, I. 

tang ($Q a beam, midst. 

ten (3) a helmetj used as a sign of the plural after pronouns. 

Notwithstanding blemishes of this kind, which seem inseparable 
from the character colloquials, this version is found of considerable use 
in the Hakka missions. 

In the Swatow dialect the first portion of Scripture published was 

Swatow. the Gospel of Luke in Roman letter, by Rev. W. Duff us, in 

i b&ractcr 

1876. In 1879 and subsequent years the Book of Genesis 

and portions of the New Testament have appeared iu character colloquial. 
These were published by members of the American Baptist Mission, and 
follow more or less closely the Wen-li version of Mr. Goddard, published 
at Ningpo in 1853 and afterwards revised by Dr. Lord. The restraint 
caused by the use of character has evidently checked somewhat the 

May 8th.] REV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 75 

freedom of the vernacular in these versions. They present another 
anomaly, which must put some difficulty in the way of the reader. A 
good many characters in these editions are not meant to be read as they 
stand. The printed text in many phrases only supplies the meaning, 
while the reader is required to provide the vernacular equivalents. 

The books of Scripture extant in Roman letter in this dialect, are 
Genesis, Jonah, Matthew (Mark is now in the press), Luke, swatow 
Acts and the Epistle of James. These have been prepared by Roman ietter - 
members of the English Presbyterian Mission, and printed on the Mission 
Press for the British and Foreign Bible Society. Each of them (except 
Luke) has been published simultaneously in two editions, one in large 
type (double pica), and one in smaller type (pica), the latter being also 
furnished with references. The use of large type is intended to provide 
for the needs of the old and those whose sight is defective. I believe the 
neglect of this has greatly hindered the use of the Roman letter in some 
places. Large type is a great encouragement to many beginners, and it 
enables many to become readers whose age would otherwise prevent them. 

As one of those concerned in making this translation, I cannot pre 
tend to judge of its merits. I will only say that it seeks to do justice to 
the possibilities of the vernacular on the one hand, and to the require 
ments of faithfulness on the other. For these reasons it does not follow 
closely any of the existing Wen-li versions, though these have been freely 
consulted. The experience gained in preparing this translation seems 
clearly to show that a more faithful, and also a more purely vernacular 
version, can be made by working direct from the original without the in 
tervention of a Wen-li version. 

There are other versions which I can only name, without giving any 
particulars, such as those in the Shanghai and the Soochow Shanghai and 
dialects. sodchow. 

In Shanghai a beginning was made in the use of Romanized 
vernacular by the Rev. Cleveland Keith, as early as 1855. In 1856 the 
Acts of the Apostles, and in 1872 the complete New Testament, were 
published in Roman letter ; also the Book of Exodus in 1861. In charac 
ter colloquial the entire New Testament and the Book of Genesis have 
been published. 

It appears that even earlier, in 1853, an edition of the Gospel of 
John was printed in London in the Shanghai vernacular in Roman letter. 

Some portions of Scripture have been prepared in Mandarin and in 
the Amoy dialect, in embossed letters for the blind, some in Embossed 
Roman letter after Moon s system, and some in the " Braille Scriptures. 
dot" system. It is needless to say that these are all in vernacular. But 
they lie rather beyond the scope of the present paper. 

Speaking generally, it is a prevailing fault among some of these 
vernacular versions which I have briefly reviewed that they follow too 
much the Wen-li. 

Some of them are simply versions done in vernacular from the 
text of the Wen-li, following it closely not only in readings Follow too 

, . . , . . , j . closely the 

and in interpretation, but even in structure and expression. w#i-ti. 


The result is unsatisfactory in two ways. The too close following of the 
book style is fatal to the idiomatic freedom of the vernacular. On the 
other hand, the vernacular version thus produced is at two removes 
from the original, and its faithfulness suffers accordingly. When a 
Wen-li version is formed from the Hebrew and Greek texts, a certain 
proportion of thought and coloring is found untranslatable and is left out. 
In the second process of transferring from the Wen-li to the vernacular, 
all this is necessarily still omitted, and a further proportion of matter is 
dropped in the second translation. This evil has arisen naturally from 
the view under which some of these vernacular versions have beeu 
undertaken, as hardly worthy of being dealt with .by an independent 
effort of scholarship. 

There seems to be little doubt that the better way would b& ta begin 

by making from the original the best vernacular version possible. This 

could then be used to assist in forming a Wen-li text. One 

yerBion^a^asia reason for pursuing this course is that in any case this is the 

for Wen-h. or( j er that must be followed, whether the vernacular version 
be written or not. The translator who is constructing a TFei-Zi[text must 
do so in the first instance by reciting to a native scholar an oral version in 
vernacular, leaving him to produce an equivalent text in Wen-li. If 
instead of an oral version the translator first prepared a good vernacular 
version in written or printed form, the use of this, with further verbal 
explanations, would afford the best possible basis for a good Wen-li. A 
good classical translation must be the product of native minds, and the 
meaning of the original must reach them through the channel of the 

There is, therefore, ground for the remark made by a missionary in 
Natural order the North, "We in China, unfortunately, in much of the 

reversed. work of this kind have begun wrong end foremost. The 
missionaries began at the book style when they should have begun -with 
the vernacular, and this upside down work we are still doing." 

No doubt the early translators were restricted by circumstances to 
the course they took. Their facilities for acquiring the book language 
were much greater than those they possessed for acquiring the vernacular ; 
and, as I have already pointed out, there was then no Christian church to 
whom they could address themselves. It was inevitable that they should 
address scholars in the book-language. But there is no need for our 
following the same course, now that the reasons for doing so no longer 
exist. The vernaculars now lie open to us, and Christian congregations 
are awaiting the supply of a vernacular text for their instruction. 

Now that the question of revision with a view to a union version in 
Union version Wen-li is again being agitated, ought we not to revert to the 

in. Wen-lL natural order ? In each of the main dialects, let brethren 
produce with the best native aid good independent vernacular versions 
from the Hebrew, Greek and English texts. Let each of these vernacular 
versions be put into the hands of the best Christian and non-Christian 
native scholars in each section, to produce from it, with foreign aid, the 
beat W^n-li text in their power. Let these Wen-li drafts be then collated 

May 8th.] EEV. STOHN c. GIBSON. 77 

in the hands of a committee of missionaries representing "the v main 
Bections of the empire, and from them, with renewed application to the 
original text, let the long-hoped-for union version be made. I venture to 
eay that for faithfulness, spirit and idiom, the result will amply repay 
the labor spent on it, and will be far more satisfactory than anything 
attainable by revising and patching existing versions. 

A second cause of deficiency in these versions, speaking generally, la 
that there has not yet been time for the ripening of the vernaculars as 
written languages. I presume that this remark applies less to the Man 
darin and the Cantonese than to other dialects. Both of these had been 
written by the Chinese themselves before the beginning of mission work, 
and Mandarin has, as is well known, an extensive native literature of its 
own. Scripture translators in this case had only to employ an instrument 
already in use for a long period ; whereas, in Amoy and Swatow there 
was no native literature in vernacular, and when these dialects began to 
be reduced to writing, in Amoy about the year 1852, and in Swatow 
about 1876, there were no native models for imitation. 

These, and other defects of existing vernacular versions, will tend to 
disappear through a wider use of them and under the increased attention 
that is now being directed to this branch of our work. 

-ZT. The Comparative Advantages and Disadvantages of Roman 
Letters and Chinese Characters. 

Assuming now that the vernaculars are to be used in the translation 
of Scripture for the use of the church in China, the question remains, 
How can the vernaculars be best represented in written form, in Chinese 
characters, or in Roman letters ? 

On this question I will not affect a suspense of judgment which I 
cannot honestly feel. I am an advocate, from growing convic- Eoman i tt 
tion and without hesitation or reserve, of Roman letter, as best - 
immeasurably the best system for universal use. 

A preliminary question might be raised with regard to a new 
phonography, like those invented by Dr. Crawford of TSng-cbow, and 
others, but I will not discuss these at length. The labor of learning 
them, the difficulty of printing in them, and the lack of sufficient 
authority to commend any one of them to general acceptance, are obstacles 
likely to be fatal to their extended use. 

1. I will examine first, then, the system generally called "Character 
"Character Colloquial." 

This method has, at first sight, much to commend it, and it is not 
surprising that it has been widely favored. 

In some districts it is recommended by the fact that it is a native 
method, made ready to hand. This is the case through the wide range of 
the Mandarin-speaking districts, where there is a large vernacular liter 
ature. It has even been used by Emperors, as in the amplifications of 
the Sacred Edict. In the hands of missionaries it has been used, not only 
in a complete version of the Old and New Testaments, but also in a con 
siderable number of Christian books. In Cantonese also there was some- 



thing of a native vernacular literature in character before the -missionaries 
began to use it. In these cases the characters to be used for colloquial 
expressions were already fixed by native authority. 

In Hakka there are a good many vernacular songs and ballads, and 
there are a few, chiefly of a low class, in the Swatow dialect, but I am not 
aware of any extensive literature in either of these vernaculars. 

In some districts, then, this method starts with the advantage that 
it is no novelty. It is already recognized, and the characters to be 
employed are more or less fixed. 

How far does it facilitate learning to read and write ? 

In China, a reader of the Wen-li is met by two difficulties : First, he 
has to learn to know the sounds of the characters ; and secondly, he has 
to learn to translate from the text into vernacular. Now the latter of 
these two difficulties and it is a very great one is removed by char 
acter colloquial. Any native scholar can, with a little practice, read and 
teach the system. Any one who has in his youth learned to know a 
few characters, even if he did not advance far enough to be able to 
understand Wen-li, finds that he has something to start with, and so is 
more easily encouraged to begin to learn the character colloquial. It is, 
in some places, a native method ; it promises the learner immediate 
results ; it can be studied by the native method of recitation, and many 
find that in the few characters they already know they are partially 
furnished for beginning it. 

How far is the first of the two difficulties referred to affected ? 

The difficulty of learning each character is as great as in Wen-li, 
Does not unless, as is possible, the difficulty be lessened slightly by the 

facilitate learn- ... r , ,, . ... ,, ,. . , . , 

ing to read. association of the meaning with the torm in learning char 
acter colloquial, which is wanting in studying Wen-li. But the number 
of characters to be learned is actually increased. To ascertain this point 
I have had a count made of the number of characters used in the Sermon 
on the Mount in several Wen-li and vernacular versions, with the result 
shown below : 

Total number of 
characters used. 

Nett number of 
d tinctchar. used. 


5. Ch 








5. Oh 








2. Griffith John s Wen-li Version ... 
3. Northern Mandarin 
4. Griffith John s Mandarin 
5. Foochow Vernacular 
6. Swatow 
7. Hakka 
8. Canton 

The result of this examination shows that while in the vernaculars 
the total number of characters, as compared with the Wen-li, is largely 
increased, the nett number, deducting repetitions, is also increased, 
though in a less ratio. 

May 8th.] REV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 79 

There is further a serious increase of difficulty from the confusion 
caused by the same character being used in various sounds and senses 
different from the standard usage. 

I conclude, then, that the first difficulty, that due to the multitude of 
forms to be learned, is not lessened by the substitution of character 
colloquial for Wen-li. We gain one step towards simplifying reading 
for the bulk of the people in doing away with the need of translation, 
but the step still lacking is at once so important and so difficult that 
practically the goal of teaching all to read is still far distant. Some dialects 

In at least one important dialect that of the Amoy dis- written in 
tricts and Formosa there is a general consensus of native and 
foreign scholars that the vernacular cannot be written in character at all. 

Some of the chief disadvantages of the system are the following : 

(1.) There is a considerable class of vernacular words constantly 
recurring in speech, for which no characters exist. These are 
dealt with, either by avoiding the use of them altogether, in of lS "characfer 
which case the translation loses its idiomatic quality ; or else colloquial." 
by devising new characters, borrowed generally for their likeness in 
sound, and written either with or without an addition to indicate this 
phonetic use. This latter expedient encumbers the reader with new char 
acters resting on no authority, or with old characters wrested from their 
authorized meanings. One other expedient is to write words and phrases 
of the book-language instead of those for which there is no character, 
leaving it to the reader to substitute in reading the vernacular words 
and phrases of corresponding meaning. But when this expedient i? 
resorted to, the attempt to write vernacular in Chinese characters must be 
considered as having failed. 

(2.) There is another class of vernacular words which can bo traced 
to authentic characters, but which in vernacular use have BO far changed 
their forms that the likeness is not readily detected. Few native scholars 
are competent to trace these sometimes remote relationships, and when 
called upon to write such words they prefer to use phonetically some 
familiar character of like sound. If, on the other hand, the translator 
conscientiously searches out and uses the right character, the intended 
vernacular sound and meaning will not occur to one reader in twenty. 

(3.) Connected with these defects is the difficulty that by this system 
one character may have two or three different sounds and meanings, and 
as there is no means of distinguishing these, the reader may often be at a 
loss. Frequently also the usual signification of a character in Wen-li 
its common signification familiar to all scholars is not the meaning it 
usually bears in character colloquial. 

(4.) To a scholar s eye the character colloquial is unpleasant to look 
at. It seems to be what it is not, and, lacking the compact expressive 
ness of Wen-li, it does not seem to him plainer because it is nearer the 
vernacular; it only seems more tawdry and cumbrous. Even the Man 
darin, with its incessant repetition of its liao (T) and its r/i (Ja), its 
frequent (fig) men, and its general verbosity, 13 offensive to a Southern 


eye. Of course, this is simply a disadvantage which has to be endured 
for the sake of the advantage gained, not for scholars but for the illiterate, 
in providing for them a simpler style. Only it has to be noted that the 
use of character to write a vernacular does not allay but rather irritates 
the too-much-dreaded prejudice of scholars. 

Thus far I have spoken only of learning to read in character collo- 

Does not quial. Learning to write is very little facilitated by it. A 

learnin at to g 00 ^ authority has said that imperfect writing of this kind 

write. mav k e done by those who have "-only been at school four or 

five years," but it is evident that, for the vast majority, learning to write 

remains on these terms impossible. 

J will only add on this subject that composition in character collo 
quial can never bo advantageously taught in schools along with composi 
tion in Wcn-li. The confusion of styles that inevitably results is fatal 
to success in both. Where Roman letter is used, this confusion does not 
occur, the provinces of the two styles being then sharply marked off by 
the kind of writing employed. 

On the whole, the following appears to me a fair statement of the 
case- as to character colloquial in South China. There is a small class of 
persons who become Christians in middle life, to whom it is 
T ^?o S so B u?h ed useful if they can be persuaded to use it. They are not able 
CMna to read Wen-li, but in earlier years have acquired the know 
ledge of a number of characters. By the help of these they can, with 
some study and time, master, by reading them one by one, a few 
character colloquial books. For those who have a little more knowledge 
of character the Wen-li is more attractive, and they will spend their time 
upon it iu preference ; while for those who know less and who have less 
leisure, the difficulty of learning to read, even in character colloquial, is 
still so great as to bo practically insuperable. 

But it is in the Mandarin-speaking districts that the best success of 
character colloquial must be looked for. There it is no new experiment. 
It is a well-tried native method with a literature of its own. Notwith 
standing, I cannot find that ability to read is attained by anything like 
a fair proportion of persons in those regions. Mr. Adamson, of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, writes, " I should think that not more 
than 10 per cent, of the people in the North of Shen-si can read the 
written character intelligently." 

Dr. E. "W. Thompson said at the International Missionary Confer 
ence, " I am told by missionaries in the North of China that 3 per cent, 
of the people can read." 

There are other testimonies that the general estimate I have given 
that readers do not exceed 10 per cent, of the population holds good in the 
Mandarin-speaking districts. If this is so wo must place tho proportion 
below 10 per cent, for a general estimate, and the 5 per coiat. of Dr. Martin 
may be none too low. But if even in the reaclt of the Mandarin colloquial 
the proportion is so low as 10 per cent., then character colloquial must 
"be regarded as experimentally proved to afford no satisfactory solution of 
the problem how to enable the people in general to learu to read. 

8th.] REV. JOHN c. GIBSON. Si 

In the words of my friend the Rev. S. B. Partridge, of Swatow, "the 
place of character colloquial may be briefly defined. " I welcome," he 
writes, " every help in bringing the people in contact with the Word of 
God, and I hope to live to see all the Christians in Tie-chin welcoming 
that Word in the Romanized colloquial. For the present I must use the 
character colloquial, which I consider a connecting link between the 
Wen-li and the Romanized colloquial, and as far ahead of the one as it is 
behind the other." 

2. I will now examine the method of representing the vernaculars 
by writing them in Roman letters. This is the method which Eomnn i et ter 
I believe to be the best fitted to meet the case, and the most method, 
strongly recommended both by reason and experience. 

Objections to the use ofJRoman letter may bo summarized objections to. 
as follows : 

(1.) There is a strong prejudice among the Chinese, not against the 
Roman letters, but in favor of the Chinese characters- 

There is an analogous prejudice against character colloquial as com 
pared with Wen-li, and the one answer is that where the love of divine 
truth is once kindled it will dissipate all prejudice that hinders its 

(2.) The idea has been expressed that by translating the Scriptures 
into Romanized vernacular we "vulgarize the Bible." 

(3.) It is sometimes said that the use of Romanized vernacular 
will hinder missionaries from learning the Chinese character. 

(4.) It is objected that the use of a foreign method of writing gives 
a foreign aspect to our teaching. 

(5.) Again, it is said that a book in the Romanized vernacular of 
any district can only reach that limited region in which the dialect is 
spoken, whereas a book in the general book language reaches the whole 
of the eighteen provinces and outlying countries besides. I have already 
pointed out that the book-language, after its two thousand years of pro 
bation, reaches the eighteen provinces only in a fictitious sense. It 
reaches a small minority of the people less than thirteen millions, 
perhaps less than six millions, scattered throughout these wide regions, 
but does not really reach the bulk of the people at all. On the other hand, 
each of these vernaculars is spoken by several millions of people, and the 
Church of Christ, which is already gathering in these millions as His 
disciples, aims at the same time at making them all readers of His Gospel. 
There is a diplomatic and administrative convenience in having one 
written medium for exchanging communications with all parts of the 
empire. So it is convenient in Europe to use French as a common 
language for the purposes of international diplomacy, and Latin has not 
yet wholly lost its usefulness for the record and interchange of learning. 

The book language may continue to be used for purposes of govern 
ment and for learned intercommunication, but the people s books, if 
ever they are to have a people s literature, must be in the vernacular. If 
vernacular is used, it is necessarily limited in range, and the Roman 
letter does not any further limit ttio range of its use. 

82 BE VIEW oi- COLLOQUIAL vEEsioNS. [Second day. 

But the objections noted above I hare already dealt -with elsewhere, 
and I need not now repeat the argument. 

(6.) But another objection is made against the nse of Roman letter, 
and I find that some brethren feel it to bo of some weight. This objection 
is founded on the frequent recurrence of words of the same sound and 
tone but of different meaning. It was stated, perhaps in an extreme form, 
by Mr. King in the Messenger (Shanghai, Nov., 1889), as follows : 
"By what means shall I divine whether the shui, wang, fang, Homy, 
or whatever the Romanized word may be, is one or another out of tens 
or hundreds of the identical sound and tone ? By the context ? But 
the context would often fit in equally well to different characters of the 
same sound ; and then the missionary s only resource would be either his 
foreign Bible or the character. But these being both denied to tho poor 
native, he is at sea, tossed on waves of uncertainty, and probably ends, 
with a despairing sigh, his vain attempt to decipher the meaning. Even 
though he should make a fair guess at such passages with which he is 
familiar, through sermons and lessons, put him to the prophets, the 
proverbs, or the histories, and he is in an inextricable fix. Take him from 
the Bible and give him books ranging over any subjects with which he 
is entirely unconversant, and the poor man is hopelessly bewildered." 

Now I should say that these sentences describe admirably the 
sorrows of many a so-called reader of Wen-li, but are quite inept when 
applied to Romanized vernacular. 

Tho first and simplest reply to this objection is, that experience 
Verdict of shows that there is no such difficulty. The Old and New 
experience. Testaments have been read for years in the Amoy Roman 
ized vernacular. Several books of Scripture have been in use in the 
Swatow dialect ; and not a few other books, along with three church 
newspapers dealing with a wide range of subjects, have been read by 
hundreds of readers in theso two dialects, and this difficulty has not yefc 
been met with. It is equally unknown in the Hakka dialect, and is, I 
suspect, wholly imaginary. 

If it be said that our escape from this difficulty in the South is due 
to our larger syllabary, our more ample tone-system, and our marking of 
the tones in the Romanized vernacular, I point to the New Testament in 
the Shanghai, the Ningpo and the Mandarin vernaculars. In this it has 
not even been thought necessary to mark tho tones. Are they iu practice 
found to be ambiguous ? If they were, tho marking of the tones would 
be an easy and obvious resource. But the extensive use of tho Niugpo 
version for many years proves that no such difficulty is met with. 

The disappearance qf this difficulty on trial is not hard to explain. 
Tho number of phrases alike in sound and tone ia not so large as is sup 
posed. To speak as if " tens " of words identical in sound and tone were 
the general rule is to strain the facts, and to speak of " hundreds " is to 
lose sight of the facts altogether. It is curious to notice that when the 
writer goes on to give a few instances, ho neglects distinction of tone 
altogether. Even then he makes groups, riot of tens but of threes and 

8th..] -BEV. JOHN c. -GIBSON. 83 

fours, and when the tones -are discriminated this little remnant -of proof 
finally disappears. 

No doubt you may, by an effort pf ingenuity, put together a few 
phrases of two or three words each, of which the sounds and tones are 
identical, but that is all. In practice these similarities very rarely occur, 
and when they do, ambiguity is precluded by the context. Even Wen-H 
may happen to give rise to an ambiguity, as any one may prove by asking 
an unwarned Chinaman to translate into his vernacular the Delegates 
version of Heb. vii. 16. As I have pointed out, the ambiguity here has, 
in fact, caused a blunder in two versions the Amoy and the Southern 

After all, vernacular Chinese is, to a large extent, practically polysyl 
labic, and here lies the safety, both of-spoken and of Romanized vernacular. 

The fear of ambiguity may be dismissed when we consider that the 
Boman letter simply reproduces the spoken words. If a vernacular in 
Roman letter is ambiguous, it can only be so because, as spoken, it waa 
ambiguous. The one gives precisely the same discrimination of sounds, 
and, if we please, of tones that the other gives, neither more nor less. 
If intelligible vernacular speech is possible, then intelligible Romanized 
writing is possible. The argument from ambiguity proves either too little 
or too much. It either proves nothing against the use of Romanized 
vernacular, or it proves vernacular speech to be impossible. It may be 
quite true that character adds to the sentence numerous subtle allusions, 
wrapped up in the form of the characters. Some of these allusions are 
patent, some are obscure, some are interesting, some are imaginary, but 
all are, strictly speaking, impertineucies, and the sentence is better 
without them. They were not contained in the spoken sentence which the 
characters are meant to represent, and when Roman letter reproduces the 
sentence, without these additions, it gives by so much a better rendering 
of the speaker s words. The characters are lauded as little pictures, full 
of subtle allusions. But no man wants the direct simplicity of his 
vernacular speech to be lost in a series of little pictures and a mist of 
undesigned allusions. 

It is no objection to a method of writing that it gives no^more than 
a speaker s words. If it gives these, no more and no less, it serves to the 
full all the purposes of a written language, and is fit to be the receptacle 
of the richest literature that the language can produce. 

The advantages of the Roman letter may be briefly sum- A t d h v e a ^^^ f 
marized as follows : letter. 

(1.) Every sound heard in the language can be spelled by a simple 
combination of letters, averaging three letters to the word, and in no case 
exceeding seven letters to one word. 

(2.) The spelling is strictly phonetic, and each letter has only one 
sound. Aay one who knows, say, twenty letters and a few accents has, 
therefore, complete command of the system, and can read anything he 
Bees, or write down anything he hears or thinks. 

(3.) The writer of a book in this system has not to consider whether 
a word can be written or not. All worda can be written with ease* and 


be is therefore free to use the purest vernacular as it-would flow from- the 
lips- of, any good speaker of the language. 

(4.) Reading and spelling are much more -easily learned than in 
English. It has heen found that a very moderate degree of attention to 
the system for three months is sufficient to give any one, however 
untutored before, the power of reading any book printed in it. 

(5.) Writing can be learned with great ease by this system, and those 
who acquire it use it largely for letter writing. It is easily written 
either with native or foreign writing materials, and good writing is pro 
duced with the native pen. 

(6.) The system renders printing easy and inexpensive. All founts 
of English type are at once available, tone- marks being for the most part 
provided for by the accents supplied by all type-founders. 

These advantages are not imaginary or theoretical. They have all 
been tested by experience. I will not enlarge on them, but submit a few 
testimonies from others. 

The Rev. G. Reusch, of the Basel Mission to the Hakkas (arrived 
in -China 1872,) writes as follows : 

" We devote in onr schools, during the first two years, two hours 

Testimony daily to reading and writing the Roman letter. As a result, 

Bcusch. th e children in our schools in two or three school-years can 

read with intelligence all that is supplied to them in this system, and can 

also write letters and compositions. In general, independent thought is 

much nrore quickly developed than by those children who are only taught 

writing in character. 

"My expectation is that, by the continued use of the Roman letter 
in our schools, gradually all the church members will become able to read 
for themselves the Word o God and a Christian literature, so that every 
one may grow in his Christian knowledge, and so in the inner life and in 
spiritual strength, without the interposition of preacher or teacher ; while 
a church in which only the Chinese character is learned is much more 
dependent on the preacher. It is manifest how great is the importance 
for the future of the church in China of the Christian independence of 

" The demand for the portions of Holy Scripture published in 
character (Hakka) colloquial has been hitherto (up to 1888) very small. 
From this I conclude that the Chinese have no liking for it. I believe 
that this method of writing has no great future, since it neither takes 
away the difficulty of the character system, nor offers the advantages of 
the Roman letter. Still the character colloquial may be of use for 
candidates for baptism who in their youth have learned character for 
some years without having attained an understanding of the classical 

Similar testimony is born by others. For example : " We have in 

Rev. n. ur schools, besides the Chinese character, introduced also 

Bender. the R oman letter, by which means those children who can. 

only have the advantage of a few years instruction may be in a position 

May 8th.] EEV. JOHN c. GIBSON. 85 

to read the Bible in this form, as well as to write letters, etc., which 
cannot be accomplished in so short a time in the Chinese character and 
style. Children in our schools, as a rule, learn in one year to read fairly 
fluently." (Rev. H. Bender, Basel Mission. Arrived in China 1862.) 
" When a pupil gives one hour daily to the Roman letter he can learn to 
read easily in half a year. Writing requires more labor." Eev F 
(Rev. F. Hubrig, Berlin Mission. Arrived in China 1866.) Hubrig. 

"Pupils learn to read and write Romanized colloquial well in one 
year, giving less than half the school hours to the study. To Rev. F. 
learn to read and write as well in character would require 
several years, giving all the school hours to it. In Romanized colloquial, 
after one year s training, the pupils can write short essays and write out 
lessons in arithmetic and other studies. In some years, after leaving 
school, more or less is forgotten, either of Romanized colloquial or 
character, but the former is much more easily retained in the memory, 
because the letters are few and the spelling of monosyllables is not 
difficult. Even if forgotten it is not difficult to learn again, and but 
little practice is sufficient to retain a practical use of it. Characters are 
easily forgotten, and much labor is required to learn them again. If 
even a few are forgotten it makes reading difficult, and the inability to 
write a few characters makes writing so difficult that few of the common 
people are able to make any practical use of it. 

" Romanized colloquial is an aid in schools to learning character, 
e.g., when a pupil goes over the lesson in character he can write out the 
sound and meaning of characters new to him and can learn them at hia 

" It ia only Romanized colloquial which enables common people to 
write all they would say, and as they would tell it. The use of 
character puts a hundred- fold fetter on their hands and minds." (Rev. G. 
Gussmann, Basel Mission. Arrived in China 1869.) 

The above are a few of the testimonies to hand from men of much 
experience in educational work, but equally good results are Results out- 
attained outside of schools. In the Amoy, Formosa andSwa- side of schools, 
tow missions many have learned to read who never were at school, many 
of them advanced in life. In Amoy, Dr. Talmage has for thirty-five years 
been an advocate and promoter of the use of Roman letter, and there 
is growing encouragement in the use of it. Mrs. Talmage has taught a 
large number of women, members of the church who came to live in a 
women s training house for a few months. Some make more rapid 
progress than others, but three months have generally sufficed to enable 
women to read. Patients in hospitals and servants in missionaries families 
have learned to read within the same period. In Formosa there are at 
least three Siu-tsai graduates, and in Swatow one, who can read and 
write. Of these, three are not Christians. One of them learned to read 
in a fortnight during his spare time, with only two or three brief lessons, 
and thereafter could spell out with gradually increasing fluency anything 
he took up. A young boatman, wholly illiterate, who is not a Christian, 
learned to read with tolerable fluency in a few months. In Amoy an 


elder of the church, 66 yeara of age, who could not read, learned the 
Roman letter after some difficulty, so as to be able-to read in public for 
the instruction of the church. 

In South Formosa, when an interest springs up in a new place and 
people are seeking instruction, the first arrangement usually made by the 
missionaries is to send some one for a few weeks to teach them to read the 
Romanized vernacular. This is achieved without difficulty, and then 
it is felt that for further growth the inquirers are no longer wholly 
dependent on instruction from others. Dr. J. L. Maxwell be^an the 
Dr. Maxwell s m i ss ^ on wor ^ * n Formosa in- 18G5, and almost from the first 
experience in the Romanized vernacular was employed. The readers among 
the Chinese of Formosa he estimates at less than 5 per cent., 
and the Chinese-speaking aborigines were wholly illiterate. The result 
now is that there is in the Formosan church a proportion of readers 
which is very much above the average on the mainland. The following is 
Dr. Maxwell s brief explanation of how this result is attained : 

" It is somewhat odd, but nofc less true, that whilst Chinese in its 
hieroglyph form is necessarily one of the most difficult of all languages 
in which to acquire reading facility, in the Romanized form it is perhaps 
the very simplest. The monosyllabic character of its words largely ex 
plains this fact. I am not exaggerating when I say that I have seen the 
whole process mastered by a young native woman in a fortnight. It 
sounds almost ludicrous, the acquisition in so short a time of the power 
of reading Chinese, but, if ludicrous, surely also suggestive to men of 
common sense, of not a few serious thoughts concerning the five to ten 
years needful to master a hieroglyphic system which at the best can 
never for simplicity, exactness, or force, rival the living spoken language 
nnder an alphabetic form. 

"The acquisition of the Romanized vernacular is so easy that a 
missionary spending a week or a fortnight at any station can have no 
difficulty in urging upon those inquirers who do not yet read Chinese, the 
immediate commencement of such a study under his own eye. This prac 
tice has been a common one in Formosa, the ladies of the mission finding 
their hands as full of good work in this respect as the male members of 
the staff. 

"Patients in hospital also, whoso hands are tolerably empty, are 
encouraged to use the opportunity of mastering the art of reading their 
own language; and not a few have, without difficulty, succeeded in the 

" So simple is the system that one native Christian can teach 
another, and many of the readers in Formosa have been so taught." 

Dr. Maxwell rightly adds : 

"There is not tho slightest need for any violent change. Only in 
every province let provision bo made for reaching tho humblest and most 
illiterate by an alphabetic system, and wo may safely leave time to work 
out its own inexorable results." 

With reference to the Mandarin-speaking districts the Rev. W. 
Cooper of the China Inland Mission, writes : 


" Notwithstanding the fact that we have Ihe Scriptures and other 
Christian books in Mandarin colloquial, which, when read in Hev. w. Coo- 

,., per, as to Man- 

the hearing of the congregation aro fairly well nnderstood ; darin districts 
nevertheless, the number of onr converts who are able to read is so small, 
and the difficulty of learning the character so great, that we despair o 
getting the Christians, as a body, by this means to read and understand 
the Word of God for themselves. As a matter of fact, very few of them 
have the time or ability to learn the character sufficiently to enable them 
to read intelligently, even after years of attendance on Christian preaching. 
Hence Mr. Hudson Taylor was led some years ago to print a few portions 
of the "Word of God in Romanized Mandarin colloquial ; and although 
this has had but a limited trial, we feel it to have been sufficient to prove 
that uneducated persons, either male or female, can with diligence readily 
acquire a knowledge of the system in a few months. This, by a little 
practice, enables them intelligently to follow the reading at the services, 
and, what is of still greater importance, it enables them to read the Word 
of God in their own tongue daily at family worship." 

Tn Swatow similar results are easily reached. A school -girl, during 
her holidays, taught a preacher s wife to read and write, so that in about 
two months the learner wrote a letter to one of the ladies of the mission 
to show her attainments and to express her pleasure at having learned. 
A woman aged 48, mother of a large family, learned within a Testimony of 
few months from some of the younger women. Miss E. Black, M ofsw atow? k 
of the English Presbyterian Mission at Swatow, writes : " Women of 
average intelligence, between the ages of, say, forty-five and sixty, can 
learn to read in three months time. Younger women of course learn 
much more quickly. The wife of one of our chapel-keepers (thirty-three 
years of age) read with ease after receiving eight lessons of about an 
Lour s duration each. A young woman of twenty, a preacher s wife, read 
fairly well after a fortnight s instruction. During the past few months 
classes have been held in the hospital for such of the male patients as chose 
to attend. About twenty made a beginning. Of these two or three left 
the hospital a few days after, and other two or three became discouraged 
and dropped off. Fifteen learned to read with tolerable ease in six or 
eight weeks, and one bright lad read fluently after three weeks study." 

In Formosa, Swatow and Amoy, there are three monthly church 
newspapers, which reach a large number of readers. The Swatow paper, 
durimg its first year, was taken and paid for by about 160 native subscri 
bers, and about 50 copies besides were taken for use in mission schools. 
Thus over 200 copies were in circulation in a church of about 1,300 
members, and a number of these served for more readers than one. 
Native ministers, elders, teachers and church members, as well as mission 
aries, write articles and news notes for these papers, and so have access 
to a larger number of readers within the church than they could address 
by means of the Chinese characters. 

Testimony on this subject could be multiplied indefinitely. In view 
of it one cannot but feel that where such a large measure of practical 


success "has been attained, theoretical and a priori objections must count 
for little. 

Wherever Romanized vernacular has been heartily tried it has completely 
succeeded without any great expenditure of labor. I emphasize this fact, 
and beg every missionary to ponder it. 

Two things I have failed to find : 

1. Any church where, by the use of Chinese character, 50, 60, or 70 
per-cent. of the members have learned to read and write. 

2. Any church where Romanized vernacular has had a fair trial 
for a reasonable time, and has been given up as a failure. 

The one hindrance which I find to the rapid and complete success of 
the Romanized vernacular is the lack of appreciation of its value and 

its ease. In the case of the Chinese this arises partly from 
One hindrance. * 

indolence, partly from the deep-rooted blind reverence for the 

native character, which makes many think stumbling and stammering 
unintelligently over the characters a far greater attainment than the most 
fluent and intelligent reading of their vernacular in Roman letter ; while 
others, from simple ignorance, suppose that if the Chinese character be 
difficult, a foreign character must be much more so. 

Now this hindrance can be taken out of the way if the 
How removed. . . 

missonanes will. 

(1.) Let us press it as a primary Christian duty that every follower 
of the Lord must read for himself his Lord s words. "Give heed to 

(2.) Let us spread and press home the information that by the 
Roman letter people of moderate intelligence and no leisure learn to read 
in from three to six months. 

(3.) Let us ourselves use, wherever possible, the Romanized vernacu 
lar for public reading, for letter writing, and in every way that can 
commend it to the members of the native church. 

(4.) Let us labor to give to the Christian church in each section 
of the empire, not only a faithful vernacular version of the Bible, but a 
general Christian literature, such as to create a taste for reading and to 
stimulate and reward the effort needed for learning. 

If we do these things earnestly, patiently and persistently, the 
natural indolence and prejudice which oppose this and all other efforts in 
the upward direction will give way. It will come to be recognized 
as a disgrace to Chinese Christianity that it remains so largely illiterate, 
while the savages of Fiji, Samoa and the New Hebrides, the partially 
civilized but illiterate people of Madagascar, and even the wild races 
of Africa, have, along with their Christianity, acquired the power of 
reading for themselves the book on which their Christian hope is based. 

This is a scandal in which we have too long and too easily 
acquiesced, and we ought to acquiesce in it no longer. 

To gather in those outside is in point of time tho first part of our 
mission ; to present every man perfect in Christ is tho second, and it is 
not the easier part. Without the Bible in the mother-tongue of those 
entrusted to us. how shall we achieve it ? 

May 8fch.] REV. s. F. WOODIN. 89 

How can they receive the Word with any readiness of mind unless 
they examine the Scriptures daily ? How can they have hope except 
through comfort of the Scriptures ? How, except by the Scriptures 
inspired of God, can they be wise unto salvation, or furnished completely 
unto every good work ? 

" Oh ! how love I thy law ! It is my meditation all the day. 
Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and light unto my path. 
Thy word is very pure ; therefore thy servant loveth it. 
I rejoice at thy Word, as one that fiudeth great spoil." 

How long shall we be content to wait for words like these to become 
the heart utterances of God s people in China ? 
Should not the shepherds feed the sheep ? 





Rev. S. F. Woodin, (A. B. C. F. M., Foochow). 

THERE are a large number of different languages spoken in China. These 
all have a common bond of relationship in having one written language, 
which is studied in all schools, read by all scholars, used for all standard 
books, and for all writing in business accounts, and in all official docu 
ments ; somewhat as the Latin language was used by the nations of 

Europe a few hundred years ago. The written language, as 

, i ,. Vernaculars. 

read aloud, is pronounced according to the sounds of the 

dialect of the reader, but it is not spoken anywhere in ordinary conver 
sation, even by the most learned scholars. These different colloquial 
languages or dialects, the vernaculars of China, probably differ from one 
another and from the written classical, also called the Wen-li, quite as 
much as the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian and French differ 
from each other and from the Latin, to which they all have a close 

The whole number of these entirely distinct dialects is not yet 
known. Between ihe Southern limit of the Mandarin dialect, in the 

Eastern provinces, at Chiukiang in Kiangsu, and Hainan , 

Island, tne iour coast provinces with Kiangsu have at least 

seventeen distinct spoken languages. There are six others bordering those 
of Fukkien on the West. A large number of others will doubtless be 
found in the five other provinces South of the Yangtse and along the 
whole Western and Northern borders of the country. In this enumera 
tion we do not at all consider the numerous changes of patois in the field 
of each dialect. The number of these, I suppose, would run up into 
several hundreds. Near Kiukiaog the patois ia said to change materially 
about every twenty miles. 


We hare, then, some knowledge of at least twenty-four distinct dialects 
The twenty dialects of the coast provinces, including the 
N diSuct 0f Mandarin, with an approximate estimate of the nnmbers 
dialects. speaking them, are as follows : Mandarin, 240 (millions) ; 
Soochow, 10 ; Shanghai, 2 (?) ; Ningpo, 4 ; Taichow, 1 (?) ; Kinliwa, 
1 (?) ; Wenchow, 1 (?) ; Pnch<eng, \ (?) ; Kienning, 1 ; Swun Ch ang 
and Tsiangloh, \ ; T aining, \ ; Shaowu, \ ; Foochow 5 ; Hinghwa, 
I ; Araoy, 9 ; Swatow, 4 ; Sinning, 2 (?) ; Hakka, 7 ; Canton, 10 ; 
Hainan, If (?). Of these, six of the smaller dialects, the Puch eng, 
T aining, Kienning, Tsiangloh, Hinghwa and Sinning, with perhaps 
one or two partial exceptions, have had no portion of the Scriptures 
prepared in their vernaculars. Three others, Kinhwa, Shaowu and 
Hainan, each have only one Gospel ; and the Wenchow has begun to issue 
its first colloquial Gospels and Acts within the past year. The beginnings 
in these last four dialects are in Roman letter and within the past two 
years. The Tai Chow dialect has had the New Testament in Romanized 
colloquial for several years. 

The nine main dialects require a more extended survey. The Man- 
-Mandarin darin Colloquial has a large and varied native literature in 
colloquial. Cb.i nege character, in its own vernacular, while the other 
dialects, with the exception of Cantonese, have scarcely any. It is the 
language of Northern, Western and most of Central China. Some of 
the Gospels were issued in this dialect in ISo-i ; Medhurst s translation 
of the New Testament in 185G ; that of the Peking Committee in 1870, 
andtho Old Testament by Schereschewsky in 1875. These versions have 
teen very extensively circulated and used in all the vast region of this 
dialect. Thus far, with almost no exception, all the issues of Scripture, as 
also of hymns and other Christian books, have been in Chinese character. 
Other versions and revisions are coming into this field in the same form, 
"but within the past year the New Testament in Roman letter has been 
issued in this dialect, after an exclusive use of the other style for a third 
of a century. 

The testimony of the missionaries from the larger part of the vast 
range of this dialect, is, that the colloquial Scriptures are exclusively 
used in public and private worship, and for private reading and study by 
the Christians and enquirers, except that some of the comparatively few in 
the Christian community who are scholars, use the classical version for 
their private reading. The principal instruction of the Christians in the 
Scriptures throughout the Mandarin-speaking provinces is now done by 
the use of the colloquial versions, and it is almost certain that it will 
continue to bo so in the future. 

The Soochow Colloquial joins the Mandarin on the South-east, but is 

materially distinct from it. The New Testament, translated 
Soochow. . .... , . 1001 ii 

by a committee of missionaries, was issued in lool in tue 

Chinese character. No Scriptures have been issued in Roman letter, and 
DO system of using the Roman letter has been agreed upon by the 
missionaries; most of them prefer the colloquial in Chinese character, 
and have never used the other. The colloauial New Testament in Chinese 

May 8th.] REV. s. r. WOODIN. 91 

character ig used in conducting Church servicesand in private by the 
Church members, in preference to the Wen-li. 

The Shanghai Colloquial. The Gospel of John in this dialect, in 
Chinese character, was issued in 1846 ; and in Roman letter in 1853. 
The New Testament, both in Chinese character and in Roman letter, 
has been in use since 1870 ; as also the Psalms and several 
other books of the Old Testament in Chinese character. 
Latterly for a number of years the use of the Roman letter has been 
declining, and almost entirely ceased. A renewal of interest in it has 
recently been manifested and a revised alphabet has been prepared by a 
Union Committee. The Shanghai Colloquial Scriptures in Chinese are 
commonly used by the Christians, but in a variety of styles, the different 
missions not having united upon a common version. 

The Ningpo Colloquial. The New Testament in Roman letter was 
issued in this dialect in 1860. Several editions and revisions have been 
issned since; also several books of the Old Testament. Each 
of the four missions has shared in the work of translating. 
No use is made of the colloquial in Chinese character. A majority of 
the Christians use the colloquial." In case new converts do not already 
road the classical, they are taught the Romanized colloquial. Pupils in 
schools are taught to read the colloquial fluently, but in their study of 
the Scriptures the Wen-li is more used. 

The Foochoiv Colloquial joins that of Wenchow on the North, Hing- 
hwa and Amoy, on the South, and Kienning and Tsiangloh on the West ; 
the Shaowu being further West, beyond that of Kienning. 
Gospels were first issued in this dialect in 1853, in Chinese 
character. The New Testament was translated by a committee from 
the two American missions in 1867 ; the Old Testament by a committee 
from all the missions in 1883. Several editions of the New Testament 
and of somo books of the Old have been issued. New translations of 
some portions of the Old Testament have also been made, and the whole 
Bible is now being revised by a committee from the three missions. All 
has been in Chinese character colloquial. But during the last three years 
two of the Gospels have been published in Roman letter, and the whole 
New Testament will probably be issned in this form within a year or 
two. The comparative values of tho two forms of colloquial for native 
Christian use in this dialect has not yet been decided, very little use 
having been made of the Roman letter. 

The colloquial Scriptures in Chinese character are now in almost 
universal use by all Christians who can read at all. The Wen-li is 
also used in the schools for purposes of study. 

Between the Foochow and Amoy dialects is that of Hinghwa, 
distinct from them, but having an affinity for the Amoy. It is spoken by 
the people of two Hien districts. No Scriptures have been prepared in 
this dialect. It is found, however, that the people can make some use of 
the Foochow Colloquial books in Chinese character. 

The Amoy Colloquial has a wide range, comprising two Prefectures 
and two Chow districts on the mainland, and most of Formosa. 


Gospels were published in tMs dialect in 1853; the New Testament and 
Psalms in 1873 ; the Old Testament about 1883 ; wholly in Roman letter. 
All the missions have had a share in the work of translation. It has not 
been found feasible to publish the Scriptures or other books in this 
dialect in Chinese character. The use of the colloquial is general in the 
mission schools of the Amoy region and in Formosa, but not to the exclu 
sion of the Wen-li. Few of the Christian women can read the classical, 
but many of them are now able to read Romanized colloquial. All the 
preachers and teachers in mission employ are required to learn to read 
it. Many old men and women who could not learn the Chinese character, 
have become intelligent readers of the colloquial in Roman letter. 

The Swatow Colloquial, or Ch ao Chow language, joins the Amoy 

on the South. The Gospels in Chinese character colloquial 

have long been in use in this dialect, and were followed by 

the whole New Testament in the same form. This is now in course of 

revision. The Gospel of Luke in Roman letter was published in 1877 ; 

BIX other books of Scripture have been issued in this form, three of them 

during the last two years. 

The Ilakkj, Colloquial. The Scriptures began to be issued in this 

dialect about 1865, both in Chinese character and in Roman 

letter. The New Testament in both forms has been in use 

since 1883. Elderly persons prefer to read tbe Scriptures in the Chinese 
character colloquial, but for school work the missionaries prefer that in 
Roman letter. 

The Canton Colloquial. One or two Gospels were issued in this 

dialect in 1867 ; the New Testament, translated for the most 


part by a union committee, in 1880. Several books of the Old 
Testament have been published, and the whole Bible is in preparation for 
the press. Except one of the earliest issues, of one Gospel in Roman letter, 
all has been in Chinese character colloquial. Until recently the general 
opinion in this field has been that the Roman letter would not suit the 
Canton dialect ; but latterly many of the missionaries are understood to 
favor the idea of making trial of the Romanized. Tho Scriptures in 
Chinese character colloquial are widely used by the missionaries and 
native helpers, in schools, preaching, and private reading. 

The nine principal dialects of China, together with that of Tai Chow, 

each have the New Testament translated and published in their own 

colloquial. Three of them have the whole Bible, and most of the other six 

have several books of the Old Testament. The prospect is that in a few 

Colloquial years every one of them will have the whole Bible in their 

versions- OWQ mo tij ei . tongue. These colloquial versions have already 

BtriCtlll^ t UC *TTT 

TUG of Wen-u. restricted the use of classical or Wen-li Scriptures to a 
comparatively narrow field of usefulness. Of the whole uuinber of pages 
of Chinese Scriptures published by the American Bible Society during 
the three years ending with 1888, more than ninety per cent, was in the 
various colloquials, and less than ten per cent, (probably less than six) 
waa in the classical. The issues of the British and Foreign Bible Society 

May 8th.] EEV. s. F. WOODIN. 93 

for the past few years also, I think, are largely colloquial; hut those 
of the National Bible Society of Scotland for the same time have been 
largely classical. 

The common authoritative and constantly-used Bible of the people 
speaking these dialects, comprising at least five-sixths of all China, 
evidently will be in their own colloquials, the vernacular, 
language to which they were born. Hence it is a matter of bestmode e of 
great importance to find out and use the best mode of writing 
and printing the Scriptures (and other books) in those dialects. All 
attempts to invent new sets of symbols to express the Chinese sounds 
have met with little or no success. 

The only two methods that have proved practical are that which 
uses the Chinese character and that using tho Roman letter. Of the 
nine main dialects, five Mandarin, Soochow, Foochow, T WO tried 
Swatow and Canton formerly used the Chinese character mel acter~and ar ~ 
exclusively for printing their colloquial Scriptures. But alphabetic, 
within the last three years three of these Mandarin, Foochow and 
Canton are beginning also to make trial of the Roman letter ; a 
fourth Swatow having begun the trial ten years ago. Two others 
the Shanghai and Hakka have had portions of Scripture in colloquial, 
in both Chinese character and Roman letter, for more than twenty years : 
the only ones that have had an extended common use of the two methods. 
The two other dialects Ningpo and Amoy have used the Roman 
letter exclusively for more than twenty years. The subject is rendered 
more complex from the fact that the sounds of some of the dialects are 
expressed by Chinese characters with rnoro difficulty than those of others; 
and, again, others admit tho use of the Roman letter with comparatively 
less facility. The Amoy and Canton vernaculars are examples of the 
two extremes. No doubt both forms might be used in every dialect, 
but with different degrees of adaptability. The Colloquial Scriptures 
are a necessity in all the main dialects, and that method of writing and 
printing should bo employed in each, which is best fitted for its own 
vernacular. Some dialects will doubtless use both forms together. 

What are the respective advantages of the two methods ? 
I. The use of the Chinese character in the colloquial. 

(a.) It is purely Chinese, and accords with tho form of the classical, 

thus largely avoiding preiadice. It admits of use at once in 

, J . , , . J ., ... , . Advantages of 

any place, without being upon its very iace a foreign thing, character 

This is very important, as prejudice is one of our worst foes. 

(&.) It is easily learned by all who have been taught in the native 
heathen schools. Those who have been a year or two in a native school 
and who canBot yet read intelligibly their classical books, which they 
have been studying, have a good foundation for learning tho colloquial 
in Chinese character easily and rapidly. As the great mass of pupils 
in native schools reads only from one to five years, and not long enough 
to become intelligent readers of the classical, they are a large class tp 
whom the Chinese character colloquial is specially adapted and intelligible 


to a great extent without other study. This is true of the Mandarin 
and to a great extent of all but one of the other main dialects, 

(c.) It is a help to the knowledge of the classical and can be taught 
by any native teacher or scholar. The learner can easily find some one to 
tell him the name and meaning of any difficult characters. Hence the 
Gospels and other books can at once be used intelligibly before any one 
has been able to give continuous teaching, and before a Christian or 
preacher has been met with. 

(d.) It does not involve the use of an additional method of teach 
ing, untried as yet in most of the field, nor require a third form of 
Scripture publication. 

(e.) In all our boarding schools, and at present in the great majority o: 
the day schools, it is necessary to teach Chinese youth some of the classical, 
to satisfy the parents at least, and as a preparation for more extended 
studies. In all such cases the teaching of the Chinese character colloquial 
is easy and natural, not displeasing to most of the parents, and is also an 
aid to the classical. Many heathen parents would make more objection 
and complaint if their children were taught to read the Romanized 
colloquial. One of the Basel missionaries says that the teaching of the 
Romanized colloquial in their work was in the eyes of the natives an 
attempt to extirpate the book language from the Christian community 
which meant as much as cutting off the converts from their political 
and social connections. Hence it has met with much opposition from 

the natives." , 

(/.) It can bo acquired by many without great difficulty and wit. 
out interfering with ordinary duties. A missionary in North China says, 
" Many of our people have learned to read moderately well in two or three 
years by employing their spare time and getting a little assistance 
occasionally from a reading friend." This is an experience common 
probably to all the other fields which use Chinese character colloquial. 
II. The use of the Roman letter in the colloquial. 

(a.) It is believed to be the only practical way in which the Scrip- 

tares and other books can bo published in tho colloquial of 

o?ffiffin one of the main dialects, that of Amoy not readily admitting 

lettcr - tho uso of tho Chinese character ; and some of the lesser 

dialects also, probably, have the same difficulty. In such cases the use of 

the Roman letter seems to bo almost a necessity. 

(I.) Tho Romanized colloquial, it is claimed, is learned with more 
facility and in a much shorter time than the Chinese character 
Shimmy. colloquial. Tho testimony upon this point, however, is not 
unanimous. One from a mission which uses both styles writes, 
majority of our missionaries " (among the Hakkas) " seem to be of the 
ror Chinese opinion that it is easier to teach Chinese Christians to read 
character. tllo colloquial in Chinese character than in tho Romanized. 
Another in Szechwan Province writes, "There is no question but that 
it is easier to teach tho colloquial in Chinese character. If ono knew i 
Chinese characters and wished only to learn to read the Bible, per 
the Uomaaizcd might be the easiest, bat moat kaow some elementary 

May 8th.] REV. s. r. WOODJN. $5 

expressions from the classical and from the Mandarin (colloquial) -in 
Chinese character." 

But the great majority of those who have used the Romanized claim 
that it is far easier to learn. One from Central China ForRo maa 
writes, " It takes practically little or no time at all to learn it, letter. 
as compared with learning the Chinese character, which, indeed, is never 
learned by working people only so as to stumble over the book, while 
the Romanized is learned even by old women in a few weeks or, at most 
months. It puts the Scriptures, hymn book and catechism in the hands 
of many of the Church members who could never have them in the Chinese 
character. It is liked by the natives who use it, and thought well of, 
except that any one who makes pretence of being literary must denounce 
it as "fit only for old women." Another says, "In the Chehkiang 
Province I found the Romanized very useful and have advocated its 
introduction into the Shantung Province, but as yet without success." 
An Amoy missionary writes, " The Romanized colloquial seems to us the 
only practical answer to the question, How can we put the illiterate 
Chinese Christians in the way of reading the Word of God for themselves ?" 
A native preacher there said to the writer that he " had taught one to 
read the Romanized in a week ; that he did not think it required over a 
month on the average to learn to read it passably ;" while a missionary 
from North China says of the Mandarin colloquial in Chinese character, 
"We can never hope to have the mass of our Christians Bible readers." 

A missionary, and also a native pastor, from Shanghai, say, " The 
Romanized is much easier for the Chinese to learn ; even old people can 
learn to read it in two or three months, and ifc is desirable for them," but 
the pastor says, " It is not good for the young, who ought to read the 
Chinese character." Two missionaries in North Formosa say, " Women 
especially should learn the Romanized ; as many men as possible, and all 
preachers and their wives should know it." Contrasting it with the 
classical, Dr. Mackay (North Formosa) says, " There is no comparison 
between the two as regards facility of learning to read, and for writing 
letters. I believe the Romanized will never supplant the Chinese charac 
ter, still we can use such a help with great advantage, because (a) it 
is easily acquired, only a few months being needed ; (b) It helps to get the 
Chinese out of ruts ; (c) It is very convenient for them to use for 
writing letters. Still, the Chinese characters must also be known, else 
preachers especially are sure to be despised by the literati." 

From South Formosa one writes, " Could you imagine peasantry 
writing letters to each other in Chinese character ? Bat in Romanized 
any man, woman or child can put down just the words they speak. 
We are in our 3rd or 4th edition of the Romanized New Testament ; 
each edition 2,000. Wo. have COO people able to read. The Wen-U 
Scriptures are scarcely used at all by our Christians." Another from 
the same field says, " We have children of four years old who can read 
the Scriptures in the Romanized vernacular. A person of average ability 
should master the system in less than a month. Time saved is time 
gained. It is a help to the Chinese in learning the character; asking 


the teacher the sound, he can put it down in the Romanized and so fix 
it. Every Christian needs to read the Bible for himself, and by means 
of the Romanized he can do so." 

One from Huchow writes, " For elderly persons, or others who know 
no Chinese characters, the Romanized is learned much more rapidly " 
(than the Mandarin in Chinese characters). One from Ningpo writes, 
Unlettered adult Christians will learn the principles of the Romanized 
in ten days or two weeks, by spending an hour or two each day. After 
that it will perhaps require two or three months to be able to read the 
Gospels and Acts with a fair degree of ease. Much depends of course 
upon the earnestness as well as ability of the learner. It is a great 
boon to our Christians. Many read it who otherwise would never be able 
to read the Scriptures for themselves. New converts, who do not read 
the Chinese character, are taught the Romanized." 

In regard to the testimonies from the Ningpo and Amoy (including 
Formosa) fields, it must be borne in mind that their only form of col 
loquial is the Romanized, and they of course compare that with the 
classical, and not with the colloquial in Chinese character. One from 
the Hakka field well says that "Romanized has the great advantage 
that any one who can read one page can read anything that is written in 
that dialect. The only disadvantage is its anti-Chinese appearance." 
In the Swatow field one writes, "Adults learn to read the Romanized in 
from six weeks to four months. Pupils in schools, fourteen years and 
upwards, generally learn in one month. Learning to write requires a 
longer time. One woman learned in eight months. Few hospital pa 
tients or country Church members learn to write, and there is a tendency 
to the Chinese character if left to themselves. In the English Presby 
terian Mission at Swatow all but two or three of the twenty-eight 
preachers and teachers can read and write the Romanized, some very 
well. Some of the Christians use the Romanized because they wish to, 
and some because the mission wish to have them." 

In view of the above-given quotations from missionaries in various 
parts of the China field, together with the sentiments of the letters from. 
nscnBTiBor which they are taken, I think it may justly be inferred that 
opinion favors j n the opinion of the great majority of those whose observa- 
"^oKufai. tion has comprised both methods, unlettered Chinese adults 
and youth can learn the Romanized colloquial with greater ease and in 
a shorter time than the Chinese character colloquial. The sneer of some 
narrow-minded pedants among the Chinese, that "the Romanized is fit 
only for old women," becomes an important testimony to its value when 
what it implies is rightly considered. The fact that elderly men and 
women can learn the Romanized without great difficulty, as testified by 
missionaries in several dialects, is an evidence that the Romanized may 
Lave a large field of usefulness before it in many parts of China, and per 
haps in most of this field. The very thing that is needed is an easier 
method for the Chinese to learn to read the Scriptures than by committing 
to memory their multitudinous characters. And if able to read the 
Scriptures, then in time also all other needed books. 

May 8th.] KEY. s. F. WOODIN. 97 

It must be borne in mind that the memorizing of Chinese Not so liable 
characters is always liable to slips and forgetful ness. A new memw^ 
book is an enigma to be solved, for it may have a number of characters 
not often met with before, and which cannot be read. But in the Ro 
manized it becomes in a degree intelligible in the colloquial as soon as 
the sound of the -word is read in its connection. Those who have not 
studied the Chinese character diligently, and for several years, are liable 
at any time to come upon characters in character-colloquial whose sound 
they cannot recall, and so are unable to complete the sentence or get any 
right sense out of it. Even those who have studied Chinese books three 
or four years, or more, are constantly liable to this difficulty, which is 
a serious one. This would for the most part be done away with in the 
use of the Romanized colloquial. 

Also, the Chinese character colloquial in most dialects has characters 
used for their sound merely, whose meaning in Wen-li is different from 
that which the sound conveys in the colloquial. And, again, some 
characters are used for their meaning only, whose sound must be changed 
in reading colloquial, in order to made idiomatic colloquial ; Avoids confu- 
but the unskilful reader may hesitate to give the colloquial 6io p . Caus 9 d by 
rendering, and instead read off the classical sound. This cliar acters. 
is a very common thing in reading the character-colloquial, and tends to 
make confusion. 

The greater ease of learning to read in Romanized is also supple- 
mented by a still greater facility in the writing. Most Chinese Greater 
students who have studied the character seven or eight years ^rUin^ 
even, are awkward at writing, and often ashamed to write letters or other 
compositions in the Chinese character. The fear of being laughed at, 
or called ignorant, by some scholar, because they may have used the 
wrong character, or left out a needed stroke or more in its composition, is 
a constant source of timidity. See also tho increased difficulties of the 
" running hand " style in writing and reading the character. Easy and 
accurate communication of thought by letter correspondence is evidently 
far more difficult in tho Chinese character than in the Romanized, 
for all but the scholars, and they are constrained to use old forma of sen 
tences that must be both translated, and then explained, before they convey 
the intended meaning. The Romanized, starting in the new present, 
need not bo confined to tho antiquated and often obsolete models and 
moulds of expression handed down for scores of generations, which con 
stantly hamper the Chinese writer. See the invitations to funerals, 
weddings and birthday celebrations, as extreme examples. The getting out 
of these deep and terribly jolting ruts may tend in due time to awaken 
and give an immense impulse to the Chinese mind. In connection with 
Iho frco knowledge of the Bible, perhaps it may cause an awakening of the 
Chinese intellect, liko that which the literary use of iho English, and the 
other European languages, instead of Latin, caused in Europe. 

It seems to me that the beneficial use of the Romanized in several 
fields shows clearly that at the least it is well worthy of a wonhy or 
thorough trial in probably moat of China.. N"oi to the aegieot Bcno " 


of tbe Chinese character colloquial, where that is found useful, but as a 
supplement and aid to ifc, an auxiliary which in course of time may 
possibly come to be the principal, or even wholly supplant its former ally. 
In most cases this would probably require, at the least, scores of years. 

The antipathy of some of the Chinese against the Romanized, as also 
against all colloquial writings, will probably be overcome in due time in 
all the Christian Chinese communities, which are the field where our 
efforts are mainly exercised. Give the Christiana the best instruments 
for their work, and we may hope that their mental shoulders will be 
relieved from a part of their heavy burden-bearing by a thought-vehicle 
corresponding to the modern waggon and the railway carriage. 

It will be a great help to the proper trial and usefulness of the 
Romanized if all those who labor in the field of any dialect 

desired, will unite upon one system of Romanization. It would seem 
evident that Bible Societies should not give their funds to print col 
loquial versions in the Romanized, until it is certain that at least the 
majority of those who will use the Romanized in that dialect are agreed 
upon what they consider the best form of it. Otherwise the grant may 
do injury by making it more difficult to establish the better form in 
future. By setting up separate forms of Romanized, and printing books 
in them by private funds, individual missionaries also may do much to 
retard the use of the Roman letter in their respective fields. Great 
confusion of nomenclature of places, persons and tilings, in letters and 
publications for European and American perusal, is one of the least harm 
ful results of this neglect of concerted action. 


Et. Rev. J. S. Burdon, D.D. 

" Review of the various Colloquial Versions of tue Chinese 
Scriptures; and tlie comparative advantages of 

Roman letters and Chinese characters." 

A " REVIEW of the various Colloquial Versions " of the Holy Scriptures in 
Chinese is utterly beyond me. I collected a few of them last year in the 
hope that I might be able to form some idea of their comparative merits 
from the study of a single chapter of a Gospel, but I found the attempt 
hopeless. In the Chinese character they are unreadable by thoso un 
acquainted with the particular dialect represented, except in the case of 
those characters that are common to tlio general language. The versions 
in Roman letters are of course absolutely unintelligible to the uninitiated. 
1 can only, therefore, ppeak of "the comparative advantages of Roman 
letters and Chinese characters" in our colloquial versions, and further 
inquire whether either method La advisable, and if so, how far. 

May 8th. ] ET. KEV. j. s. BUEDOM, D.D. 99 

The use of Chinese characters in the writing of colloquial books is 
not iii accordance with Chinese custom, except in writing Chinese custom 
Mandarin Colloquial, of which I will speak further on. In 

most dialects there are probably many colloquial prod notions -colloquial books 
printed and sold, but they are of a very low character from a Mandarin. 
moral point of view. They are said to consist of low songs or other 
rhyming compositions that appeal only to depraved minds. Com 
positions of this sort have been issued occasionally and posted up on 
the walls in attacking Christian missions and missionaries. This of 
itself would not make against onr use of the style, but, in unauthorized 
writing it, many characters have to be employed which are characters. 
unauthorised. They are made up by the teachers in the district accord 
ing to the sound of the dialect peculiar to the region. They have, 
therefore, neither meaning nor sound in any other dialect. How far from 
the supposed centre of the dialect such characters are understood it 
is difficult to say, but they can only at the best be intelligible within a 
very limited area. Hence the necessity for a great multiplication of such 
versions to meet the necessities of the case in each new dialect entered 
upon. In view of all this, and of the additional fact that such un 
authorised characters are an offence to any educated eye, I decidedly 
think that the Chinese character is not suitable for bring- character 
ing out colloquial versions of our Sacred Books. More- ^SSffir* 
over, this method is no help to the non-readers, for if they Sc "P tures - 
do not understand the authorised characters, how can they be helped 
to do so by unauthorized characters being mixed in here and there 
with authorized ones? Again, is it advisable in the interests of the 
general work of missions in China to have so many translations of the 
Word of God into a language which, though divided into many dialects, 
is yet one on the written page throughout the whole empire ? This, 
it seems to me, is very apt to introduce confusion as to what is the real 
meaning of our Sacred Books, a result which might be injurious to the 
Chinese Christianity of the future. 

The use of Roman letters in bringing out colloquial books for the 
illiterate is free from all the dangers of the other method, has Roman lettera 
many advantages, and, for our immediate needs, is very meet the case. 
important if it can be carried out well. The needs arise from the fact 
that most of our converts are at present derived from the unlettered 
classes. To almost every woman, to coolies and field labourers, and 
many besides of other classes of men, the Chinese characters are almost 
a blank. The task of teaching such people who become Christians 
their own character is, as a rule, hopeless, especially if they are old. And 
yet if they have really taken in the main truths of the Gospel and are in 
earnest in their faith, some method ought to bo devised by which they 
may read at least a portion of tho "Word of God for themselves. The 
plan of using Roman letters to put their dialect on paper seems the most 
likely to be successful. It is the method employed by missionaries in 
regions where uncivilized tribes are without a vestige of litcra- rinn employed 
tare, and, for all practical purposes, the classes of Chinese that 


I have mentioned are in the same position. This plan has already 
been employed, and with marked success, in Ningpo, Amoy, and pro 
bably other places. I became acquainted with the effort in Ningpo 
nearly forty years ago, and can testify to its immense benefit to the 
illiterate converts of that region and time. People who could never 
otherwise have taken a single thought from a printed page, or put a 
thought upon paper, read with eagerness and delight the few little books 
and tracts that were then printed in the Ningpo dialect, wrote long 
letters to the missionaries when absent, and received and read the replies. 
It was like new life to them. It opened up a new world. It could not 
but make them intelligent believers and worshippers. 

It seems to me that in almost every mission at present, something 
of this kind is imperatively needed and will be needed for many years to 
come. Where no such system is in operation, and yet the 
proportion of non- readers is very great, how are the mass of 
missions. ^ converts to be rooted and grounded in the faith of the 
Gospel ? Beyond the salvation of their own souls, if this is accomplished 
at all, of what benefit can such people be in the Church ? If man or 
woman is not converted for others good as well as their own, their 
religion is of a very low type. An unlettered convert may be a very 
earnest man, and even a successful worker, but such a convert is a rarity, 
and the amount of his knowledge must be very small and very unreliable. 
No doubt in his talks many heresies might be detected. Such " Ned 
Weavers " ought to have some means by which they can take in with, 
their own eyes from the Word of God the truths they are allowed to 
preach. No amount of oral instruction will make up for inability to do 
this, save in very exceptional cases. Providing colloquial books in the 
character does not meet the case I have in view. It is a simple alphabet 
like our own, and a system founded on it applicable to his dialect, which 
the man could learn in a few weeks that can alone, for the present, meet 
the difficulty. So far as my experience goes, however, to make such a 
plan successful in a mission, it ought to be a united effort. The right 
meu and the right means are not always forthcoming for it. 

In all I have said on this subject, it must be distinctly borne in 
mind that I am in favour of such a system solely on the ground of 
providing a means of personal access to the most important parts of the 

Word of God by men and women utterly unable to learn the 
A merely T . . . , 

temporary Chinese character. It is, in my view, a merely temporary 

expedient to meet the ignorance of books among the masses in 

China, caused, not so much by tho difficulty of the language, as by the 

heathen indifference of the Government and tho educated class o tho 

education of the people. In course of time Christianity must affect and 

entirely remove this indifference to the welfare of tho lower classes, and 

education will become as general in China as it is in Christian countries. 

That education must bo carried on in the Chinese character. It is 

Education impossible, for mo at least, to conceive that tlie Chinese wfll 

""cVim^se 111 ovcr give up their written character. Wo can only obtain an 

character. i u f} ucnco or even a hearing among the educated by our 

May 8th.] ET. REV. j. s. BUEDON. 101 

power of using their own symbols. The young in the Church, and all, 
indeed, who can be taught, must-be brought up to read and write their 
own language in their own way. If this were to go on for two or three 
generations, education in a Chinese sense would be far more general in 
the Church, and the necessity for a Roman-letter system would gradually 
get confined to the few. 

The question then remains, In what form are we to bring out outf 
Sacred Books in Chinese so as to make it possible for the mass of the 
Chinese to read them for themselves ? I reply, In two forms, the 
Mandarin and a modified Wen-li. 

We have a classical Wen-li translation, and we do not need another* 
It may serve for the learned few in China. It certainly is Another 
not adapted for use by the many, whatever be its faults or its 
merits. It is good that we should have such a version for a 
country like this, and if by revision it can be improved, by all means let 
it be revised by those competent to do so. I urge that, for the sake of 
the million, we should bring out a Union Version in the Man- Un } 0n Man . 
darin dialect and in a modified style of Wen-li, one to be ^fJ^ft^J" 
founded on the other, the aim being in both to make the for tlie million, 
body of the work a good style of colloquial suitable for all China. 

Is this possible ? I think from ray experience that it is. Let me 
first deal with the proposal for a Mandarin version. 

The idea of using a Mandarin version of the Bible in any other than 
a Mandarin-speaking region, and with the Mandarin sounds, is Mandarin 
considered by many not familiar with that dialect as quite V in S n^-Man- e 
impracticable. This I can testify from actual experience is a dann re s ions - 
mistake. When I went from Peking to Hongkong, and began to work 
with Chinese students there, I introduced the Mandarin New Testament 
and the Mandarin Prayer Book, and I found that both books could be 
read quite easily in Cantonese. The pronouns and particles had to be 
altered, but, with the exception of an expression here and there, the 
remainder was excellent Cantonese. This small amount of change can 
hardly be called a " translation" of the Mandarin into Cantonese. Such 
unimportant changes do not in the least interfere with the sense. They 
are, moreover, perfectly natural to the Chinese in reading aloud. Where 
difficulty is felt by imperfectly instructed persons in making the necessary 
changes, a little teaching and perseverance soon overcome it. The 
expressions that are peculiar to Mandarin and which, therefore, might 
prove a stumbling-block to missionaries in non-Mandarin-speaking 
regions can be explained by any of the ordinary teachers, who can easily 
give the equivalents in their own dialects. Some difficulty there must be 
at first in the use of a Mandarin version by those not familiar with the 
dialect, but it is worth while to make the effort to overcome it. 

Mandarin, as its Chinese name Kwan-liwa indicates, is the general 
language of China. It is now spoken, though in differing Tfac renml 

forms, in that vast region we call the North and West of lanmiajjeof 
_., . _. .. i-oi Cluna. 

China. Mandarin books are as easily read in bzcuwen or 

Hankow as in Peking, no matter where translated. The dialects of the 


South and East of China are really one language with the Mandarin, 
end can all, I believe, be easily read out of it. It is in Mandarin, if any 
where, that we shall find the true colloquial version of China. 

The Chinese themselves use this style of composition. There are 

A etyle used not many of those manufactured characters which are such an 

by Chinese. offence to t ^ e literati. The extreme section of this class 

would, of course, despise such a style, but that need not trouble us. We 

Lave come to China to teach the Chinese that there is something more 

important than mere outer dress, whether of a man or his thoughts. 

There are existing versions of the Scriptures in Mandarin. A 

Om Mandarin general movement of the missionaries towards the revision and 

version, amendment of these so as to provide one common Mandarin 

version for the whole of China would be one of the best results that could 

arise from this Conference. 

Another mode of bringing out our Scriptures so as to meet the- wants 
Modified of our converts is by the use of a modified Wen-li, which is 
Wen-n Bible. p rac tj ca iiy the same thing as the Mandarin, with the except 
ion of the pronouns and particles. The body of the book would again 
be a good style of colloquial, and would therefore need very little change 
in reading aloud in any colloquial. The changes, again, as in the case 
of a Mandarin style, would not amount to a " translation," as though 
from a dead to a living language. 

I have tried this method in bringing out the English Prayer Book 

in such a style. This is a real test. Our Prayer Book, as 

teBtccfin y you know, is intended not merely to be read aloud by the 

Prayer Book. m n | ster ^0 the congregation, but to be read, sometimes 

together with the congregation, as in the Confession, Lord s Prayer, &c., 

sometimes by alternate verses between minister and congregation, as iu 

the Psalms. I found it could easily be used by a congregation in Hong- 

kon^ in liturgical worship. Uninstructed women und coolies, of course, 

could not use it, but neither could they use a colloquial book iu the 

Chinese character. The system of Roman letters is the only thing 

possible for them. For the rest, the only thing wanted was that it should 

be taken up heartily by those in charge and taught at meetings during 

the week so as to make it a real help to devotion by speaking it in their 

own colloquial. 

This style, again, would not commend itself to the learned. And yet 

many Chinese writers have used it when they want to appeal 

Sinese to the Million or to get a sale for their books. Sach a classic 

<wrilerB> as the & has been amplified and put into a style not far off 

thai which I advocate. The novels are generally written in easy Wen-lL 

The proclamations of the Government, when intended to bo understood 

"by ordinary readers, are also in a simple style. We are all familiar with 

the kind of crowd that gathers round a freshly issued proc- 
The etyle of . , , ,, , 

official proc- lamation, if of general interest. It consists of all classes, 

educated and uneducated. Each man tries to read, half 
aloud, according to his ability. Many are puzzled by characters that 
they have either forgotten or never known, but these are skipped, and 

May 8th.] ET. BEV. j. s. BUEDON. 103 

somehow or other every one gets a general idea of the gist of the proc 
lamation by means of two or three or more of its most prominent 
phrases, and these are repeated from mouth to month in their Wen-U 
dress, without any attempt to translate them into colloquial even to those 
who cannot read. These phrases fasten themselves on the memory and 
do their work all the more effectually because they are in this set style, 
unlike to their colloquial and yet quite intelligible. This is the way in 
which China is governed and has been governed for centuries, and it 
answers well for Chinese purposes. Such a fact as this seems to me the 
strongest argument possible for our taking hold of a similar mode of 
Chinese writing, fitting ourselves to use it well, and employing it in, 
every way we can. In the use of a Liturgy, our Prayers and Creeds and 
Chants and Psalms, in the reading of God s Word, our Gospels and 
other books would by constant repetition work their way into the 
understandings and hearts of the people, and, in consequence of the very 
genius of the Chinese language, would be till the more prized and stored 
in the memory if in a little higher style than ordinary colloquial. 

That there should be a difference between a written and a spoken 

stvle of colloquial is natural to every language. Even in our 

n -11^. TTT A difference 

own language, so unlike Chinese, this difference is seen. We, between writ- 
Church of England people, are familiar with this difference style natural to 
in the case of our English Prayer Book. The English 
prayers are not, and could not, be written in a style of ordinary 
conversation. They were certainly not composed in the first instance 
with reference to those who could barely read and understand their own 
language, still less for those who could not read at all. Such persons, it 
was supposed, would be taught by their clergy how to read and under 
stand them. The Collects especially are almost universally involved in 
construction, and often difficult for an uneducated man to follow. But 
by constant use and teaching in the pulpit and in classes or prayer meet 
ings, all, educated and uneducated alike, may get hold of these precious 
thoughts that have come down to us from antiquity, and translate them, 
each for himself, into his own language. For public use we should all 
be sorry to have them made more colloquial. In public we feel the 
naturalness of a more formal style than we use iu private. 

All this is just as applicable to Chinese as to English, and the 
difficulties of uneducated persons in reading or understanding p r i nciple 
our Sacred Books whether Bible or Prayer Book must be applicable to 
met and overcome in China, as in England, by careful teach 
ing and by constant use. For women and coolies, books in the Roman 
letters can easily be provided, but that is only by the way. The missionary s 
work really lies iu the language as both spoken and written by Chinese. 
If they were savages or barbarians without literature the case would be 
different, but they have a written character, which they almost worship, 
and by ignorance of it, or knowledge of it and power to use it, they will 
estimate our fitness to bo their teachers. If we all unite in an scripture in 
earnest and persistent attempt to bring out a version of the Wen-u aa 
Scriptures in a stjlo of amplified Wen-li which can bo easily 


read out in any dialect in China, an inestimable boon will be conferred 
on every mission in China. 

Think of the endless expenditure of time and strength and money 
Vernacular S on in bringing out new colloquial versions for every 
versions. new dialect entered on. A colloquial version can only be used 
within a very limited district. Some places only fifty miles apart have 
such differences in their dialects that the colloquial Bible or Prayer Book 
of one region would be quite unsuitable for the other. This is still more 
the case when the distance amounts to hundreds of miles. The work of 
translating thus becomes an endless business, taking up both time and 
strength and money that ought, as years go on, to be devoted to other 
schemes. Can we not agree on one translation of our Sacred Books in 
one or other of the forms I have indicated, or in both, that will save all 
this work, and free men from going over and over again the same ground, 
as though condemned to a perpetual treadmill ? 

If it is still said that such a style could never be brought within the 
reach of the masses of our converts, then I ask What is the use and 
the meaning of our schools ? If the parents are beyond our reach at 
present and must be supplied with extracts in Roman letters from our 
Sacred Books (and that is all that such ignorant people can take in), 
surely the children may be taught in such a way as not to need such 
crutches when they grow up, and so a good body of voluntary teachers 
may be provided in .each generation to help the uneducated converts as 
they are received iuto the Church. 

I append to this paper* a few verses taken here and there in some 

of our different versions, which may illustrate the points I have tried 

The points to enforce with reference to the superiority of a Mandarin or 

:cd> a modified Wen-li style over a classical Wen-li on the one 

hand and a colloquial style on the other. 

The first example is taken from Mark viii. 38. The Delegates 
An example of version renders this by 28 characters, and, if read out as it 
stands ; it would be intelligible to none of the hearers who had 
not books in their hands and were not well acquainted with a high style 
of Wen-li. To make it intelligible it must be translated into the living 
language of the people just as much as a Latin sentence would have to be 
translated for the benefit of the unlearned among ourselves. This is 
evidently unsuitable for ordinary readers. It can never become familiar 
to them. "We want something far simpler to take hold of the popular 

The same verse is given as translated in the Blodget and Bnrdon 
in eaey Wen-li. vers i n - Jt contains 43 characters, that is, 15 characters more 
than the translation of the Delegates. By a fairly educated 
person it would, I think, be understood even if read out as it stands by a 
good reader of Chinese. The changes necessary to mako it perfectly intel 
ligible to any ordinary congregation aro very few ; four or five particles 
would have to be altered and one or two characters added. Wo have here, 
then, what is practically a good stylo of colloquial in a form that suits 

* See Appendix C. 


every dialect in the empire. Those who are in the habit of reading 
from colloquial versions only would, no doubt, find this very difficult and 
troublesome at first. But surely we should not be satisfied unless we 
are able to read aloud in this way a chapter in our Chinese Bibles in the 
same way that an educated Chinese can. It is no great feat. 

The Mandarin translation of the same verse (which, as I suppose, is 

well known to be the foundation of the version last named) T 

In Mandarin. 

uses 50 characters, seven more than the last mentioned. 

The Foochow colloquial has actually fewer characters than the simple 
Wen-li. This seems to be a characteristic of the Foochow j u p ooc iiow 
colloquial version, as by a rough calculation I made out last Collo i llial - 
year that it had between three and four thousand characters fewer than 
the easy Wen-li version. This version, moreover, is used in a region 
where the readers among the Christians are very, very few. 

I also add from the Prayer Book the general exhortation used at 
the beginning of our services, the general confession and the From Prayer 
Apostles Creed, which all seem to me to be in as simple a Boot- 
style as colloquial, and yet are in a form usable all over the empire. The 
most trifling changes only are necessary for reading aloud in any dialect. 

[Without discussion, and on the motion of Rev. A. P. Sapper, D.D., a 
committee of twelve ^vas appointed to consider and report upon the subject of 

the three papers], 

* * 








Rev. Alexander Williamson, LL.D. (S. u. P. M., Shanghai). 

"THERE is another reason not generally apprehended for the failure of Christian 
missions in India. It is that the missionaries are so iinfairly handicapped by 
the Bible Society. 

Can there be a leas hopefnl mode of inducing the Hindu or Mohammedan to 
embrace Christianity than to place in his hands the Bible without note 
or comment ? He makes his own notes . . . and the intelligent Oriental s 
notes and comments would very much astonish Exeter Hall." 

W. 8. LILLY.* 
"Fas est et db hoste doceri. 1 

I WISH very much another had been appointed to write on this 
theme. I tried to get quit of it, but in vain. And my objection was 
that in treating this subject I felt I would have to speak so plainly as 
perhaps to offend some old and valued friends on the directorate of the 
Bible Societies. Still, what I may say cannot surprise any of them. They 
know well that during my entire missionary life I have had scruples 
* Nineteenth Century for September, 1889. 


about circulating the% Bible in Cbina without note or comment. In 
early life, wben asked to become the agent of the National Bible Society 
of Scotland, I begged permission to accompany the Bible with evangelical 
books and tracts, saying that " otherwise it was like sending a man to 
work with one arm tied behind his back." This was granted, but I soon 
felt more was needed. After further representation, headings, introduc 
tions and maps were permitted to one edition of the New Testament. 
But soon the introductions were vetoed, and the matter fell back nearly 
to the old position. 

The last General Conference of Missionaries in China, in 1877, made 
strong representations on this subject, which created a little stir at first, 
but which also speedily subsided into the former condition. 

This has proved most unsatisfactory to the missionaries, and 

consequently the Committee of Arrangements have again resolved to bring 1 

Missionaries ^6 m *tter forward for further consideration. For the mis- 

s i onar ies feel that they are in reality "handicapped by the 
societies. Bible Societies " and that the whole question, as to style, 
introductions, notes, printing, binding, and general " get up " of the book, 
requires most serious looking into. 

The matter is of no minor importance ; it concerns the Revelation 
which God has given to man our "SACRED BOOKS" in the highest 
sense of the term; and we must do everything we can to make them 
intelligible to the people of this country, and not merely intelligible but 
acceptable, that " the Word of God may have free course and bo glorified," 
not fettered by obscurity or cast aside as unintelligible. 

Again I say, I wish this task had not been imposed upon me. Yet I 

am encouraged by the knowledge that many of the directors of the Bible 

Constitution Societies share my views, but are precluded from any action. 

ucntBin B thc by their constitutions, and also by the opinions which prevail 

way> among many of their constituents. I have, however, faith in 
the fair-mindedness of all, and humbly hope that the representations 
which I may make will lead those opposed to "notes " to reconsider their 
position and perhaps change their mind. 

Were I writing in reference to a European country, where the 
character of the Bible as a revelation from God was understood, and 
the heroes, incidents, localities, style and doctrines, less or moro known 
from infancy, I would not press for the addenda under considera 
tion so strongly, though they everywhere would bo an advantage. 
Or, again, were I writing in reference to a semi-barbarous nation, 
where everything has to bo taught ab initio, I would not be so anxious 
for notes. But in view of this great literary nation, with its tons of 
thousands of reading men, of keen and often just literary tastes sharpened 
by constant exercise, intolerant of obscurity, impatient of oonfusiou of 
figures, and on whose ear even non-euphonious sentences grate most 
jarringly, I feel it is of the last importance that the best book iu the 
world should be set before them with becoming care. 

Perfection of translation will not meet this wa,ut, for the difficulty 
lies not in the words but in the doctrine, style an4 idiom. And so, often, 


the more literal the translation the more unacceptable to the reader. Con 
sequently our most accomplished translators sometimes add to the simile, 
sometimes modify the metaphor, and not seldom cut the Gordian knot 
by giving the sense and leaving the figure out. But this is putting the 
gloss in the text instead of beneath it in small or different characters, 
which is the Chinese way of putting "notes on the margin." 

The case, therefore, as regards China is the most powerful possible. 

Here we have the greatest non- Christian nation in the world, 

., , ,., , . ,, -r,.,. As to China. 

the most literary and most given to criticism ; the .bible, an 

unknown book, strange in style and unheard of in doctrine ; surely wo 

should take care here. 

Some have said the Bible is an Eastern book, and in this way defend 
ed their position. But they don t seem to realize that China is farther 
removed from Palestine than Palestine is from Britain, and that the 
Chinese style and idiom is much more alien to the Hebrew than the 
Hebrew is to the English. Others have argued that " the Bible is 
"self-interpreting." So it is to any one equipped for the task. But 
" self -interpreting " is a relative term. A. text book, say of chemistry, 
is self-interpreting, but not to the unlearned. So the Bible may be 
said to be "self-interpreting" to one who can (I) read, and (2) has also 
some preparatory knowledge of its contents. 

We are also told that the Bible is God s Revelation to man, and that 
we are under the highest obligations to give it to every man. Yes, the 
truth it contains, but not necessarily in the precise form in which it is 
bound up in these covers, and certainly not to those who are as yet 
unable to make a good use of it. There was a time when there was no 
Bible, only a few written parchments, or perhaps brick tablets. Other 
revelations were given as the Israelites were able to understand them. 
Each fresh revelation prepared the way for the next. So also in the New 
Testament Church : first one gospel, then three, then four, then certain 
epistles, then two or more put together, then the entire canon. But 
hundreds of thousands entered into the kingdom of God without any Bible, 
simply by faith in the teaching of the apostles and their successors. Our 
Lord Himself said He had many things to communicate to His disciples, 
but they were not yet able to understand them ; so, likewise, the Apostle 
Paul affirmed that " ho had fed them with milk, not with meat, for 
hitherto they had not been able to bear it, neither yet were they able." 
How then can we imagine that the Chinese, who have never heard of the- 
doctrines of the Bible, should be able to comprehend the whole revelation 
at once ? 

No one can be more fnlly sensible of the preciousnesa of the Bible 
than I am, for it is my all ; and no one could be more emphat- preliminary 
ic as to our duty to put it even in its present form into elucidatory 
the hands of our converts and teach it to the young ; and so D0tce re Q ui r ed - 
the Bible with tho text only can find a sphere in China in our churches 
and schools. But I maintain the understanding of the Bible among the 
people needs either (1) preliminary teaching, a preparation which the 
Chinese have not received ; or (2) elucidatory notes, and that, therefore, if 


we feel it our duty to give them the Bible-we must give-them, with it, the 
means of understanding it. 

And I wish to bo clear and emphatic on this point ; not the Bible 
with " aids to the understanding of it " accompanying it, but in it, and 
bound up with it, that wherever the Word of God may go the "key" 
may go likewise. 

With these preliminary remarks I nowproceed to the question in 
hand, and shall take up the points seriatim. 

FIRST. As regards the need of " historical and geographical 
. notes " for I class these two together one would think this 

Historical and 

geographical could hardly be questioned. As every reader of the Bible 
knows, allusions to men and places occur in almost every 
chapter, e.g., Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, etc., etc. But the 
Chinese have never heard of such persons ; also there is perpetual 
reference to places, such as Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Jerusalem, and so 
on, equally unheard of. Who were these men ? Where are these 
countries ? is perpetually asked by th Chinese reader ; and having no 
help they too often lay the book aside. And this more frequently occurs 
since the transliteration of the names which is a necessity is so un- 
Chinese and uncouth to them, e.g., Ya-pah-la-han for Abraham, etc., etc. 

Persons at home who have read translations of the Chinese classics 
know how obnoxious Chinese names appear to us and how perplexed we 
are to know to whom or to what they refer. The same thing is felt by 
the Chinese in regard to our Bible, only in a much more aggravated 
degree, for wo are accustomed to names in different languages, whereas 
they have never read any books or language but their own. 

SECOND. The need for ethnological notes seems equally obvious. 

Ethnological ^ r i ns tance, take the feasts which occur so frequently in the 

notes ? Bible, e. j., the feast of the Passover, the feast of Pentecost, 

the feast of Tabernacles, the feast of Jubilee, Trumpets, Dedication, 

Purira, etc. ; without explanation, what can the Chinese make of these ? 

So also with Pharisee, Saducee, Herodian, etc., etc., etc. 

THIRD. Similar difficulties pertain to the manners and customs 
Bible man- depicted in the Bible. (1) No occupation is more common in 
customs 1 ^! the Scriptures than that of the shepherd, and from no source 
understood. h ave more frequent or more sacred instructions been drawn. 
But there are millions in China who have never seen a sheep, and, while 
in the North and North-west they are to be met with, yet the sheep and 
the shepherd have anything but the sacred associations with which 
Scripture and poetry have encircled the pastoral life. The sheep is 
regarded as the most stupid of animals, and the shepherd very low in 
the scale of society on an equality with the swine-herd. (2) Milk, as a 
rule, is never used as food, except now and then iti the extreme North. 
(3) The vine is plentiful and grapes are well-known and widely used in 
Central and Northern China ; but they never use them for wine, so that 
wine-presses and all the specific operations connected therewith, as well as 
wine itself, in our acceptation of the term, are non-existent. ( 1) So also with 
many others, e.g., salutations, washing of feet, the holy kiss, etc., etc., etc. 


But I shall not enlarge here, as my object is-not to write an exhaus 
tive paper, but only to indicate the need of brief explanations when these 
customs are referred to. 

One very important point, however, deserves special notice, namely, 
that many of their customs are diametrically opposed to ours, e.g., the 
well-known fact that the left hand is the seat of honor ; white, mourning ; 
also in contradistinction to us who associate the old serpent, the dragon, 
with Satan the Chinese set it forth as the symbol of intelligence, 
beneficence and power, and the dragon is their national banner, their 
royal coat-of-arms, and floats at the mast head of every ship. 

FOUKTH. But the most serious aspect of the whole is that there are 

hundreds of words in the original Scriptures for which we 

, . , , . ,, ~. . . No Chinese 

nave no equivalent in the Chinese language, only approxima- equivalent 

tions less or more akin, but often most insufficient ; and the Scriptural 
gravamen of the matter is that our most sacred terms are the 
least satisfactorily represented ; so that without notes ive come far short 
of conveying revealed truth, and sometimes teach error. This is a strong 
statement, but I feel sure it will be borne out by all who are duly 
acquainted with the language. For instance, I have no doubt but that 
originally the Chinese terms for God and Spirit were the analogues of 
our own ; and that T ieu, Shangti and Shin had the same reference as 
Ouranos or Heaven, "the Most High," Theos, etc. But the history and 
the consequent accretions of these words have been widely different. In 
the West these terms were early applied to idols or to flesh and blood 
deities ; in China not so. The supreme ruler retained his unique position, 
and the inferior deities continued to be conceived of as spirits. Hence a 
wide divergence in the application of the terms. In the West, Elohira 
and Theos were debased to mean local gods; in China, T ien, Shangti 
never. In translating Scripture, therefore, we must discriminate, and dare 
not use uniform terms, but judge each passage by itself and use the term 
which shall best convey the idea of the text. But, indeed, the best terms 
fail us on many occasions. We must guard here, and explain there, by 
the insertion of a few elucidatory characters if we would convey the 
true sense. 

Again, they have no correct idea of sin. Nor could it be expected. 
The conception of sin which the Jews possessed, and which we inherit, 
was driven into them by a long process of object teaching of the most 
effectual kind, of which the Chinese know nothing. The idea of sin 
with them is simply "offence;" " I offend you," or, in a deprecating 
form, " I beg your pardon." Without explanation, therefore, it is impos 
sible for them to gather the true sense of the nature of sin ; and they 
wonder at the importance we set upon it. 

So also with all the other doctrinal terms., e.g., atonement has a not 
very pleasant mercantile association ; holiness means simply human 
perfection in the Confucian sense, and has nothing of the original idea ; 
Hghtcousness, justification, adoption, sanctificatiou and all these terms 
have to be represented by characters totally devoid of the spiritual ideas. 


I remember at home attending a largo committee meeting of the 
Scotch Brble Society when this question was discussed. A gentleman 
rose, and with an air of overpowering solemnity said, " No notes or 
comments; we must give them the sincere milk of the word," and his 
view carried the day. Little did he know that this was the very thing 
which he and his friends were preventing us from doing, and compelling 
us to give them little better than husks, or words and phrases which 
were devoid of the spiritual meaning of the original, and which no Chinese 
words could at present of themselves convey without some explanation. 

FIFTH. But leaving words, and coming to sentences and style in 

general, the need for notes is equally apparent. 

People who have not dwelt among the Chinese can hardly be made 
to realize the wide difference which exists. In translating Chinese we 
have most frequently to take the last character in the sentence and 
proceed backwards. Then in our Bible there are so many allusions to 
things which are so strange and unknown that very many pages of 
Scripture are full of difficulties. This is especially true of those passages 
conveying spiritual meaning which everywhere stud the Bible lights 
Difficulties and joys to us, but blank and repellaut to the Chinese, 
of translation. p os j t i ve iy the Chinese have hardly any conception of spiritual 
truth. They stumble at every mention of it. 

In illustration of this 1 might hero fill pages with instances taken 
from the Scriptures. But this seems needless, for when any intelligent 
man thinks of it, he at once sees the force of what I say. 

Many of the portions of the sublime and elevating Psalms, the 
glowing prophecies of the Old Testament, and the spiritual life, spiritual 
experience, the plan and purpose of God in Christ, as set forth in the 
Epistles, are all mist to them. They don t know what to make of them, 
and are offended at the book and too often cast it contemptuously aside. 
To show clearly what I mean, take as an example, with profound reverence, 
some of our most inspiring psalms, say the xc., " God has been our 
dwelling place in all generations," or the xci., " He that dwelleth in the 
secret place of tho Most High shall abide under the shadow of the 
Almighty." With his materialistic ideas the Chinaman asks, How can 
God be a dwelling place, etc. ? Or take a prophecy, " There shall come 
forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of 
his roots, and the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon lira," and so on. In 
his ignorance he asks, How can this be ? Go to the epistles and ask him 
to read those wondrous passages setting forth the inheritance of the 
saints in Christ Jesus, and such matters, and here again all is impene 
trable mystery to the uninstructed. The whole work of the spirit is an 
enigma to the Chinese. 

Further, take for illustration such phrases as " Remission of sins 

through the blood of the Lamb;" how is this possible? or "Washed in 

the blood of the Lamb." But blood is not purifying in the eyes of the 

illustrations Chinese, and hence they cannot make out what the figure 

can mean. So also with " born again," " created anew," " the 

bread of life," " the water of life," " except ye cat my flesh and drink my 


blood, ye have no life in you," and such phrases. I shrink from enlarg 
ing on this subject lest a bad use should be made-of it by scoffers. But 
We must face the difficulty and try to remove it. One of our most 
experienced missionaries said to me th other day, " My oldest and best 
native pastor confessed to me lately that for years he had read the 
Scriptures chapter after chapter often in absolute blindness and bewilder 
ment, reading the characters easily enough, but entirely at a loss as to the 
sense." If the Ethiopian eunuch, acquainted with the Old Testament, 
when asked, " Understandest thou what thou readest ? " was compelled 
to confess, " How can I, except some man should guide me ? " can we 
suppose the Chinaman who has never heard of the Bible or Bible truth 
should be able to make out the meaning from the text alone ? 

SIXTH. Again, the names and titles of our Lord and the Church, 
etc., present great difficulties to the Chinese. Not a few are totally 
unintelligible to them, e.g., the rock of ages, the branch, the Namea an d 
day spring, the lion of the tribe of Judah, the plant of titles of Chrut. 
renown, the horn of salvation, the chief corner stone, the Messiah, the 
morning star, the only begotten Son of God, the lamb -of God our Pass- 
over, the word, the truth and the life, the true vine, the Lord our 
righteousness, the root and offspring of Jesse, the resurrection and the 
life, the bread of life, the water of life, the alpha and the omega, the 
amen, the second Adam. 

So also with the common titles of the Church, e.g., the body of 
Christ, the bride of Christ, the bride the Lamb s wife, the Titieeofthe 
general assembly and Church of the first born, the city of the 
living God, the family in heaven and earth, the golden candlestick, the 
habitation of God, the temple of God, the heavenly Jerusalem, the pillar 
and ground of truth, and many others. Clearly there should bo notes to 
these phrases. 

Also in regard to the titles and names given to Christ s people, who 
are designated in such a multitude of ways and often by terms Names 

J J glVCU tO 

absolutely inexplicable to the Chinese without elucidation Christ s people, 
children of the living God, kings and priests unto God, heirs of God 
and joint-heirs with Christ, members of Christ s body, lively stones, 
pillars in the temple of God, trees of righteousness, epistles of Christ, the 
sheep of his pasture, etc. 

In like manner the names applied to Christian ministers need notes, 
e.g., they are called stewards of the mysteries of God, ambassadors o 
Christ, angels of the Churches, watchmen, etc., etc. 

Now in reference to all these a few Chinese characters, inserted in 
double rows, indicating explanations of the text in. the Chinese fashion, 
would make these sentences perfectly intelligible. Why should this not 
be done ? 

Yet once more, the appellations applied to the evil one require notes, 
e.g., he is called the prince of this world, the prince of the power of the 
air, the ruler of the darkness of this world, the father of lies, the 
accuser of the brethren, Apollyon, Beelzebub, and so on. What can 
the ordinary Chinese make of such terms ? 


I might go on this way, but it would be superfluous. I heard a 
remark made the other day on a certain scientific work. The Chinese 
scholar said the characters were Chinese, and the sentences arranged in 
seeming order, but what did it all mean ? The native Chinese scholar 
could make no sense out of it. To a Western scholar the meaning was as 
clear as could be, and so also it was to a Chinese youth acquainted with 
science, but to the native M.A. it was simply confusion. Why ? because 
the foreigner and his pupil had learned to attach Western ideas to the 
characters which did not originally belong to them, whereas the native 
scholar looked at them as they were current in his literature. So it is 
with the Scriptures. The Old and New Testaments in Chinese may be 
plain enough to us and those taught by us, but that is because we, with 
our full intelligence, read a meaning into the characters which they do 
not possess of themselves nor convey to ordinary Chinese readers. 

SEVENTH. In regard to the remainder of my thesis I have not much 

to say. Maps and headings have been granted, only it seems to me 

Maps and the headings might be made much more serviceable. They 

headings, gi^ni^ be prepared, not simply by a scholar, but by one who 

knows the people, their thoughts and prejudices, and he should 

first of all study the chapter carefully, note what thoughts or phrases 

are likely to cause a Chinaman to stumble, and afterwards so compose 

the headings as to meet and remove these stumbling-blocks. 

EIGHTH. "Introductions" are still denied us, yet ia view of the 

great variety of men by whom the various books were written, 
Introductions. 7, JMS i i_ .M i 

the diiierent circumstances in which they were composed, 

if there is one thing more reasonable than another, surely it is that each 
book should be prefaced by a short account of the writer, his era, and his 
object. Why should we be required to send forth books without head 
or tail, dumb books, blind books among this new and enquiring 
people ? 

NINTH. A general preface to both Testaments is also of paramount 
importance. Surely there ought to be some general preface, giving a 
brief account of the character of the book as a whole, the authority of 
the book, the contents of the book, the connection and harmony of its 
varied parts, guiding the reader here and correcting him there as re 
quired. For instance, a Chinaman opens at Genesis and reads about 
Preface the creation, the fall, and flood, and so forth ; he naturally 
asks what authority has this book for speaking on these great 
topics ? and on what ground am I to believe the statements ? Surely an 
answer to such enquiries should be provided for him in the book which he 
reads ? Again, he turns to Exodus and reads of the tabernacle, the ark, 
the various altars and offerings, etc. Ho asks, Is this Christianity ? 
He goes on to Leviticus and reads about clean and unclean animals, 
ceremonial purifications, etc., etc., an eye for an eye and a tooth for u 
tooth ; again ho asks, Is this Christianity ? Farther on he finds whole 
sale slaughter commanded and carried out. Or he proceeds to the 
Psalms those wonderful productions! or the Prophets, and hero he is 
perfectly bewildered and asks, What is all this about ? We would not send 


out any of our own paltry compositions without some preliminary 
chapter to guide the reader. Why should this the best of all books- 
be denied that which is so necessary to acceptability and interest in the 
case of other books ? Oc let us suppose the Chinese reader falls upon 
the story of Abraham, or Jacob, or David, or Solomon, he naturally asks, 
Are these the exemplars of the men of the West ? But if not, why should 
there not be some means of explaining matters to him ? You see what I 
mean, so I shall not multiply instances. The Chinese have all through 
their existence been extraordinarily careful about the purity of their 
classics, and even of their standard histories, and it is deplorable that we 
should not have it in our power to make the rationale of all these lapsi 
as widely known as the history of them. 

If we take the responsibility of publishing this sacred book, I repeat 
we are under the most solemn obligations to help readers to understand 
it, and that not by viva voce explanations merely, which may or may not 
be possible, but with the text, to go wherever the book goes. 

TENTH. I don t wish to be considered too revolutionary, but I 
cannot close without pointing out the unappropriateness of the Name for Bible 
name for the Bible " Yoh," True it is a good translation of inappropriate, 
the word "testament," but why adhere to a translation in a case of this 
kind ? The word used as " Yoh " means contract, agreement, treaty, and 
such like, but it conveys a most inadequate idea to the Chinese of the 
character of our sacred book. After the "Treaty" of 1860 was con- 
eluded between the foreign kingdoms and China, hand-bills were widely 
circulated, informing the people of this agreement, and intimating the 
old treaties were annulled. Not long afterwards a friend of mine was 
selling Scriptures at one of the examinations, when he was asked, " Why 
do you sell the Old Treaty ? Have you not informed us that all the old 
treaties are abrogated and a new one agreed on by the great powers ? " 

This illustrates what I mean. A slavish sense of the necessity of 
verbal translation has driven our translators to adopt that term. And 
in this case there is no excuse, for this name, as applied to the Bible, is of 
human origin. I should much prefer "The revelation of God to man," 
or some such phrase, which would impart a zest to examination and 
not repel as this vague term. More can be said in favor of the " Fuh 
Ying" or "happy sound" as designating the Gospels, though I don t 
much like it, and if it continues to be used I should say that the general 
title should be " The words and deeds of Christ Jesus " according to 
the Apostle Matthew or Mark as the case may be. Such titles would let 
the Chinese know exactly what the book purports to be, and what they 
may expect. 

While speaking thus I by no means wish to be understood as affirm- 
ing that the Bible is throughout unintelligible to the Chinese. Bible not 
On the contrary, there are great portions of it quite clear to 
them, especially the historical and biographical portions, to 
together with much in the Gospels and Acts. But the evil is that when a 
Chinese reader alights on any of those passages to which I have referred, 
iic is uuuoyed 5 ho cornea on a second, and is more annoyed, and so he 


does not do justice to the intelligible portions, bat denounces the whole. 
I am the more concerned because my conviction is that by judicious 
prefaces and introductions and notes it could be made the most interest 
ing of all our books to the Chinese. It embraces the only history we 
possess of the early condition and distribution of mankind ; touches upon 
so many countries, such diverse civilizations, and is written in such a 
matchless style, that it could be made to absorb the attention of every 
scholar. And then it meets human wants, human sorrows, the sins and 
aspirations of the heart, in such a wonderful manner as to arrest the 
attention of every human being, young and old, poor and rich alike. 
I rejoice to know that it has been useful in many instances ; all I affirm 
is that it might have been a thousand-fold more useful had ordinary 
means been adopted to elucidate it. 

The great aim of the Bible Societies in circulating the Scriptures is 

surely the instruction of the people and the winning of their 

Bible Societies regard for the Revelation of God- Why not take means 

adequate to accomplish this ? "Why send the bare text forth 

by the thousands as if among a people prepared to receive it ? Why give 

our sacred but unknown book to the Chinese without any aid to the 

understanding of it ? Or, rather, why publish it in a form tending rather 

to repel than attract ? Why defeat their own ends ? For the uncouth 

names, manners, strange imagery, new doctrines, etc., positively annoy a 

Chinaman when he cannot understand or explain them. 

In these discussions I have not touched upon the question of 
translations, for the reason already assigned. Several of our versions are 
admirable far better than the septuagint which the Apostles and the 
early Christians possessed, and with which they were content. What 
would have happened if St. Paul and St. Peter had given their time to 
revising the Greek text of the septuagint instead of going forth to 
preach the Gospel ? 

No possible translation, whether high Wen-li or simple Wen-li, or 

any form of colloquial, can make the Bible plain to the uniniated Chi- 

Eiucidation nese ^k^ we nee ^ elucidation of the text ; and to work 

required, away emending that sentence or this turning this expression 

or that is all very well ; but it forcibly reminds me of paying " tithe of 

mint and anise and cummin and omitting the weightier matters of the 

law." Those ought to be done but not to leave the other undone, 

I therefore do not favor the appointment of any committee of revi- 
Annotated sion, but would respectfully recommend a small committee to 

Bible recom- i. i j T>M i .1 T >,i-i. 

mended, prepare an annotated Bible on the limited lines above sketch 
ed out ; and which, of course, would take full advantage of the best 
points in all existing versions. And I do this for three reasons, which 
seem to mo of great weight : First, it would practically remove tho 
"Term" controversy ; for with explanations of the terms it would matter 
less which were used j second, it would supply us with a uniform Bible 
at once for the whole nation, and also for the Mandarin and other 
vernacular districts; and third, it would supply an urgent want: for 
most assuredly wo must have an intelligible and acceptable Bible for this 


great nation, and it could be better prepared by a committee than an 

Nor have I in the preceding pages touched upon the printing and 
outward appearance of the Bible, chiefly because such matters did not 
come within the compass of my essay. One word, however, may be 
permitted, and that is that cheapness and multiplicity of copies should 
not predominate in the counsels of the Bible Societies, but that an effort 
should be made to keep the various editions of the Scriptures as regards 
type, paper and binding above the ordinary standard of Chinese books, 
and pleasant and attractive to native readers. 

Nor have I referred to the permission which one Bible Society has 
recently so graciously made of allowing a sheet tract, explanatory of the 
Bible, to be circulated with it, and the introduction of one or two 
sentences in the text, at one or two difficult places, because they were too 
insignificant to demand much attention. We thank them for the conces 
sion so far, and would only be too ^glad if we could look upon it as a 
promise of more. But alas ! for the divisions in the Christian Church ! 
and the laws laid down by our forefathers, binding these societies to the 
bare letter of the Word ; alas ! also, for the denominationalism which still 
exists at the Boards ! But is this to go on for ever ? and are we also 
literally to " make the Word of God of none effect through our tradi- 
tions " ? I hope for better things. 

If the suggestions I have made meet with favor from any or all of 
the Bible Societies it will be the occasion of universal joy among us. But 
if not, then I fear there will be a proposal made to institute a new society 
called " The Bible Society for the East ; " or else the missionaries will 
appeal to their supporters to give their contributions to the Tract and 
Book Societies which have most generously done what they could, but 
whose limited funds prevent them from meeting the wants of China in 
this respect. 

I have been asked, What would I propose ? It has been said these 
elucidations would involve a commentary. No, what I have outline of 
indicated could be compressed into small compass. reciuircmenta. 

With all deference, I will therefore conclude this -paper by a brief 
outline of what I think would meet the case : 

1st. I would have general prefaces to Old and New Testaments, 
introductions to the different books, and headings to the chapters, such 
as I have indicated. 

2nd. In regard to figures of speech, difficulties of idiom or style, 
manners and customs, etc., etc., I would adopt the method the Chinese 
themselves use, viz., double rows of explanatory characters in small type, 
placed beneath the passages in question. 

3rd. In reference to persons and places constantly occurring I would 
suggest an appendix in which I would have a glossary of the names of 
persons and places duly numbered, and wherever that person or place was 
mentioned, affix the number, so that the reader could instantly refer to it. 
4th. So, also, with oft recurring religious terms, such as God, Spirit, 
sin, atonement, justification, etc., etc. I would have them also explained 


in appendix, and nnmbered. And, oE course, I wonld only have such 
notes as would occasion no controversy among Christians, but simply 
such things as are commonly believed among us all. 

5th. I would also add chronological comparative tables,- and tables 
of weights, measures, and money, etc., etc. 

Nor long since a lady, in speaking to a few friends about to proceed 
to China as missionaries, said, " Push the Bible, for wherever the Bible 
ia left there is light." Beautifully put! and expressive of the noble 
sentiment which exists at home. Would that it were true ! But it is 
the entrance of God a Word which gives light, and if this be checked the 
good is hindered. It however can le made true. The potentiality is there, 
but the human means to awaken the light is absent. Let us use the 
ability God has given us to illumine these pages that "wherever the Bible 
is left " there may indeed " be light." 


Ir. S. Dyer, (B. & F. B. S., Shanghai). 

As a missionary body, our great work is to spread the knowledge of the 
Truth in China. To this end, each in his own line of things uses the 
means which seem to be best, or those which are at hand. And happy 
are they who in doing so are simply following the leading from above. 
Among the means that are used, not the least, nor the least in import 
ance, is the circulation of the Scriptures ; and it will be useful for us to 
consider the methods by which they are being distributed, as well as 
gome of the results. 


Three principles may be mentioned, which are acted on in the 
circulation of the Scriptures in China : 

1. Withoiit Note or Comment. According to this plan, Christians hold- 

t 1 h ret * n var i ns views of religious doctrine are able to associate in 

icai teaching the work without fear. And, what is of more consequeuce, all 

printed heretical teaching is avoided. At the same time the 

two Bible Societies which use this principle do not require silence from 

their workers, who are freely allowed to speak of tLo subject of the book 

they sell. The one great subject being the Gospel of the Grace of God, 

the workers have vast opportunities for the spread of the Truth, seeing 

they labor far and wide among an immense people. And they have 

this advantage over some, that when in any place their labors cease and 

the memory of their words has failed, there is left behind in many a home 

the authority for all they said the Word of God. 

May 8th.] ME. s. DYEB. 117 

2. With Note or Comment, either by notes attached to the Scrip. 
tnres, or by tracts and books circulated with them. This Great care 
principle meets the wishes of those who consider it unwise to needed - 
circulate tho Bible without some aid to understanding it. Great care, 
however, is necessary, lest the notes or tracts contain anything not in 
accordance with the Word. 

3. After Previous Instruction. There are some who object to sup* 
plying Scriptures to the people until they have received instruction in 
regard to the Gospel. They consider that the Bible was intended for 
believers, and therefore should not be indiscriminately circu 

lated among the heathen. But let us remember that it is Written ft? 
not altogether certain that all the Gospels were written for believer80n/y 
believers alone ; that at any rate they give many of our Lord s words 
to unbelievers ; that much of the Old Testament consists of warnings and 
appeals to sinners; that it shows God s dealings in judgment and mercy 
with such ; that it was in the hands of unbelievers in the time of our 
Lord, and the Spirit worked salvation thereby; that when further 
instruction was needed, it could be supplied, as in the case of Philip and 
the Eunuch ; and, lastly, that the Bible is the very source from which we 
derive the Gospel we preach, our final appeal in proof that our words are 
from God. The following remarks of a missionary are of weight : 

" I have been reading lately on the subject of the Protestant doctrine 
of the perspicuity and absolute sufficiency of Scripture, and have come 
to the conclusion that of themselves, the Scriptures are able to make 
the man of God perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. It 
may seem strange that I should only now accept a plain statement of 

Scripture. My stumbling block was in having wrong ideas of 

, ; ... : , t cL a -n\ T e Remarksofa 

what constituted a man ot God. To my shamo I confess it missionary 

that although not openly saying that the Chinese required to asalD 
be educated into the kingdom of God, some such feeling as this was in 
my heart. But now I see that any Chinaman who can read John iii. 16, 
or any such plain statement of the Gospel, may, by exercising the most 
simple kind of faith, become a child of God see John i. 12 and then 
may receive the Holy Spirit, who shall lead him into all truth, better 
than any Commentary or explanation that ever was written ... I can 
not understand how I was so blind and stupid as to think that uninspired 
men could put the Gospel more clearly than those who wrote the Holy 
Scriptures under the direct inspiration of God s Holy Spirit. And yet in 
plain language, this is what they believe who hold that the Scriptures 
should only be sold to the Chinese along with other books explaining 
them. I rejoice that my eyes are at length opened to that fallacy." 

It is well to mention, as it may not be known to all, that there is a 
tract introductory of the Scriptures, which the British and Foreign Bible 
Society permits its men to circulate along with them.* 

There may next be noticed three plans on which the circulation 
is carried on:- 

* There is no doubt also that there are certain things in the Scriptures, such aa terms, 
names, geographical notices, &c., some explanation of which in the form of A 
tract would be very helpful and advantageous. 


1. -2?y Free Gift. This plan is nsed by some ; it may be 

I. Because books are largely so distributed by the natives 

themselves ; 

II. Because they consider the Gospel should be without charge ; 
III. Because of the poverty of the people ; 
IV. Perhaps as being the easiest way. 

A modification of the plan is that of selling at prices much below the 
low ones fixed by the publishing Societies. 

There is no doubt the free distribution of Scriptures gives facility 
for the rapid circulation of an immense quantity of books, and the 
Societies could in this way increase their issues enormously. The writer 
of this paper, however, feels called upon to give a strong disapproval 
of the plan, and to advocate rather the circulation 

2. By sale* 

I. The people are much more likely to value what they 

have paid for. 

II. There is much less fear of any misuse of the books. 
III. The poverty of the people in most cases can scarcely 
be so great that they are unable to afford the five to 
eight cash for a Gospel, especially so where money ia 
spent day by day on things unnecessary. 

3. By Loan. A plan has been proposed in South China, and perhaps 
is now actually carried out, by which books are to be lent to the people. 
How this will work remains to be seen. But some method of the kind 
might be adopted with the Scriptures, the workers travelling from place 
to place, lending portions and returning later on to exchange them. 
Possibly a book may be read if so lent, when it would not be otherwise. 
Loan plan gives The plan would give scope for asking, " Understandesfc thou 

Explanation! what thou readest ? " and for giving such explanations as 
would tend to enlighten. We may also hope that it would often stir up 
an interest in the subject matter of the Scriptures. A fine evangelistic 
work it would open up for an earnest Christian. 

Four instrumentalities for carrying on the work may be noticed : 
1. Native Workers. These, if earnest Christian men and suited to 
the work, are valuable agents. They circulate considerable numbers of 
books. They ought to have much of our sympathy, for their trials are 
sometimes great. Few of us, perhaps, have any apprehension of what 
they pass through .f 

f Jt should be stated that the British and Foreign and the American Bible Societies 
; do permit free gift of Scriptures in special cases where it is deemed advisable. 

f A missionary of many years standing -writes : " What a lot of insult these men 
have to put up with, especially from the Tartars of Hangchow and other places. 
These fellows lay hold of our men, insult them, blaspheme the name of Jesus, 
and taking a book in their hands say, " This is Jesus ; " then tear the book in 
halves, and demand from the men to pick up the pieces, as they are Chinese 
letters. Preachers of the Gospel have not to put ap with one-tenth the abuse 
and insult that our colporteurs often meet witb, and they do more to spread a 
general knowledge of the truth than ten preachers ordinarily do, as they are for 
ever being called upon to explain and defend the teachings of the books they 
offer for sale. No class of workers in China has such a claim on our sympathy 
and prayers, as the colporteurs have, if they be faithful." 

May 8th.] MR. s. DYER. US 

The -writer would strongly reprehend the idea that any sort of a 
Christian will do for a colporteur. It is true that the best Begt men 
men cannot generally be spared, nor ought those to be employ- needed, 
ed whom the Spirit of God has fitted for other work in the Churches. But 
no man fitted as an evangelist is too good for the Bible work. Such an 
one would have opportunities therein which he will scarcely have in any 
other way. And the more earnest and true-hearted he is the better. 

Nevertheless, it seems evident from experience that in actual practise 
more efficient work is done when the native is associated with a foreigner, 

2. Foreign Workers. As a matter of course the presence of the 
foreigner usually causes far greater sales. But besides this the natives 
we are able to obtain are mostly the better for superintendence ; and 
the presence of a foreigner with them occasionally is an encouragement, 
and gives opportunity for imparting to them spiritual instruction, for 
shewing better methods, and for gaining knowledge of how the Gospel 
is placed by them before the people. 

3. Local Depots. These, if well managed, must afford a fine opening- 
for the spread of the Truth. Were able and faithful men put in charge, 
who should politely receive all comers and tell them the wonderful good 
news of the Gospel, not only might the circulation of the word be pro 
moted, but much good done. As regards actual sales of Scriptures, 
however, local depots do not appear usually to have been a success. 

4. Voluntary Workers. The members of the native Churches might 
with advantage be led to consider the sale of Scriptures in their spare 
time as one way of working for the Lord, that is, the doing so without 
reward except from Him. Many a portion might thus be put into 

And now as to the spheres of work : 

1. Large Cities and Villages. Naturally the sales at these are con 
siderable. There is reason to believe that if a foreigner, in visiting such 
places, should remain a few days, instead of hurrying away, he might 
find his sales continue the whole time. 

2. Small Villages and Hamlets. The Word of God may not be 
withheld from these because they -are small, nor because they require 
much labor to work with few sales as the result. If there are waterways 
the worker should have a boat. If not, some town or village should be 
made the centre of his operations. From such centre he should traverse 
the whole country round. 

3. The Road. In travelling from one point to another, many an 
opportunity occurs for offering books to passengers. And much can be 
done by visiting the boating and shipping population at the various 
stopping places, and among travellers on the vessels. A large number of 
Scriptures have been sold also to those on steamers. In these ways books 
are doubtless carried to places little reached, while the leisure of the way 
may induce some to read. 

In actual practise the work is carried on : 

1. By traversing the streets and selling from house to house and to 
passers by. It is natural that much of the circulation should be effected 


in this way ; but ifc gives little opportunity for instruction about the 
books. It is nne that is -very trying to the^workera and brings many 
a rebuff. 

2. A more satisfactory way, when practicable, is to take a stand in 

a some open place, and to commence by talking or preaching, 
in public explaining the main truths of the Word and the great advan 
tages to be obtained by reading tho precious book. After or 
during such preaching, sales could be commenced, and the work would be 
more effective because the people would at least know what they were 
buying. The Gospel will also have been put before them, though the 
books should not be read or even purchased. 

3. A very good plan is to hold conversation with individuals to the 

same end, either in tea shops or otherwise. Men who at first 
with Individ- were unwilling to purchase, have changed their minds after 

explanation as to the blessing contained in the book. An 
exceedingly thorough kind of work could be done by travelling through 
the country, spending much of the time instructing the people about the 
Gospel in private conversation, and selling the Scriptures to those thus 
interested in the subject. The number of books sold might be compara 
tively small, but such work is likely to be effective. 

4. One worker has successfully tried the plan of borrowing a table 
and spreading the books on it in some central and conspicuous place. 

5. Another, a very devoted native Christian and earnest laborer, 
goes along the streets, calling on the people with a loud voice to repent of 
sin and believe on Christ. He appears to succeed in arousing quite an 
interest, and is very successful in disposing of the Scriptures. 

Questionable Methods. 

A few methods of circulation may now be mentioned, which, to say 
the least, are very questionable : 

1. Any method by which, directly or indirectly, books are forced on 
the people. Such would be the case wherever advantage is taken of a 

Forcing books man s fear of loss, as for instance, tho staying in a shop 
on people. nn( j u iy long. The crowd that presses in to see the foreigner 
may cause the proprietor to purchase, in order to get rid of him, lest any 
in the^crowd should steal. To take advantage of this would, of course, be 
exceedingly wrong, and the result that might bo expected, a bias against, 
or even hatred of the book. 

2. Any kind of misrepresentation concerning the books to induce a 
purchase. Under this head may bo mentioned the holding out of ad- 

Misrepre- vantages to be obtained from them, which though true spirit- 
ecntations. ually, would be understood temporally. Also any statement 

concerning the books which would lead to their being looked upon as a 

kind of charm. 

3. The circulation among the heathen of certain portions of Scripture 
Unsuitable ^ one > "which could not be understood by them, as, for example, 

Wircuiatea? m st f the P ro pk ets , tne Revelation, and some of tho Epistles. 
Tho most suitable portions for separate distribution are ua- 

May 8th.] MR. s. DYER. 

doubtedly the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. If the translation is 
a clear one, the mind must be obtuse indeed that-cannot get something 
suited to its apprehension from these. 

4. The writer of this paper would also mention as a questionable 

method the giving of commission to native colporteurs. (1.) 

, . . , i < ,1 . i \ Commission 

It must tend to induce the working for gain rather than for to native 

the Lord. (2.) It would seem to open up an extra door to 
malpractice and dishonesty. 


1. The Scriptures in the hands of the people. Whether they be read 
or not, this is a thing not to be despised. There are the books, the very 
source from which all the knowledge we have of the Gospel is obtained. 
There among the people are the very books that tell of the true God, of 
the responsibility of man to Him as his Creator, of man s sin, of the 
Saviour provided, of the call to repentance and acceptance of God s 
pardon on His own terms. Now let the missionary so wher- 

i 111- Missionary 

ever the book has gone ; let him follow up the work ; let him follow up the 
find where the books are ; let him read from them to their 
owners and preach Jesus to them from what is read. Is it nothing that 
the people should find such wonderful truths, brought out of a book in 
their own possession ? 

Moreover, the book goes where missionaries and other workers do 
not : where under present circumstances, for lack of numbers 

T-I i i i. i - " 
or for other reasons, they cannot go. Be it that the book where mission- 

, , . ... aries cannot. 

remains unread, that it is used by the women for putting 

their silks in. What then ? Is it impossible or unlikely that in the course 
of time some visitor should come in, take up the book, read, say ever so 
little one verse. That verse has been seen by his eyes ; he has repeated 
it with his mouth. He thinks no more of it. His mind has not grasped 
it. But his memory probably will never altogether lose it. He departs 
and apparently forgets. What hindrance now to the Spirit of God, some 
d av> if n ot before, in the hour of death, bringing that word to remem 
brance, revealing the truth to his heart, leading him to trust in the 
Saviour unto eternal life. His family may oppose him. Ho may die, 
none ever hear of it, and we never know it, until the day of Christ. 

2. As an actual fact many of the looks ARE read, at least partially. To 
some of these readers truth is thereby imparted. And, when once 
imparted, the foundation is laid on which God s Holy Spirit may at any 
time commence a work leading to salvation. 

Objection 1. But many of them are not read. 

Does not the same objection apply to the preaching, of the Gospel ? 
Many of tho hearers do not grasp tho truths preached, and re- objections 
ceive no apparent light. Shall wo, therefore, cease to preach ? * answered^ 
Is there any kind of work among the heathen which is successful with all 
or most of tho hearers ? Though thero be, wo aro not all fitted by th 

* 11 instance baa been known in which a missionary came to the decision to ceaao 
chapel preaching oa account of its unfruhf ulueaa ! ! 


Spirit for the same work. Bat, as previously shown, even if not read, the 
book is there ready for some one to read, and for the Spirit s operation. 

Objection 2. The books are mostly not understood. 

If this is owing to the translation, then let it be revised, or a 
different one nsed. But it is probable the non-nnderstanding is often 
owing to the book not having been read. It is necessary for ns also to 
remember that from the very nature of the Bible any one reading a 
portion for the first time is not likely to see the general drift of the 
whole. And a reader might say he does not understand the book because 
he cannot see its general bearing, whereas there are very many passages 
in the Gospels, Acts and other portions, which a reader can scarcely fail 
to understand. Much of the historical will doubtless be understood by a 
mere child. And much of the teaching against sin, and in regard to the 
Truth, surely needs nothing but the Holy Spirit in order to its appre 
hension ; and without the Holy Spirit, not the best instructed man on 
the face of the earth will apprehend the Gospel. 

3. But lastly, It is a fact that enlightenment of soul is obtained. 

Whilst we may well acknowledge with shame that the fruit is far 
less than it might have been but for our own shortcomings, yet with 
praise to our God we say that He has given blessing greater than some 

When, notwithstanding all the difficulties in the way of our knowing 
results, we are able to say that He does allow some news of His working 
through the Scriptures to reach our ears ; when, from time to time, we 
hear of souls interested in the truth through the Word itself, and others 
by the testimony of the Word-distributors, or by both together ; then our 
work has not been in vain. But when we know of missions and churches 
in different parts of China, and one church in Corea, whose first begin 
nings were either wholly or in part through such means, still less has the 
work been in vain. 

One such mission now numbers hundreds of members. Its founder 
(not speaking of the work of the foreign missionary,) first met with a 
Gospel, became greatly interested, and afterwards, on the explanation of 
a few passages, accepted Christ as his Saviour. 

Another mission, of over thirty members, was commenced by the 
work of a Scripture colporteur in leading eight or ten persons to Christ, 
and these have since been the aggressive ones. 

Among some mountains in Manchuria, eighty persons were found 
who had been led to Christ through Scriptures, tracts and a colporteur. 

In Shansi, two men a scholar and a priest obtained .a Gospel of 
Mark, and though not understanding it to any great extent, thought it 
must be from heaven, and reverenced, if they did not oven worship it. 
Later they obtained a Now Testament, from which they received further 
light, and then worshipped Christ and the Apostles. Finally they wero 
better instructed and became most earnest Christians. They have bccu 
Instrumental in founding two churches and in strengthening others. One 
of them is said to have been the means of leading fifty persons to Christ 

May 8th.] ME. s. DYER. 323 

A few instances of blessing may also be mentioned, usances of 
which illustrate remarks contained in this paper : blessing., 

1. A woman in Chehkiang recognized the books brought by iwo 
colporteurs as those against which she had heard much said at a time 
when her brother-in-law had been baptized. Though not knowing a 
character, she bought a New Testament, and set to work to learn to read 
it, seeking the help of passing travellers, boys from school, and her own 
friends. The reading led her to cease from idolatry, to love the Lord 
Jesus, and to worship the true God, trusting in Him alone. Her hus 
band also in time gave up idolatry, and though for a while he would not 
make a public profession, he has at last done so. This fact forcibly 
shows that the Word alone, under the Spirit s blessing, is sufficient to 
make a heathen wise unto salvation. 

2. A farmer, who long had been a seeker after holiness, and was a 
leader in a Chinese heterodox sect, came into possession of a Gospel of 
John. " There was the light. He threw away his old books as if they 
had been hot coals." He learnt a good portion of the Gospel by heart. 
He at length was baptized. 

3. A member of a church in Nganhui "was first led to think 
seriously of sin, of how he could be forgiven, and by what means a sinner 
could be reconciled to God, from reading Mark s Gospel." 

4. Another member of the same church, a very consistent Christian, 
was first influenced by the reading of a Gospel. 

5. An old man in Szechuan bought a New Testament thirty years 
ago, and had so well read it that he was found perfectly acquainted with 
the details of our Lord s life and death, though he yet lacked knowledge 
of the sinfnlness of sin, or of Christ as his Saviour. His wife also had a 
knowledge of Christ s life. 

6. In Honan a Gospel of John puzzled its buyer for a time. " Verily 
I say unto you " ever recurring, seemed strange. So did the miraculous 
draught of fishes, which he thought was probably connected with sorcery. 
Continuing to buy Gospels and tracts, the words, "Love your neighbour 
as yourself " found a place in his heart. He at last became a hearer at a 
chapel. His eyes were opened, and he has become an exceedingly bright 
Christian, a remarkable example of love to his enemies and of meditation 
on the Word of God. 

7. A woman in Kiangsi recognized a New Testament when given 
her, as a book met with fourteen of fifteen years before, and which she 
had ever since wanted to possess. She had not read much of it, but 
remembered that it told of Jesus as a good man, and that He had died 
for His people. Finding the book now given her was the same, her 
interest in the truth she was being told was increased. In fine, she 
gave reason to believe that she put her trust in Christ, and through her 
instrumentality a friend of hers was also brought to the Lord. 

8. In Chehkiang a man was baptized last year who had earnestly 
sought after truth in the ancient books of China. He came to a preach 
ing hall, but what he heard did not enlighten him much. He procured a 
Wen-li New Testament and read therein, but did not apprehend the truth 


until a copy in Mandarin was placed in his hands. He read it through, 
obtained the blessing, and has become a very bright Christian. In his 
testimony ever since he is always ready to tell how it was the "Word that 
brought him to Jesus. 

y. The story of Mr. Li, related in the Chinese Recorder tor October, 
1889, must have interested many, and well illustrates our subject. How 
a mutilated copy of the Acts of the Apostles impressed him with its 
teachings ; how he went to Hankow to search into the matter ; how he 
had already before doing so abandoned idolatry and induced his 
mother to do the same, led to this through Paul s discourse at Athens ; 
how " Thou shalt be saved, thou and tlnj house, 1 was what had most 
forcibly moved him ; these things, together with the result of his visit to 
Hankow, form a narrative that may well cheer the heart of the Bible 
distributor, and none the less that the man was not the original 

10. It is stated that in Burmah, in a place where white men had not 
been, a man and some of his neighbours were led to put away their idols 
and to pray to Christ as the Saviour of sinners, through one chapter of 
the Bible on the paper wrapping of some food. 

It is hardly necessary to indicate in every case how these incidents 
illustrate the subject of this paper. 

Objection I. But such cases are rare. 

Answer 1. Has any systematic and prolonged enquiry been made 
to^nd out purchasers and ascertain results? The books are distributed 
in a multitude of places where there is no missionary to find them out ; 
and the workers of the Bible Societies have not the time to search for 
them. From the nature of the case they are difficult to ascertain. 

Answer 2. It is worthy of examination whether out of all the natives 
who profess Christianity there may not be those who, previous to their 
conversion and the circumstances directly leading thereto, have seen some 
part of the Scriptures and received some influence from it. It is quite 
possible for such a fact to have been one of the things which led to con 
version, and yet the person be scarcely conscious of its being so. 

Answer 3. What if the apparent small results be rather due to lack 
of faith, or of prayer, or to some other cause, as may also be the case 
where there appears to be failure in other kinds of labor in the mission 

Objection IL Some may receive harm from the Scriptures. 

Answer. This may happen also from other books, however wisely 
written, or from preaching or private instruction. We know from the 
Word itself that there arc some who " Wrest the Scriptures to their own 

" As the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, 
but -watereth the earth and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to 
the sower and bread to the eater; so shall my word be that goeth forth out of my 
mouth ; it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, 
and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." Isaiah lv. 10, 11. 

May 8th.] MR. j. ARCHIBALD. 125 


Mr. J. Archibald, (N; B. S., Hankow). Mr. President and Members 
of Conference, I do not think there is much difference of opinion 
amongst ns as to the desirability of such notes being added to the 
Scriptures, which are so largely used for evangelistic purposes amongst the 
heathen. Nor do I think there would be much difficulty in obtaining 
such, if a society existed which was both able and at liberty Dcsirabilit of 
to supply them. We should only have to make our wishes annotated 
known to have them met. But we must bear in mind the fact 6 
that we are making this demand on Societies which doubt the wisdom 
of permitting notes, or doubt if it lies within their province to take action 
in the matter. 

To show that they fully recognize the importance which we attach to 
notes, and appreciate the earnestness and universality of the demand for 
them, I will take the liberty of reading to you what Mr. Slowan in hia 
report to our directors says about this. 

" Section 49. Notes generally desired. "There is an almost universal 
desire amongst the missionary body for the issue of a New Testament 
with introductions to the various books, and with brief notes on the 
text. This desire received official expression in the Shanghai Mission 
ary Conference of 1877, and will be revived in that of 1890. Dr. 
Williamson says, " It is difficult for a Chinaman to understand the 
Gospels, impossible for him to understand the Epistles, without some 
help." Mr. Simmons, of the Baptist Mission, Canton, an indefatigable 
Bible-seller, says, "Our own people are not hearty in giving the Bible ; 
it is not understood without some simple information." The Hankow 
missionaries are urgently in favour of notes. 

50. Character of notes indicated. Bishop Burdon desires notes 
in the text for the benefit of the heathen. " The Bible is not a charm." 
He would have the notes few and brief. " If a word will give the ex 
planation, supply it; if not, leave the passage as it is. Some mis 
sionaries would be content with notes geographical, historical and 
ethnological ; others, while admitting these would do much, point out 
they would leave more important difficulties untouched. Friends of 
the Central China Tract Society, in consultation with other missionaries, 
have agreed to annotate the Gospel of Mark, as a specimen to be 
submitted to the Board. 

51. Notes of more value tlian tracts. While such notes as are 
prepared by the Tract Society, make a valuable tract for circulation 
along with the Gospels, it is objected that a loose tract is often sepa 
rated from the book it is meant to explain. Notes on the classics are 
common in China, and are never confounded with the original text, 
being printed in a different type. 

Recognising the obvious difficulties that beset the subject, "your 
deputy was careful not to commit the Board to approval of the proposals ; 
but ho could not fail to feel their importance in the estimation of those 
well qualified to judge, and he is assured that the issue of an Annotated 
New Testament would, to say tho least of it, make the circulation of any 
other edition in China exceedingly difficult." 

Now, to such a statement there is littb left for us to add in the 
way of further enlightenment. Tho situation is already Diflicnities in 
thoroughly comprehended and appreciated at home. But you lb Wft y- 
will sco tho problem is by no means an easy one to solve, if you will 
consider for a moment the Bible Societies difficulties in dealing with it. 

126 DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

lafc. All the Bible Societies at work in China have a clause in 
their constitutions binding them "to circulate the Holy Scriptures 
without note or comment." Thus, at the very outset, they seem shut out 
from approaching the matter. It is true the constitutions might be 
amended so as to give the needful permission, but then, as you all know, 
constitution-tinkering is rather a dangerous thing for Religious Societies 
to take in hand, and apt to lead to most unexpected consequences. Or 
the clause might be ignored, and what we wish to do looked at with the 
blind eye ; but this would hardly be honest, and above all things let us 
strive to be honest. 

2nd. They have great difficulty in knowing what it is in thia 
direction which we really want. Introductions, notes and comments, 
is rather a large order. In a paper which will come before this 
Conference later on you will find it laid down that no less than three 
commentaries are absolutely needed now one for evangelistic work, 
one for the family and one for the preacher. Three such commentaries 
are none too many, but it cannot be the Bible Societies business to 
provide them. I doubt if we exactly know what it is which we want 
ourselves. Certainly it is not notes in the higher criticism line; nor 
yet mere translations of home hand-books. It is four years since 
our society asked for samples, and I think wo should make more 
headway now if we left off demanding, and set about getting notes 
ready, if only for our own information. 

3rd. The difficulty of getting the work done. Should permission 
to use annotated Scriptures bo allowed, in all probability the result will 
be the outbreak of a most lively dispute as to tbe nature of the notes, 
and as to who shall prepare them. 

4th. The demand which may be made-for the further extension of 
this idea in China itself and to other lands. This I will not enlarge on. 

5th, The risk of an awful explosion when all is done. It is hard to 
say what horrid heresy might not be found lurking in some innocent 
looking, but perhaps rather misty note, which in the hands of a vigorous 
agitator would give the Bible Society infinite trouble. Those of you who 
read the " Christian " will have observed from an insert which appeared 
in it recently that this is no imaginary danger. Something of this kind 
has happened before. 

But there is another side to this matter. There are several grounds 
Reasons for on w hich * think we can quite legitimately ask the Bible 
annotations. Societies to undertake this work. 

1st. On the ground that the true principles of translation involve 

it. A book cannot be said to be properly translated until it is made 

possible for the reader to understand the thoughts of the original author. 

To replace one unknown word by another, or by a misleading 

principles of one, is not translation. The true object of the Bible Society 

demands that we make their Scriptures as plain as the art 

of man can. make them, for they are here to make known the truth of 

May 8th.] EEV. j. L. NEVIUS, D.D. 127 

God, and not to dispose of so much printed paper. I think in some 
instances the home people put too strict an interpretation on "the no 
note or comment clause." It seems absurd that natives, sometimes 
somewhat ignorant men, who are supported by Bible Society funds, should 
bo at liberty to make whatever comments they please verbally, and at the 
same time be forbidden to use the printed comments of the most learned 
brother amongst us. 

2nd. The principle of introductions and notes has long been 
admitted by the Bible Society, although not under that name. p rinclp i B 
The book I hold in my hand is a Bible, which I bought over admitted. 
the Bible Society counter, and on opening it we find an introduction. It 
begins : " To the most High and Mighty Prince James," etc., etc. Now, 
on looking into the book we find it has notes at the head of every 
chapter and the top of every page. They are not called notes or 
comments, but such they are, nevertheless, and intended for the very same 
purpose as we demand ours, namely, as helps to the reader. As a friend 
says in a letter which reached me to-day, " The Bible Society which 
admits headings has not a logical leg left to stand on in refusing to allow 
the notes we want." I think, therefore, wo may rightfully ask them to let 
us have, in place of Prince James and the headings, such brief introduc 
tions and notes as are necessary for the Chinese. 

3rd. As to the risk. I think we can assure them that the Religious 
Tract Society has never found any trouble arise, in China-at all events, 
from the millions of pages of religious teaching which it annually 
issues here. 

If we could show the Societies, then, that we are asking a legitimate 
thing, a very necessary thing, one which does not involve the introduc 
tion of any debatable matter ; and that the notes which we regard as 
indispensable are neither very numerous nor very long ; above aS, if the 
work could only be satisfactorily done in the first instance, so that they 
might see and judge of it for themselves, being at the same time assured 
that what they see meets the case, I think we would succeed in some 
quarter somehow, and then the wonder will be why we have not succeed 
ed sooner. 

Rev. J. L. NeviUS, D,D. (A. P. M., Chefoo). I think we are 
fortunate in having presented to us in these two papers now before 
the Conference, the different phases and the opposite views connected 
with this most important subject. I will state by way of introduction 
to what I have to say, that I am in entire agreement * gree3 with 
with the views presented in the paper by Dr. Williamson. Dr.%iiiamson. 
Some of the positions taken by Mr. Dyer require, in my opinion, a 
careful review and examination. While he defends the distribution of 
the Scriptures in China, without note or comment, he admits that "the 
circulation of certain portions of it, as for example most of the Prophets 
the Revelation, and some of the Epistles, is questionable." He further 
says (and we shall probably all agree in this statement) " that the most 
suitable portions for separate distribution are undoubtedly the Gospels 
and Aots," adding : " If the translation is a clear one, the mind must 
be obtuse indeed which cannot get something suited to its apprehension 
from those." 

Is it not fairly implied in the paper by Mr. Dyer that even those 
portions of the Bible best suited for general distribution in G0 8 P cis only 
Ohma are, only partially and imperfectly understood by the 
heathen? That this ia the fact few who have had any 

G0 8 P cis only 

128 DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

considerable experience in China as missionaries will doubt, though 
people at home and missionaries on just coming to China have great 
difficulty in understanding why this is so. To illustrate this, and passing 
by the Gospel of Matthew, as it begins with the genealogies, take the 
Gospel of Mark. The opening sentence seems to us, at first sight, very 
suitable and intelligible. " The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
the son of God." Translated into the Chinese idiom, and with the 
translation of the names, it reads : " God s Son le-su Ki-tuh happy 
sound beginning." 

Every word is an enigma to the Chinaman, and the whole sentence, 
if it is understood at all, suggests many perplexing questions, which the 
most intelligent Chinese scholar has no means of unravelling. Humanly 
speaking, he is sure to put interpretations on it widely different from the 
true one. So far as the religious characters used in the translation are 
concerned, ho can only interpret them by the ideas and associations 
already connected with them, and they are all heathen ideas and associa 
tions. Passing on to the following verses, they present other difficulties 
hardly less formidable. 

Now, does not the admitted fact that in the portions of the Bible 
best suited for distribution, there is still much that is not u suited to the 
comprehension of the heathen reader,"prove conclusively that it is not the 
book to give to the heathen on their first introduction to Christian 
truth ? 

Now, does not every author make everything in his book as intelli 
gible as possible to those for whom his work is designed ? When a man 
receives a book which he cannot understand, he naturally infers that 
some mistake has been made, either from inadvertency or ignorance. 
Are we to suppose that the principle of adaptation, so manifest every 
where in God s works in Nature, is wanting in His word ? By no 
means ! Every portion of the Old and New Testaments is especially 
adapted to those to whom it is addressed. In the words of our blessed 
Lord, whether addressed to the uninstructed, or to Nicodemus, to His 
disciples, or the Scribes and Pharisees ; to the Roman Centurion or the 
Roman Governor, the appropriateness of his teachings is most conspicu 
ous. So the Apostle Paul used one method with the Jews and an 
entirely different one with the Gentiles ; with the former lie made 
constant reference to the Scriptures, but never in speaking to the latter, 
his discourse specially addressed to Agrippa was perfectly intelligible to 
him, because it was designed for him, and for that reason was unintel 
ligible to Festua. 

Every portion of the Scriptures presupposes a certain amount of 
Scriptures information which is necessary for understanding it, inform- 
preBuppoee ation possessed by those to whom it was addressed, but 
[oa which must be acquired by those who do not have it. 

The Bible is, in its essence, a Divine B,evelation for all ages and all 

The Bible a na tions. In its form, however, it is intrinsically and intensely 

revelation for Jewish. It is not an elementai y text book for uninstrncted 

heathen, but the milk and the meal of the children of God. 

It is the receptacle of those sublime and hidden mysteries by which 

the "man of God" is made "perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all 

good works." It is the inexhaustible treasury from which " Scribes in- 

stntcted unto tlie Kingdom of Heaven " bring forth things new and old. 

^ It is not necessary for us to discuss the question whether it is, 
or is not, possible for God to adapt one and the same revelation to the 
wants and capacities of all His children. It ia sufficient for us to know 
that He has not done so. 

May 8th.] REV. j. L. NEVIUS, D.D. 129 

Some, while acknowledging these difficulties which a Chinaman 
meets with in understanding the Bible, say that we should look to God 
for special grace and enlightenment to make this Bible, as it is, a light 
to lighten the heathen. The paper before us asks the question : " What 
if the apparent small results be rather due to lack of faith and prayer ? " 
We may ask again : What if this agency for which we pray, i.e., the 
Bible for the heathen -without note or comment is not of God s ap 
pointment ? In that case, have we any good reason to expect an answer 
to our prayer ? 

But it may be said the Bible is self-interpreting, and an uninstructed 
Chinaman, by the earnest and persistent study of it alone, may become 
wise unto salvation. This is, no doubt, true ; bat how very rare such 
Chinamen are. And supposing the case of such a one, would not oral or 
printed explanation be of great advantage to him ? and would it not be 
our obvious duty to supply them even for him ? There are unavoidable 
difficulties to the understanding of the Word of God, arising from the 
inadequacy of human language to fully represent spiritual mysteries. 
Let us not add to these unavoidable difficulties by with- Difflcnlties 
holding that assistance to the understanding of the Scriptures should not 
which is within our power. Though Bible Societies may bc increaeed 
not give comments to unfold the doctrines supposed to be taught by the 
Scriptures, may they not add necessary explanations for elucidating the 
text, and that consistently with the constitutions and rules of those 
societies as at present organized ? 

It may still be said, though the Bible without note or comment may 
not be best suited to introduce Christianity to a heathen An objection 
people, since Bible Societies are so willing to furnish funds answered - 
for printing and distributing it, what harm can there be in their doing 
so ? I answer, much in many ways. 

(1). It is practising a kind of unconscious deception on the heathen. 
Of course no one is expected to purchase a thing which he r 
does not suppose will be useful to him. It is implied in dcceptkm 8 
offering a book to a Chinaman that it is both useful and P ractised - 
suitable. The purchaser is told (if anything is said, which is by no 
means certain) that this is a revelation from heaven, that it is the 
greatest and best of all books of the West, that it is what has made 
Christian nations what they are, and that it will confer inestimable bless 
ings on China, and on every individual who follows its precepts. This is 
all literally true, but the native employed probably does not say to the 
purchaser that he will almost certainly not understand the book, or be able 
to sell it to others, even for the pittance he gave for it, unless he disposes 
of it for waste paper. The buyer soon finds this out himself, and the 
result is too often disappointment, suspicion and prejudice. Dishonor is 
cast upon this Book of books and upon the religion which it represents. 

(2). When missionary or native evangelist visits this region, which 
has been traversed by the Bible-seller, wishing to communicate oral 
instruction, or distribute tracts specially designed for the people, he is 
often told that his books are not wanted, as they are not Bible refused 
intelligible. In this way the Bible-seller, so far from paving subsequently. 
the way for the missionary, may, on the contrary, obstruct it. In Shan 
tung there is a class of religionists, or seekers after truth, scattered all 
over the province. These are the first persons to gather around the Bible 
agent and purchase his books. Our first meeting with these men 13 the 
golden opportunity to win them to Christ. I believe that in many cases 
this opportunity has been lost. If even the native colporteur was what 

130 DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

he ouMit to be, and would state to the people that this is an ancient 
book, and a translation, that it contains mysterious doctrines not easily 
understood, the case would be somewhat different. Unfortunately, Bible 
Societies are not able to procure such men as they would like. In these 
early stages of mission work in China, nearly all of the intelligent 
Chinese converts are employed as evangelists or helpers, and Bible 
Societies are obliged to take up with men of an inferior class 
SMmes the best they can get. In Shantung, at least, these men have 
inferior men. too o ften had neither the ability nor the disposition to do 
what a Bible agent should do. The paper before us insists on the im 
portance of securing suitable native agents. But suppose they are not to 
be had ? Should we not consider seriously the question whether the work 
should be undertaken without them. 

(3). There is reason to fear that unnecessary opposition and abuse 

have been aroused by the promiscuous sale of the Bible, and 

L op^o C 8 C mou y especially by pressing it upon those who do not want it. In 

aroused. a recen t number of the Chinese Recorder the Rev. F. H. 

James has called our attention to public placards giving passages selected 

from the Scriptures, with the special view of disparaging them, and 

adding comments to put them in the worst light, as warnings against the 

immorality and heterodox character of the Bible. Mr. Dyer s paper 

speaks of the special trials and insults to which Bible agents are exposed 

from those who hate them and their work. It is well for us to enquire 

whether much of this abuse may not be a direct consequence of dis- 

re^arding the specific command of our Saviour : " Give not that which is 

holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they 

trample them under their feet and turn again and rend you." 

(4). The impression is sometimes produced in the West, by un 
guarded statements and reports, that there is actually a large 
D t e Kb r demand for the Bible in China. In a report of the American 
decreasing. Bible Society a few years aoro, its supporters were con 
gratulated on the very large number of Bibles disposed of during the 
year, and it was stated, as a special additional cause for congratulation, 
that nearly all the copies disposed of were sold. A very different im 
pression would have been produced at home if the further facts had been 
stated, that the books are " sold " at a nominal price, being a mere 
fraction of their cost, and that, too, under the mistaken idea respecting 
them given above. The ability to dispose of the Bible diminishes rapidly 
as the^haracter of the book becomes known, the seller repairing to new 
fields to keep up sales. Of late years the sales in this province have 
been so exceedingly small that Bible agents have felt bound in con 
science to give up the work. One of the Agents reported to me that 
A native he had reason to suspect that his native employees returned to 
artiiice. \^ m a portion of their wages, so as to keep up an appearance 
of receipts, and give some slight reason for their continued employment. 
In the last effort to sell Bibles in Shantung which I have known, a 
carefully selected and energetic native agent was only able to report 
sales to the extent of less than half a dollar a month. 

Perhaps enough has been said to present the main features of this 
subject as they now appear in China. We are aware that these views 
are unwelcome in many places at home, and that many would fain believe 
that they are individual and exceptional, not representing the missionary 
body generally. Unpleasant as this task is, I believe that truth and 
candour require that all the facts relating to this subject bo known. We 
believe that these views, so far from detracting from the reverence 
due to the Bible, and from its usefulness, only tend to enhance them. 

May 8th.] EEV. H. c. DUBOSE. 131 

If it be asked what it is that we wish in this matter, we reply: 
1. We wish to emphasize the principle that in the evan- Evan(re j l8t 
gelization of China, as a rule, evangelists should precede the should pre- 
Bible, and not the Bible evangelists. oede the Bibie - 

fc. With sincere gratitude to the Bible Societies for what they have 
done, on their part, we ask their continued aid in still further improving 
our present translations ; in securing as soon as possible a 

. . , P , i , - c Common ver- 

common or general version in which, all missionaries can sionotBibie. 
unite ; and in supplying the actual demand for Bibles which, 
though now limited, is constantly increasing, and will, we believe, con- 
tinue to increase. 

3. For the present we do not think it desirable to divert funds 
which may be used to great advantage in lands where the 

Bible is known and honored as the Word of God for its bntion in chiaa 
....... ,, . ^i . deprecated. 

extensive distribution among the masses ot China. 

4. Wo earnestly beg the Bible Societies of the West to sanction the 
use of their funds for giving the Bible to China with intro- Annotated 
ductiona and explanations such as are suggested by Dr. Bitie 
Williamson, and we believe that this may be done with the 

perfect unanimity and harmony of all the missionaries in China. 

Rev. H. C. DllBose (A.. S. P. M., Soochow). There is no more im 
portant question than this to come before this body. The command of 
our Lord is to preach the Word ; and notes and comments may aid many 
in understanding the Word. But there are several sides to this question, 
and I must testify that my experience is not that of Dr. Nevins. It is 
true that the Bible is not understood, but the same may be said of the 
books and tracts issued by the Tract Societies. It is true that the preach 
ing of the Gospel is not understood ; but why is it ? Because Why the Gos 
the Chinese lack the teachable spirit. Find a man among the pel is not uu- 
heathen with a teachable spirit ; let him be told that this Gospel 
is the life of Jesus, and there will be no reason for that man not under 
standing the words of Christ, or any message that we may give. The 
American Bible Society has in these two provinces distributed many 
thousand portions of the Word of God, and there is no doubt that there 
are thousands who have read these books, and in some measure understood 
them. It may be that these " notes and comments " would be NoteB may 
much more difficult to understand than the written Word, and not be under, 
that they would not give the exact information we wish to give. 
Why is it this people cannot understand the Gospel ? Because they do not 
know that there is one God, and do not understand the general features 
of the plan of salvation. If, along with the Gospel, a tract is given, giving 
an outline of the plan of salvation, there is no reason why they should not 
obtain a knowledge of the truth conveyed in that Word of God. Then we 
should look at the great work these Bible Societies have done throughout 
the land. They build no churches, open no chapels, baptize no The wor . Q . 
converts, but the results of their work are tabulated under the the Bible 
different denominational bodies. I should rejoice if notes and Societie 
comments could be added, but let us remember that the money is 
given to these Societies on condition that the .Bible, shall be published 
" without notes and comments." 

DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

Rev. C. Leaman (A.P.M , Nanking), said it seemed strange to him 
that missionaries papers should be written on the principle that God 
has made a mistake in distributing His Word among the human race. 
As for commentaries, he did not want them, and Chinamen have told him 
that they have no use for them. He has seen a Chinaman comparing his 
commentary and bis Bible, and bas heard him complain that they do not 

Rev. R. Graves, M.D., D-D. (A.S.B.M., Canton). I am full of sym 
pathy with the papers which have been read as to the importance of 
bavin"- some short notes on the Scriptures. Soon after I came to China, 
I beo-an to distribute the Scriptures ; and several of us, feeling the need 
of them, prepared some short noies on one or two of tho Gospels, in order 
that the people might understand what we were distributing. But I 
hope tho representatives of tho Bible Societies will not get the impression 
Good results that the Bible without note and comment will accomplish no 
B P bic d dtribu- g od in China. I have seen good results from it ; I rejoice 
J C tion. " that it is God s "Word, and that it will accomplish the purpose 
^hereunto Ho hath sent it. I do not want the impression to go abroad 
that we are getting on Roman Catholic ground and feel it is a dangerous 
thino- to circulate the Word of God without note and comment. In my 
expedience I have known that the simple Gospels have been the means 
Q? bringing men to Christ. While theological and historical notes are 
important lor Christians who study the Bible as a whole, we should 
remember that the Holy Spirit in a man s conversion does not _use the 
Gospel as a whole, but some one sermon or text, which fastens itself in. 
bis mind and which ho cannot get rid of. It is not the geography or 
the signification of scriptural names that is nsed, but some 
T ?ho p sjtru 0f truth that the Holy Spirit baa inspired a man oE old to 
in conversion.! utter- it is the same in China as in our home hinds. 
While I think the living voice should accompany the Word, it is yet 
within tho power of God s Spirit to use a portion of that Word in the 
conversion of souls. One man in the country got the Sermon on the 
Mount, and he said for four years ho had been fasting, because Christ 
spoke there about fasting. He was trying to the best of his ability to 
carry out all he knew. Of course he was mistaken in some respects, but 
Still the Word had taken hold of him. 

Rev T R. Stevenson (Pastor of Union Church, Shanghai).-! am a 

stranger here, but I have had some experience of mission work in Ceylon, 

and it seems to me that this is the most important question that can 

come before us. I think, as Christian logicians, we should distinguish 

between things that differ. All the remarks about tho Bible being the 

Word of God%re beside the mark. Wo all agree about that. We want 

to know, while the Word does great good alone, will it not do greate. 

good when a few simple, explanatory notes are added ? 

that in the Word itself, while there is no sanction given to the idea pt a 

T-Tuianatorv priesthood, wo are not without many suggestive illustrations 

*** of the importance of correct and devout explanations being 

ecripturai. ^^ WQ ^ Q nofc forgefc ^ Q cage of the Ethiopian eunuch. 

Do we not also read that our Lord was in the habit of expounding and 
Opening np-ihe Scriptures ? 

May 8th.] REV. w. MUIRHEAD AND KEY. c. a. SPARHAM. 133 

Eev. W. Muirhead (L. M. S., Shanghai). I do not object to comments 
to any extent, and if arrangements can be made for the issue of editions 
of the Scriptures, with comments, by all means let it be done ; but, at the 
name time, the difficulties that have been alluded to with reference to the 
simple translation and circulation of the Word of God are such as have 
obtained everywhere. If we carefully read our Lord s words, in wiiat 
a state of embarrassment were Pis hearers often with regard to what He 
said ! And from this, as well as the case of the enirach in his reading 
Isaiah, we may see what we should do. Let books be published with, 
larger or smaller annotations, but let the Word, pure and simple, also be 
circulated. Let ns call on Dr. Wright to give ns an idea, not only of 
what the Bible Society is prepared to do, but is doing, in connection with 
various translations of the Word of G-od, and I am sure ke will lay before 
us such a statement as will meet the wants of the case. 

Rev. C. Gr. Sparham (L- M. S., Hankow) : We must not lose sight 
of the fact that the colporteur is frequently a pioneer missionary. 
It is useless to ask whether or not he should be so, for it is 
simple matter of history that throughout the eighteen prov- a p?oucer Ur 
Inces Bible agents have travelled widely, selling Gospels missionary. 
and Testaments, before any settled missionaries have got to work in the 
district. Hence it arises that a Gospel is frequently placed in the hands 
of those who have* had no sort of training that will help them to read it 

As it is now pat into their hands,, do they understand The Gospels aot 
it? I fear not. understood. 

One gentleman, who has maintained most earnestly that a Gospel 
without note or comment should be sufficient for evangelistic purposes, has 
yet told us of a man who carefully read the Gospel of Matthew, and 
endeavoured to carry out our Lord s instructions on fasting, and yet 
completely misconceived the whole scope of the teaching of the Sermon 
on the Mount. 

Now this man was clearly an earnest seeker after truth. He re 
cognized the authority of the book he was reading. He was prepared 
to act in accordance with its teaching. Yet he failed to understand a 
comparatively simple chapter. A few characters, by way of note 
appended to the passage, would have directed him aright. 

I should like to mention another fact. Some months back I was 
travelling about 100 miles from Hankow, and as my custom on evangel* 
istic tours generally is selling Gospels and tracts, when a man of some 
intelligence came up to me and said, " I will buy any other Mark s Gospel 
book you have, but I don t want the Gospel of Mark ; I refu9ed 
bought one some time ago and couldn t understand it." 

Now we generally think that the Gospel of Mark is the simplest of 
all the books of the Bible for a Chinaman to understand. Why was it 
that this man could understand the tracts, but yet failed to understand 
ihe Gospel ? I believe, sir, that when he bought the book before, he had 
.tried to read and understand the first chapter and had failed to do SO, 
and put the book on one side. Now had there been short notes to 
explain a few of the terms in the chapter, such as " God," " Jesus," " The 
Gospel," " Prophet," to tell him who John the Baptist was, who Isaiah 
was, then the whole Gospel would have been intelligible to him; but, for 
lack of these notes, a deep-rooted prejudice against the book had been 
.left in his mind. 

134 DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

" The Bible and the Bible only " is a cry often raised, and quite 
rightly, in oar own lands, where we come to it with the training of the 
Sunday school or of Christian homes. Bat when we give even a simple 
Gospel to a heathen man, who has heard no preaching, received no 
instruction, it is absolutely necessary that we help him, in some such way 
as that suggested, to a clear understanding of the book. 

I trust that from this Conference there may go forth an earnest 
and request to the British and American Bible Societies, that, for 
comments distribution among the heathen, some editions of the Bible 
needed. ma y ^ published with brief notes and comments. 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. (B. & F. B. S). Mr. Chairman and Christian 
friends, I had not intended to speak on this subject, but I willingly 
respond to your call. If I were here as a missionary to you I should 
immediately attempt to convert you, but I am here chiefly to hear, learn 
and report to my Committee at home, and not to argue with you. Let 
me say, however, that I sincerely trust I shall not be obliged to report 
that a considerable number of the members of this Conference have lost 
faith in the circulation of the Bible without note or comment. It will 
modify the Society s operations in China if this Conference adopt Dr. 
Nevius statement that the Bible without note or comment should not be 
sent out in advance of the evangelist. If it is your opinion that he is right 
when he says the Bible is not a suitable book for distribution among the 
heathen, then the harden on oar Society will be considerably lightened 
in China. I should be exceedingly sorry to see the paper of my friend 
Dr. Nevius printed in the Report of your proceedings. It _ and Dr. 
Williamson s paper concede the whole argument regarding the circulation 
of the Scriptures that has stood between us and the Church of Rome 
The martyr s up to the present time. It admits that our fathers were 
faith. wrong in the contention that opened every martyr s grave in 
Scotland. It has been said there is not a martyr s grave in Scotland over 
which it might not be written, " He died for his faith in the simple 
Bible." This was the question between Luther and the Pope. The 
Pope did not consider the Eible without "notes" a safe book in the 
hands of the people. "Wycliffe conquered on this question when he gave 
the Bible to the plough-boys of England. 

But, what is of more importance, we know that Luther and "Wycliffe 

The Biblc its were not only victorious but right. Our agents have hun- 

own witness, dreds of instances where the Bible has been its own witness. 
Darwin beheld the semi-savage, semi-aquatic Yarjans, and he declared 
them incapable of civilization. Thomas Bridge gave them the Gospel, 
and it brought civilization and light to them, and Darwin confessed that 
he was wrong, and subscribed to Thomas Bridges Society. The Gospel 
that suits the islands of the Pacific, and the African, whose language is 
made up of clicks, will not be found wanting in China, nay, it has not 
been found wanting. In hundreds of cases it has become both staff and 

life to the Chinese. 

I admit that you have great difficulties, but I should return home 

Has it broken with sorrow if I thought that the Bible, the power of God in 

down in china? a n other lands, had broken down in China. 

I trust I have not transgressed the limits of what I ought to say, but 

I dare not say less. 

I will now tell the Committee what we have done in the way of 

brightening the text of the Bible, and what I think wo may be able to 

May 8tb.] KEY. w. WRIGHT, D.D. 135 

do. Wo brought out an edition of the corrected Italian Bible, with 
sectional headings at the beginnings of paragraphs, such as what the B. 
" The Creation," "The Fall of Man," "The Flood," etc. *Jffi* 
The book proved a success, and \ve have brought out editions 
of the French, Dutch and Sesuto Bibles on the same knodel. These 
sectional headings are simple summaries without theological bias. By 
the help of Sir Charles Wilson and Major Conder I have constructed 
eight maps from, the material collected by the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. We can add to the Chinese Bible some of these. We Sectional head . 
have many alternative readings in the Authorized Bible ; ings, maps and 
these we publish in English, and there is no reason why we 
should not publish them in Chinese. Without, of course, pledging my 
society, I believe we can go a great length in meeting your wishes. We 
must still publish some oE our Bibles without "notes." I withdraw the 
word -notes," but I think we might, in addition to sectional summaries, 
give explanations of all words that might be difficult to the Chinese. 

I am an old missionary myself, and from my own troubles with 
Arabic I can sympathize with you in your Wen-li difficulties. The word 
Pharisee and faras, a horse, resemble each othsr, and an Arab scholar 
translating into Kdbyle rendered " the Pharisees " by " Cavalry." I see no 
reason why our society should not have explanations of all such, words 
as Pharisee, Sadducee, Money, Weights, etc./ but colorless explanations. 
A society such as ours, composed of Episcopalians, Friends, Baptists, 
Presbyterians, and all the different denominations of Christians, cannot 
go in for theological definitions, which would only represen-t the shade of 
opinion of a portion of our 1 supporters. Besides, the Bible Theological 
Society receives money for a specific purpose, and to devote JJJJSliS 
that money to any other purpose would be a distinct misap 
propriation of funds. I believe, however, that my committee will go as 
far as they can to serve you within the lines of their constitution. Much 
can bo done by printing on good paper, with good type, and much can bo 
done by improving the -binding and selecting: colors which shall be 
pleasing to the Chinese. It wiU^bo the desire of my committee to bring 
out new editions from electrotype plates in some measure worthy of our 
great society and the book which it circulates. 

Eev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL D. (A. P. M., Tnng-chpw). We should 

not convey the impression that we are opposed, to the circulation of the 
Word of God without notes, but that in addition to this wo want editions 
of parts, at least, of the Bible, with an introduction and brief explana 
tions, for circulation amongst the wholly uuinstrncted heathen. I should 
like to see a vote of all the missionaries who have been twenty years in 
China, exclusive of Bible Society agents (who, perhaps, are more or less 
prejudiced), as to whether it wae) wiser to distribute the BibJe to the 
heathen with an introduction and brief explanations, or without them. 
I am very much mistaken if such a vote would not be unanimous 
in favor of them. But let us not bo misunderstood ; we want both 
Bibles. For the native Christians, and for all who are already under 
instruction and have other helps for the understanding of the Bible, we 
want it "without note or comment ; " but for distribution and sale to the 
uninstructed and uninitiated heathen, wo want a Bible with an intro 
duction and brief explanations of manners and customs, persons and 
places, etc. When a heathen gets a Christian book for the first time much, 
depends on tho impression it makes on him. If ho understands the first 
page, he will probably read the whole book ; if not, ho will probably 
throw it aside, and never look at it again. 

136 DISCUSSION. [Second day. 

Rev. J. N. B. Smith (A. P. M., Shanghai). As regards the placards 
in which passages from the Scriptures are quoted and attention called 
to the immorality of Christianity, I have seen in Shanghai a book in 
which apparently every passage in the English Bible which could by any 
possibility be twisted to convey an immoral idea was either quoted or 
referred to. 

Such facts only prove-that "the carnal mind is enmity against God." 

Rev. Evan Bryant (B. & F. B. S., Tientsin). Mr. Chairman and 
Christian friends, We have heard strong utterances from Shantung 
to-day on Bible work in this country, and yet I had expected to hear 
even stronger things said, especially after reading a certain article 
which recently appeared in The C/tinere Recorder. For my -own part, I 
am not sorry for these utterances, for they explain, to some extent, what 
vvas not quite clear to me before. 

Shantung is one of the provinces comprised in my agency, and it is 
the one in which I have found the greatest difficulty and the least 
sympathy with our workers and work. This, I confess, has seemed to me 
somewhat strange, but such is tho fact. 

Now, Sir, time will not admit of my dealing with all that has been 
said or suggested here to-day against the present system of Bible 
colportage in China; much less will it admit of my discussing now the 
0-rave charges made elsewhere against tho work. Still, a few things have 
been said which demand immediate consideration and a straightforward 
reply. Let us glance at them. 

1. A brother from Shantung, in a recent number of The Eeeorder, 
says that all the favorable incidents of Bible work are carefully pre 
served, while none of tho unfavorable ones are collected. 

^nt rudfcTetr Now, Sir, so far as such statement concerns myself, I would 

favourable emphatically say it is not true. I always seek to learn from 

incidents are the missionaries, as well as from the colporteurs, all the 

favorable and all the unfavorable incidents of the work, so 

that I may understand that work and know how to help and cheer, and, 

in some measure, guide the colporteurs in their difficulties and toils. 

2. It has been said and emphasized that the colporteurs are 
inferior men; that they go about the country selling the Scriptures 
tinder false pretences, etc. ; and that they are incapable of telling the 

people what Scriptures teach. Such a charge is, I believe, 
SunS* inapplicable in the present day ; at any rate, it is vastly too 
men - sweeping. It may bo true of the colporteurs in Shantung, 
but it is not true oAhose in all the other provinces. 

When I came to China as a missionary over twenty-four years ago, 
the colporteurs were, I believe, very inferior men, many, if not most, 
of them being simply heathen ; but such is not the case in the present 
day. Now, all our colporteurs are supposed to be Christians, and not a 
few of them are noble Christians too. Some of them have been Chris 
tians for twenty and more years, and are very familiar with the contents 
of the Scriptures. Some of our colporteurs who work in Manchuria, 
study and pass examinations in Scripture knowledge along with the 
catechists of the U. P. Mission ; and in Chihli, where tho men are more 
immediately under my own direction, they are also taught and helped, 
Last summer, for instance, I had the colporteurs with me in Tientsin for 
over a fortnight, when, by several hours of daily study, we read through 
that troublesome, difficult, little Gospel of Mark, to which several re 
markable references have been made in tho coarse of this aitcrnoon a 

May 8th.] REV. EVAN BRYANT. 137 

discussion ; and if the brethren who deem our colporteurs inferior men 
could have been with us there during those days, I venture to think that 
they would no longer deem them such. 

3. It has been said that the colporteurs have continually to seek 
new places wherein to offer their books, because the people ; 
in places once visited, finding the Scriptures purchased uSSSiligl?* 1 
unintelligible, will not buy any more of them. This state- ty of Scri p- 
ment, again, is too sweeping, and as regards our colportage 
in North China, is not true. Fresh and additional copies of our 
Gospels and portions are frequently asked for by men who have pur 
chased our Scriptures on former visits of the colporteurs; Additional 
and not seldom the New Testament is asked for and bought copies asked 
in consequence of reading a portion. 

Moreover, the provinces of Chihli and Manchuria, where we have 
our larger bauds of colporteurs, are divided into districts ; one or two 
men are appointed to work in each district, and they go over their 
allotted districts again and again, and a vast amount of substantially 
evangelistic work is done. 

The result is by no means as great as we, should gladly see ; still, 
it is such as to give us no little encouragement. Time, again, will not 
admit of dealing fully with this matter as it ought to be dealt with, 
and I can only just hint at one or two aspects of it. 

1. Note first the result of our colporteurs personal labours. I will 
adduce one or two illustrations only of this aspect of the work. The 
Kev. J. Macgowan of Amoy, writing of the colporteurs work ^r. Macgowan s 
under his supervision during the year 1887, says, " They testimony. 
Lave sold an unusually large number of Scriptures, but the crown of all 
their work is that they have been the direct means of bringing forty 
persons into the Church." Well might Mr. Macgowan say, in view of 
such a fact, "these are splendid results." (Vide B. and F. Bible Society s 
Eeport, 1888, p. 209.) 

The other illustration I will give from the North. Yonder in 
Manchuria, and in the year 1885, one of our colporteurs was located for 
a short time in the city of Kinchow ; he was a devout, earnest, saintly 
man, who is now at rest from his labours. By his earnest work and 
Christian life in that city, he was the means of gathering out work in 
from among the heathen about a dozen converts to Christ, who Manchuria. 
were in due time baptized by a missionary of the I. P. Mission, and who 
became there the promising nucleus of a little church. (Vide B. and F. B. 
Society s Report, 188G, p. 244.) Several similar instances of an equally 
recent date might be given from other regions, North and South, where 
the colporteurs personal labours in the distribution of the Scriptures, 
and by their simple testimony respecting the contents of those Scriptures, 
have led many into the way of salvation, and have been the direct 
means of founding several little churches. 2.1will just touch on tho result 
of readiny the Scriptures without "note or comment," and without any 
other help, so far as I can learn, except that of God s Spirit. Men and 
women in* various parts of the country, some scholars, and others all but 
illiterate peasants of various ages and conditions, by tho reading of 
portions only of God s Word, have been enabled to learn tho way of 
salvation by faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, and, in some instances, the 
reading of a Gospel only has led to tho founding of little churches, as 
ia Shansi and other provinces and thai even by reading the Gospel of 
Mark, concerning the uniutelligibility of which strong things have been 

DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

Hesnits of read- said or suggested in the discussion to-day. Interesting and 
ing the scrip- striking illustrations of this topic might be given, but I am 

""notes. U compelled to confine myself to one. It was related to me a 

few days ago by a brother missionary, and it comes from Shantung 

even, whence have come some of those strong utterance against colpor- 

tage work heard here this afternoon. Some years ago there was a 

Chinese gentleman, one of " the gentry " and of " the good " 

An from" 103 men of the country, residing at Weihsien in Shantung. 
Shantung. That statement locates my story. This gentleman somehow 
became the possessor of a New Testament. He read it through once, 
twice, yea three times. My missionary informant, visiting this Chinese 
gentleman one day and discovering that he had thus read the New 
Testament, asked him, "What truths or truth had impressed him most 
in the reading of that book ? " The native, after a moment s reflection, 
said, " The statement that our bodies should become the temples of God." 
Surely, that was not an insignificant result of reading the New Testa 
ment " without note or comment," and without the aid of any teacher 
except the Spirit of God. And how much more Christian truth must 
that man have learned before ho reached the magnificent truth just 
mentioned " That our bodies should become the temples of God." 

Other similar illustrations, not a few, might be adduced of educated 
and uneducated Chinese, men and women even, in the North and in the 
South, who, by reading the New Testament or portions thereof, have 
been led into the way of salvation ; some of whom are to-day faithful and 
useful members of Christian churches. With regard to the preparation 
and distribution of the Scriptures, ^vith notes and comments, I will at once 
say that I agree with Dr. Williamson substantially in all he 
aSreefSrtttfDr. has suggested in his paper, except in respect to one point. 

Williamson. g n that, I differ in toto from him. The point I allude to is 
the introduction of explanatory theological notes into the Scriptures to 

Explanatory be published and distributed by the Bible Societies, i.e., 

the te OS oa explanations of such words as atonement, righteousness, 
cicinucci. justification, baptism, and many other theological words 
that might be mentioned. Such a suggestion, I maintain, is undesirable 
and fraught with evil. 

Let us look at the matter for a moment. In explaining the term 
atonement, or its Chinese equivalent, which view of the atonement is to 
be given ? and in explaining the term justification, or its Chinese 
equivalent, which view of that subject is to be given ? There are three 
views of justification before my mind at the present moment, and there 
are missionary brethren in China who hold these views ; there are brethren 
in this Conference to-day who hold these views ; now, which of theso 
views shall bo introduced in explanation of our Scriptures for geuoral 
circulation ? Take also the word for baptism ; what explanation shall be 
given of that word in such Scriptures ? Is the explanation given of that 
term in the notes to the Gospel of Mark, already referred to, satisfactory ?, 
There, it is said, that baptism signifies " washing the heart and putting 
away evil." Now, can that explanation bo deemed satisfactory ? There- 
are many in this Conference who, I venture to think, caunot accept it. 
And so it will bo with many other expressions that aro of a theological 
character. God forbid that wo should 3e:id forth among tin s pcoplo 
and through tho agencies of tho Biblo Societies, Scriptures charged with 
doctrinal explanations that will not only fcltcr tho toaaliera and tho 
taught on ovcry hand, bat also sow the seed of future discord. I would 
most earnestly ask this Conference not to sanction auy such course. 

May 8th.] EEV. A. WILLIAMSON, LL.D. 189 

Let us by all means give notes historical, philological and ethnological, 
with or in our Scriptures where needed, but let us beware of inserting 
with them any theological notes. The peace and prosperity of the 
Christian Church in China, I profoundly believe, will be best promoted 
by our keeping out of the Bible Societies Scriptures, all such notes. 

Eev. A. Williamson, LL.D. (S. U. P. M., Shanghai). I wrote 
the preceding essay with studied moderation as was befitting the theme 
and the societies and interests involved; weighed every Keply 
sentence and adduced no more instances than appeared suffi 
cient to convince enquiring and impartial minds. Now I begin to think 
1 have said too little. I find exception taken to phrases, and one or two 
points called in question. I feel, therefore, constrained to place on record 
several additional instances and facts in support of the need of notes and 

I adduced some important terms or words for which the Chinese 
have no equivalent, and which they interpret according to their own 
ideas, and so miss the truth intended to be conveyed by the Terms for 
inspired writer. I now add some more, such as : (1) creation, ^^^es. 
of which they have no proper idea, the terms commonly used equivalents. 
meaning only that made for the first time; (2) religion, which only 
means instruction ; (3) worship, which means obeisance or salutation ; 
(4) reverence, conveying the idea of respectful decorum ; (5) sacrifice, 
to present offerings ; (6) and all the terms connected with Divine 
worship, e.g., Sabbath, praise, prayer, prophet, priest, bishop, etc., etc.; 
(7) the terms we use for a future life, e.g., soul, immortality, heaven, hell, 
etc., are either Taoist or Buddhist; (8) the anthropomorphic repre 
sentatives of God, some very outre, which are liable to serious misunder 
standing; (9) the kingdom of God, repentance, faith, conversion, grace, 
adoption, reconciliation, election, the/es/4 and the spirit. But I must stop 
before I am done, so will only make one further remark in this connection, 
which is, that when we consider how often such terms are used in 
Scripture, with their related adjectives, verbs, participles and adverbs, we 
can easily apprehend how important it is that such constantly recurring 
words of such fundamental significance should be clearly defined to the 

I have been blamed for saying "little better than husks." Well, if we 
use words or sentences which hide the kernel, what are they but busks ? 

Mr. Dyer makes as good a defence as it is possible for any man 
to make, but he virtually gives it up. He says, " There is no Mr. Dyer a 
doubt that there are certain things in the Scriptures, such as adrr 
terms, names, geographical notices, etc., some explanation of which in the 
form of a tract would bo very helpful and advantageous." Why not 
placed in the book where they are needed ? 

Again, he admits that among the heathen there are certain portions 
which alone could not be understood by them, e.g., most of the prophets, 
the Revelation and some of the Epistles. And ho might have added 
the Song of Solomon and a largo portion of the Epistles. But what Mr. 
Dyer admits to bo unintelligible, embraces a largo measure of tho Bible ; 
what does he intend to do with these portions ? will ho ceaso to circulate 
them ? or will ho continue to distribute and sell what he knows is not 
intelligible without explanation? and aro we missionaries to bo forced 
by tho Biblo Societies to uso a Biblo without noto or comment, which 
their own agents admit to be deficient in perspicuity? Mr. Dyer adduces 
the testimony of a missionary who rejoices in being delivered from tho 

140 DISCUSSION. [Second day, 

fallacy of being so " blind as to tbink that uninspired men could put the 
Gospel more clearly than those who wrote the Holy Scriptures under the 
direct inspiration o God s Holy Spirit." The forms under which the 
Scriptures are expressed are our sheet anchors and our ultimate appeal. 
Bat this missionary falls into another fallacy. His view amounts to this, 
that we need only repeat the phraseology of Scripture to our audiences ; 
no necessity for explanation, or teaching, or exhortation for, if he 
admits that, he admits everything. Moreover, God trusts our common 
sense, which is His gift, in religion, as well as in matters of every-day life, 
and as well say it is our duty to take the food which God has given us 
in nature as the best possible for us without incurring the presumption, 
of thinking to make it more digestible by any arts of ours. 

It has also been said we must give the books of Scripture as they 
came from the hands of their inspired authors. Yes, but reverence for 
the prophets and holy men should lead us to take care that their meaning 
be made quite plain to the people among whom we introduce them. 
Otherwise we treat their productions with less care than we would our 
Translation in- own. Translation is not completed until the meaning is con- 
complete tin veve( i so the " mire word of God " is not qiven to the Chinese 

the meaning is J * , i -i i 

conveyed. until we use suck terms and means as make it plain. 

Mr. Dyer gives ten instances of good having been done by the cir 
culation of the Scriptures, and far be it from me to seek to diminish the 
force of any of them. But I would say that if he adduces the testimony 
of missionaries, he should note the other side as well. And I will under 
take to brino- forward several scores of instances of missionaries testifying 
that Chinamen have over and over again told them they could not 
understand the Bible. In fact, there is hardly a missionary of a few 
years standing, and even the Bible agents themselves, but have many 
instances to that effect ; so in the case o testimony, the one is a hun 
dred-fold stronger than the other. 

Mr. Dyer very becomingly says that the little good which has come 
to light may be owing to our own "lack of faith and prayer." May it 
not rather be iu consequence of the non- adaptation of means to the end 

in view ? 

We have been exhorted not to lose faith in the Bible. Far be thia 
from us. But we have lost faith in paragraph after paragraph of 
Chinese characters, which convey no intelligible meaning to the ordinary 
Chinese reader. 

A.gain, we have been asked if the Bible has broken down in China. 

No, it has not, and never can. Strong meat is not adapted for 

T X>?brokS B the constitution of the child, but you cannot say the "strong 

down. mea t uag broken down," only the child is not fit for it. 

So the Bible has not broken down in China, only the Chinese language 

Chinese not fit bas Bot in ib single characters by which our spiritual truths 

for "strong can be represented one by one; and what we claim is a 

paraphrase in the same, of a sentence or two explanatory of 

the true mind of the Spirit. w 

Mr. S. Dyer (B. & P. B. S., Shanghai). It has been said that if we 
circulate the Scriptures without note or comment and do not tell the 
people they cannot understand it, we shall be deceiving the people. But 
I think ib is overlooked that while we do not tell them they cannot 
understand all the statements, wo simply circulate the book in which 
there is something that can be understood. I presume none of you would 
blame a man who was selling fruit to one unaccustomed to it because lie 
did not tell him there was a stone inside. 

May 8th.] ME. L. D. WJSHARD. 141 

It has been said that some parts of the Scripture are unintelligible 
alone. That is so, and in my essay I say that those parts ought not to 
be distributed alone ; but when they are distributed as a whole, those 
parts tbat are intelligible are there, and in the New Testament the parts 
that . are most intelligible come first. The case of the 
eunuch has been referred to ; but he had the book of Tae Ethiopian 
Isaiah, and there are very few of us who thoroughly under 
stand that book yet. 

It is well that all the Conference should understand that none of ns 
taking this side object to commentaries. We think there should be com 
mentaries, but it is right and proper, nevertheless, that the "Word of God, 
pure and simple, should be sent forth, and that we should L . fh 

have faith in that. I cannot help thinking there is in those in the Word 
who take the other side some degree of lack of faith in 
the Word of God. 

Rev. A. WILLIAMSON, LL.D, No; we cannot give the pure word of 
God without explanation. 

Mr. S. DYEE. That is what I say. Is not that having a lack of faith 
in it ? 




Mr. L. D. Wishard (Y. M. C. A. College Secretary). 

IT is with great pleasure that I greet this, the largest body of foreign 
missionaries I have ever addressed, in the name of the four thousand 
Young Men s Christian Associations of Europe and America, and explain 
the purpose of the tour which I am now making as their representative. 

Eleven years ago the college associations of the United States and 
Canada created a foreign missionary department and have steadily sought 
to promote consecration on the part of students to the work in which you 
are engaged. One outgrowth of this department of the college work is 
the present widespread missionary revival, commonly known as the 

students missionary uprising, or students volunteer move- 

, . .. ... *? . , .... , , , , The Students 

.ment, in connection with which a multitude of students Volunteer 

have expressed a willingness and desire to become foreign 
missionaries. Nearly two hundred and fifty of this number, which is 
estimated to be nearly five thousand, are already on the foreign field as 
representatives of the existing denominational missionary boards, it being 
no part of the programme of this movement to form an additional 
missionary society. That so small a number of the student volunteers 
has arrived on the foreign field is accounted for by the fact that the 
vast majority of these young men and women are undergraduates, and 
are preparing for their work by a thorough education, medical or 
theological in addition to literary, in, accordance- with the requirementa 
of tho American missionary societiea. 

142 THE T. M. C. A. AND FOREIGN MISSIONS. [Second day, 

I do not -wish to be understood as intimating that these five thousand 
students will unconditionally enter the foreign work. They have 
expressed a willingness and desire to do so, and I believe that the large 
number already located on the foreign field justifies the expectation that 
a large proporton of the entire number will be foreign missionaries 
during this decade. 

There is a special feature of the missionary department of the 

Formation of college associations which I am here to describe. I refer to 

ford"!! schools the formation of associations in the schools and colleges on 

and colleges. the foreign field> The first guch orgail i za tion was formed 

by Mr. F. K. Sanders in Jaffna College, Ceylon, during his connection 
with that college as a teacher. It succeeded so well that, on his 
return to America, he visited the colleges in Beirut, Syria and Aintab, 
Turkey, and suggested to the missionaries and students the formation of 
similar organizations. They were soon formed, and it is the testimony 
of Dr. Post of Beirut, and the late President Trowbridge of Aintab, that 
they have been a valuable factor in Christian work among the students. 
Associations I n 1885 an association was formed in the Anglo-Chinese 
College in Foochow ; the following year another in the high 

chow, Tokyo. school i n Tung-Chow near Peking ; also one about that 
time in "Wylie Institute, now Peking University; also one in the 
Methodist College in Tokyo, Japan. A correspondence was opened and 
maintained between these associations and those in the colleges in 
America, which promoted no little missionary interest in our American 
colleges, and communicated to the students in the foreign field many 
valuable ideas concerning methods of work among students in the West, 
and which aroused in the minds of students both in America and Asia 
the desire for an extension of the work. 

I wish to call your special attention to the fact that all the work 
thus far described was organized by regularly appointed missionaries of 
different boards, who recognized its adaptability to the students of their 
several institutions. The fact that the movement was a spontaneous one 
gave us more confidence in the work than we would have had if it had 
"been formed by a representative of the American Committee especially 
delegated to prosecute it. 

The evident adaptability of the association to the students of the 
East encouraged those of us entrusted with its developments in America, 
to correspond with the teachers in missionary colleges, concerning the 
formation of the organization in their institutions. The number of such 
associations soon increased to twenty, and invitations from these newly 
organized associations were received by the American Committee, request 
ing a visit from the College Secretary of the committee for the purpose 
of strengthening the new societies. During the annual Students* 
Summer School for Bible Study in 1887, Rev. Dr. Jacob Chamberlain. 
of India, who was in attendance, made an urgent appeal to the associa 
tions to send a secretary to India, to engage in the work among Engliali- 
epeaking students and young men. At the samo timo Mr. J. T. Swift, 

May 8fch.] MR. L. D. WISHAED. 143 

a recent graduate of Yale, became so impressed with the evident 
adaptability of the association to the students of the East, that he decided 
to go to Japan, should the way open, to devote his life to this work. He 
was soon afterwards called to Japan to engage in teaching, and arrived 
in Tokyo in February, 1888. In connection with his duties in the Union 

College in Tokyo he formed Bible classes in the three 

, , . Mr. Swift in 

leading government colleges of the empire, the Imperial Tokyo. 

University, The First Preparatory College and The First Commercial 
College. These classes he organized into Young Men s Christian Associa 
tions, with over one hundred students in the three. He also consolidated 
several associations in the city, composed of business men, into one 
association and secured $25,000 from a friend in America, towards the 
erection of a building for the city association. Dr. Chamberlain had in 
the meantime returned to India and conferred with the missionaries of 
Madras, who united in a call to the American International Committee, 
to send a secretary to work among the students of that city. 

You can readily see that many questions presented themselves to 

the leaders of association work in the West concerning the introduction 

and permanent prosecution of the work in foreign missionary fields. It 

was accordingly decided that a representative of associations Mr. wishard a 

of America and Europe, should make an extended tour of 

Japan, China, India and Turkey, in all of which fields the association 

had been started, and I was delegated by The World s Conference, assem- 

bled in Stockholm, Sweden, in August, 1888, to make the present tour 

; ome to extend the fraternal greetings of the educated young men of 

J far West to those of the far East, and to assure them that the 

stronghold of Christianity is among the educated classes in the West 

ilso desire to strengthen the little bands of students and young men 

already organized into associations, by acquainting them with the methods 

>rk which have been successful in saving young men in the West. 

L am also here as an inquirer. I desire to learn from the missionaries 

rtber the time has come for the prosecution of a permanent special 

the salvation of young men. If the time has not come we 

desirous of knowing it, as we are fully as anxious not to anticipate 

he time as we are to be -abreast with the time. We wish you to fully 

und [-stand our attitude in relation to this matter. The members of the 

? Men s Christian Associations are fully satisfied with the existing 

nonary methods of the denominations. We regard the Church 

s denominational capacity as the only agency adapted to general 

lonary work. We stand ready to co-operate with the 

missionaries when, and onlv when, they ask for our 

-operation, in a special work for young men in the educa- 

attempt no pioucor or general missionary work for all classes 

144 THE Y. M. c. A. AND FOREIGN MISSIONS. [Second day, 

2. To engage in special work for young men -only when-called to 
such work by the missionaries residing on the field. 

In accordance with these principles the work has been -opened in 
Japan and India. At the request of a number of leading missionaries 
in Tokyo, Mr. Swift resigned his work as teacher, and is devoting his 
entire time to association work as the representative of the United States 
and Canada. He has obtained $60,000 from members and friends of the 
associations in America, with which he is erecting two buildings in 
Tokyo, one for students and one for business men. 

These two buildings, and the one in Osaka erected by the contri 
butions of the associations in England, Australia and America, will 
become of the work in those two great cities. I spent nine 
Meeting for montus * n Japan last year addressing students and young 
kT men * n ^ e ^ding cities. I also conducted a meeting for 
Bible study in Kyoto last July attended by five hundred 
young men. A similar meeting is being arranged for this summer to be 
held in Tokyo. I conversed with over one hundred missionaries of 
twenty-two different boards concerning the expediency of the association 
movement in Japan, and in not a single case did I hear a doubt expressed 
concerning the desirability of the work. 

In response to the invitation of the Madras Missionary Conference 
Mr. David McConaughy, Jr., one of the most prominent association men 
in America, is now in that city as the secretary for India of The 
International Committee of tho Associations of the United States and 
Canada. His work is opening in a most encouraging manner. The 
Calcutta Missionary Conference, during my visit in that city, unanimous 
ly decided to ask the American Committee to send a secretary to Calcutta. 
The missionaries of Ceylon have also united in a call for a secretary. 

I would simply say in closing that if the missionaries of auy one or 
more of your great cities in China, think that the Young Men s Christian 
Associations can render a really valuable service here by sending a few 
young men, whose entire time shall be devoted to co-operating with 
you in special work among young men in the schools or in business, 
we shall consider it one of tho greatest privileges ever accorded us to 
unite with you in the greatest enterprize that confronts the Church of 
Christ, viz., the evangelization of China. 

I do not attempt a full discussion of the departments and methods 

of work of the association on the missionary field, since these must be 

largely determined by experience. In regard to the work of a students 

association I may briefly say that the associations already organized iu 

The work of the East employ about the same methods of work which 

association 8 . characterize the college association in America, with which 

very many of you are familiar, viz., tho prayer meeting, 

individual work and Biblo study. Tho associations already organized iu 

Ceylon and India havo rooms or buildings which aro a social rendezvous 

for young men and contain reading rooms, libraries, innocent games 

m - _ , 

ana other legitimate attractions calculated to draw young men. Meetings 
of a social and literary character aro also held. Biblo classes, devotional 

May 8th.] REV. j. HUDSON TAYLOE. 145 

and evangelistic meetings are maintained. "While the privileges of the 
association are open to all young men without respect to their religious 
beliefs, the management is entrusted only to young men who are members 
in good standing in evangelical churches, they only having the right 
to vote and hold office. As soon as a young man is converted through 
the agency of the association, he is referred to the missionary or pastor 
of the church with which he would naturally affiliate, and in this way 
the association is instrumental in building up the membership of all the 
churches in its community. The associations of Japan are co-operating 
by conferences, correspondence and inter- visitation as are also those of 
Ceylon, and those of India will inaugurate these inter-association 
relations in the near future. While the great variety of dialects will 
interfere with the holding of conventions in China, excepting provincial 
gatherings, I have thought that the ability of the educated Chinese to 
communicate by correspondence and publications may secure a uniformity 
of methods of work and may promote some measure of the enthu 
siasm which is attained in Western associations through 

. , . . ATI i -i , , -T T Associations 

national organizations. As 1 have already intimated I will be links 

fully believe that the formation of associations in missionary betwccuEast 
fields will afford lines of communication between the young and West- 
men of the East and West, especially the educated, along which we can 
send helpful suggestions concerning methods of work to those who are 
just beginning to grapple with the question of the evangelization of their 
people, while along these same lines they can send to the young men of 
the West such appeals as will arouse us more than anything else to the 
work of the evangelization of all young men throughout the entire world. 




Rev. J. Hudson Taylor (0. 1. M.) 

IN the Iroadest sense of the word every Christian should be a Missionary. 
Christ has redeemed us that we should be " witnesses nnto Him," 
and should " show forth the praises of Him who has called ns out of 
darkness into His marvellous light." Of all His redeemed He says, 
" As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into 
the world." The sphere of service may be large or small, at home or 
abroad ; the called may be old or young, weak or strong, but the principle 
remains the same. We are left down here to be witnesses unto Him ; 
and to bear witness always, wherever we may be, is alike, our privilege 
and our duty. 

But in a more restricted sense, there are some who are called to leave 
their secular avocations and to give up their whole lives to Missionary 


work. Sach are our Ministers, Evangelists and Missionaries at home, 
as well as abroad for the field is the world. In this paper, however, 
we shall only consider the case of those who are called to the work, to 
labour in China, in one or other department of missionary enterprise. 

Even so our subject is a broad one ; for China needs not only ordain- 
ed missionaries as pastors and teachers, but many others, who may or 
may not be ordained, for literary and educational work, for medical 
missions, for evangelistic and itinerant effort ; as well as for colportage, 
printing, business, etc. The women of China also need the Gospel as 
much as the men ; lady workers of varied qualifications are therefore 
required, and beyond dispute have proved themselves most useful. To 
consider at all in detail the special training desirable for each of these 
widely varying classes of workers would occupy more time than is now at 
our disposal ; but it is of course obvious that to ignore such marked differ 
ences, and to suppose that the same course of preparation must be suitable 
in every case, would be a most serious mistake. No one expects every 
minister to give five years to the study of medicine : and to require every 
evangelist to take a full theological course is surely not more wise. 
China is perishing. Our plans mnst be sufficiently comprehensive to 
make room for all whom God shall call, sufficiently elastic to be adaptable 
to each ; and yet sufficiently guarded to exclude the unsuitable, however 
learned, wealthy, or otherwise attractive they may be. 

But though we must be prepared to vary our requirements to suit 

individual cases, there are a few broad principles that apply 

Fundamental - w j tu equa i force to all missionaries for China, and these we 

prillClp JC3. t* 11 J 1 " "i-1 

may now briefly consider. Many of them dealing witli 
such questions as the God-given call to missionary labour, the character 
desirable in a missionary, and to some extent also with the qualifications 
needed and the special training required may be regarded as equally 
applicable to workers in other lands. 

I. The Call of God It will be universally admitted that every 
missionary needs to be called of God ; but widely differing views exist 
with reference to the nature of that call, while not a few are without any 
definite convictions upon the subject. A missionary who is not clear on 
this point will be at times almost at the mercy of the great 
Divine Call. enemv> ^h en difficulties arise, when in danger or in sick 
ness, he will be tempted to raise the question which should have been 
settled before he left his native land : Am I not in the wrong place ? 
There are, therefore, few more important questions than this : 

1. How is a man to judge that he is indeed called of God to devote 
his life to missionary service ? 

The operations of the Spirit of God are exceedingly varied. In 
Borne cases there is a deep inward sense of vocation, while in 
others this is wanting. With many there is great longing 
for the spiritual enlightenment of the heathen, and a desire 
to promote it, but at times there is as great a shrinking from the work. 
It is no more safe to build on mere inward feelings (though these ma]] be of 

May 9th.] EEV. j. HUDSON TAYLOR. 147 

great value) in judging of the Divine Call, than it would be to build on 
such feelings as a ground for assurance of salvation. The only safe guide 
in either case is the "Word of God. For salvation, all are called, but few- 
are chosen, for few heed the call, to obey it. For service, every child of 
God is called, but many heed it not ; and, in like manner, others who do, 
are so placed as to health, family circumstances, etc., as to be free for home 
work only. Others there are, however, who recognize God s call in the 
command "Go ye," and find that no insuperable difficulties prevent them 
from leaving their previous avocations. As intelligent servants, knowing 
there are many witnesses at home -and few indeed abroad, they have 
good ground for believing that God would have them offer themselves 
for the foreign field. They have fair health, have proved for themselves 
th ability of Christ to conquer the love and power of sin, and have no 
claims upon them which preclude their going wherever the Lord may 
have need of workers. Indeed, so strongly do they feel the call that 
conscience could not rest were they not to offer themselves to God for 
this work. Now in such a case there is first the command of the Word, 
then the calm judgment of the intelligence, and an earnest desire to obey, 
following the example of the Lord Jesus. Not their own, they will go, if 
sent, as His servants. They know the task will be arduous, often 
painful, and perhaps apparently discouraging ; but they must, neverthe 
less, obey the call. Such convictions are very different from mere feeling. 
That might change, but the call would remain. Many have a great 
desire to enter the mission field who are never permitted to do so ; and 
some who go, on the strength of feelings only, afterwards profoundly 
regret their mistake. Mere pity for tho spiritual and temporal miseries 
of the heathen is not alone sufficient ; but God s command, brought home 
to the heart and conscience, God s love, the constraining power and God- 
given facilities which make foreign service possible, are considerations of 
the highest moment, and taken together are not likely to mislead. 

As soon as any young Christian at homo recognizes a call to work 
for the Lord, some special service should bo commenced at once, and 
carried on diligently and perse veringly. This is no less important in the 
case of those who hope, ultimately, to work abroad, but rather more so. 
In this way they may test the reality of the call, and also prove and 
develop their own powers. A voyage across tho ocean will not make of 
any one a missionary, or a soul-winner. While thus proving and 
developing their gifts at home, such special preparation for future service 
as may seem practicable should also bo carried on ; and suitable steps 
taken to seek an open door to tho foreign field, with much prayer that 
tho Lord may open or shut, as, and when, He sees best. If the call bo 
indeed of God, Ho will make a way ; and till Ho does so tho one called 
may patiently and calmly wait. A worker is not responsible for anything 
beyond his power. Effort, energy, and perseverance, are required of 
him : success will come in God s own time. 

2. Bat how are others to determine whether those who think them 
selves called and who probably are called to o/er themselves should be 
accepted ? It was udl that David wished to baild tbo temple ; but it 


was not God s way that he should do so, though he was permitted to 
help in the work to no small extent. The plan was committed to him, 
and the means were largely pat in his possession; he was used to urge 
Solomon to do the building, and besides giving largely of his own wealth, 
was successful in stimulating his people to great liberality in the cause. 
So now, some may be led to offer themselves who are unsuited for actual 
work in the field ; and yet, they may have this burden laid upon them, 
jn order that, David-like, they may be helpers and givers. But to return 

to the question who should be accepted : Speaking general- 
t?c er " ty> we ma J sa J : Those f stable age, character, and 
rtcs f qualifications, and who have already proved themselves patient 

and successful icorJcers at home. God gives ability for that 
department of work to which He calls His servant, and our question 
simply is this, Is there real evidence of ability for work in China ? Even 
on this point great care and much prayerfulness are needed. One of the 
most successful missionaries I have met in this country was repeatedly 
rejected by examining boards, and not without reason. But he persevered, 
God opened the way, and used him to carry on a most successful work 
for 6 or 7 years, from which he was called to his reward. Wo may now 
consider : 

II. The Personal Character of the Missionary for China. I need 

scarcely say that he should bo unmistakably saved and 

thoroughly consecrated to God, living a holy, consistent life. 

It is equally desirable that he should have shown himself 
useful and ready to help, and that in some measure at least his character 
should already have influenced and impressed others. But more than 
this, a missionary should be unselfish, considerate of and attentive to the 
feelings and needs of others. Ho should be patient not apathetic, bub 
able to bear opposition calmly and with long-suffering ; he should be 
persevering also, not easily discouraged. With this, energy well under 
control is needed, and power to influence and to lead. I must not omit 
to mention one most important characteristic of a successful mission 
ary absence of prido of race ; for nothing so much repels those amongst 
whom wo labour, and " Tho Lord resisteth the proud." Power to come 
down to the level of those ho seeks to save, and to become ono with 
them, is most important. It is only in so far as he can do this that ho 
will mako them one with him. "Tho Word was made flesh;" Christ 
was born " under the law;" "It became Him to bo made in all things 
like unto His brethren " how much more docs it become us ! Ho was 
the " Wisdom of God " as well as tho " Power of God ; " and Ho has left 
us an example that we should follow in His steps. 

III. Qualifications for Service. But besides his own personal 
Qaaiifica- character, certain qualifications physical, mental, and 

spiritual are needed for this service alono. I "will first con 
sider tho least important of these, because it may closo tho door against 
many whom wo might otherwise gladly welcome among as. 

1. Physical Qualifications. Those sboald bo equal to tbo require 
ments of that part of Chiua in which the missionary ia to labour. The 

May 9th.] EEV. j. HUDSON TAYLOE. 149 

nervous system should be able to bear the strain of acclimatization, of 

study, and of any measure of isolation the work may call for. p , 

A fairly good digestive power is needed; and good muscular 

strength is valuable, not only in itself, but as tending to keep the whole 

system in health by its exercise. The body is the Lord s ; and, while 

not pampered, it should be well cared for, for Him. 

Men of melancholy temperament, who cannot throw off the depression 
they are subject to ; the fastidious, who are often more or less dyspeptic ; 
and the highly excitable, are risky candidates for work in China. 

In the case of lady missionaries, a fairly healthy and vigorous frame 
is very desirable. Some may marry sooner or later, and if unable to 
maintain health in the various circumstances of married life, not only will 
their own work be hindered, or come to an end, but the work of the hua* 
band may suffer, or he may have to leave the field. After considerable 
experience, we strongly urge the great desirability of ladies acquiring 
the language and becoming acclimatized before marriage, wherever this 
is possible. Ladies of highly excitable or hysterical temperament are not 
well adapted to this climate. 

2. Mental Qualifications. The mind should be thoroughly sound, 
and there should be no taint of hereditary insanity, or China is not 
unlikely to develop it. A sound judgment, everywhere 
valuable, is specially so in China ; and the ready tact which 
takes in the situation and makes the best of it, is never out of place here. 
The absence of these qualifications may neutralize the best intentions and 
the most earnest efforts. 

Evidence of Capacity should always be sought for. Culture is very 
valuable, if linked with capability ; but there are some who, while they 
Lave done well in the schools, seem to have exhausted their small stock 
of this valuable quality. Such would be of little use here. A candidate 
should have ability to learn, and to become whatever may be necessary. 
If some advantages of education have been lacking, we may remember 
that missionary study and work are themselves educational ; and if there 
is the requisite capability, very useful service may yet be accomplished. 

Attractiveness and Leadership. Some persons possess a power to 
attract and influence, which it is difficult to explain, but is a gift of the 
highest value when used by the Holy Ghost. Such persons are generally 
fond of children, and are loved and trusted by them. The instinct of 
children does not often mislead them, and those who can work well with 
and for children will generally make good missionaries. The power of 
leadership is seen in some to a marked degree, and is most valuable. 
Where these gifts are wholly absent, or the reverse is present, great care 
should be taken before accepting such a candidate for China. 

3. Spiritual Qualifications. These, of course, are of supreme impor" 
,tance. Imperfect physical health or mental furnishings need not be abso 
lutely fatal to success, but a true missionary must be a man of spiritual 
power. The work to [be done is a spiritual work, the foes to 
.bo worsted are spiritual foes. Let no one think that when Spintuah 
lie has looked at the hoary civilization of China, the difficult 


the mif hty power of numbers, the prejudice of race, the materialization 
of the minds of the Chinese, and the hindrances caused by opium and 
unfriendly contact with foreigners, he has surveyed the principal 
difficulties with which we have to contend. No ! our warfare is not 
with these merely, we wrestle not with flesh and blood, but with wicked 
spirits in heavenly places, who reign in the hearts of the heathen. 
Enlighten the mind, affect the conscience even, and they will still remain 
the same, unless the Father draw them, unless the Son set them free, 
unless the Spirit convince of sin and renew the heart. And this work 
God will usually do through those who are spiritual. " When He, the 
Spirit of Truth is come " (John xvi. 13) come where ? come to whom ? 
" unto you " (v. 7). What will He do ? He, indwelling in the believer, 
" vi\\\-convict the world of sin, of righteousness and of judgment" (v. 8). 
And, moreover, He it is who " will guide you into all truth " (v. 13). 
Above all things, therefore, must the missionary be spiritually-minded. 

How important it is then, that by spiritual conversation with 
candidates, and by prayer with them, their spiritual state should be 
ascertained. To be successful, missionaries must be holy men, loving the 
Word, feeding and feasting on it, having it dwelling in them richly ; 
must be men of prayer, who have often proved for themselves its power. 
Men who wish to live for eternity, and are resolved to do so ; men under 
"the powers of the world to come," to whom unseen things are most 
real and most satisfying. They must be men who have the love of 
God shed abroad in their hearts, not merely men who love God, or 
who know that He loves them; but who have the very love of God for 
perishing souls shed abroad in their hearts, and who hence can do 
in their measure what Christ did in His, nud by the same power. 
That love, that passion for souls, knows no repulse, fails never 
is fertile in expedient, patient in difficulty, and successful in issue 
for it is of God, and by His power. Oh, for such men and for 
multitudes of them ! Whether noble or humble, men so qualified are 
the great need of China. And, oh, my dear brethren, may we in this 
Conference have a fresh anointing, and drink anew, and more deeply 
than ever, of the water of life ; so that from each one of us poor empty- 
vessels though we are rivers of living water may flow, to bless this 
thirsty land of China ! 

IV. Training. God trains all His workers, but often in vary 
different ways. There is no gift of God which is not improved by 
suitable cultivation. The body, the mind, the heart, and the soul, all 
benefit by it. Are we not too apt to confine our thoughts of 
training to the intellect merely ? And is not heart-training 
far more important, and yet far more neglected ? Much of this work- 
by far the most important part of it, must be left in God s hand, and will 
often have been accomplished before the candidate comes before us : the 
more largely this is the case, the more satisfactory the issue. Then comes 
the question, as to such additional training as we can give, When, Where, 
and IIow should it be given ? 

May 9th.] REV. J. HUDSON TAYLOE. 151 

1. When ? Whenever we find the right men or women, in some 
important respect unfurnished for the work, it may be desirable to 
seek to supply what is lacking, or at least to direct them _ n 
in acquiring what may be necessary. But age is a very trained. 
important element ; if the candidate is very young, or has been recently 
converted, training will be specially needed ; but if already not youno> 
and the deficiency not of a serious nature, it may be unwise to detain 
them long for preparation at Lome. 

2. Where ? at home or in the field ? If the training needed is 
for medical or literary work, for translation of the Scriptures, or for 
educational work, it must mainly be done at home. But wherever 
it is practicable, there is great advantage in much of the training being 
done here. The missionary can learn a great deal while Wh 
acquiring the language, while becoming acclimatized, and t- 
while learning to understand the minds of the people quite as important 
a matter as understanding their language. It was in this way that 
Joshua was trained under Moses in Old Testament times, and the 
disciples of Christ under our Lord in the New. In this way Paul 
trained his companions, and no method is more effectual, wherever it 
can be applied. 

3,Hoiv ? This must of course largely depend on the object aimed 
at. I would say, however, that whether at home or here, spiritual 
work should always be connected with the secular ; and heart training, 
the deepening of spiritual life, be kept not merely in sight, HOW 
lut in the very front. Let us see to it that an increasing traincd - 
knoidedcje of the Word, love of the Word, and practical use of the Word 
accompany whatever else may be thought desirable. And let us remem 
ber that God will go on with the training we have not to do it all. The 
study of the language and literature of China is as good mental disciplina 
as the study of Western classics; and travel, dealing with men and 
things, are also highly educational. Above all, let us never forget that 
while we are training, men are dying, dying in hopeless sin. Let not 
pur training practically impress the student with the thought that he 
is the important agent, and the Holy Spirit s work merely auxiliary ; 
that his improvement is the matter of moment, and the condition of tha 
heathen is not so very urgent after all. Would that God would make 
hell so real to us that wo could not rest, heaven so real that we must have 
men there, and Christ such a reality that our supreme motive and aim 
shall be to cause the Man of Sorrows to become the Man of Joy, through 
the conversion of many concerning whom Ho prayed" Father I long 
that those whom Thou hast given me be with me where I am, that they 
may behold my glory." 

V- Introduction to his work. In the manner in which our Saviour 
introduced His first disciples to their life-work have we not a lesson 
for all time? His plan was to take them with Him; they felt the 
influence of Hia life, saw the real depth of His convictions, and how 


consistently He carried them out in actual service. They 

m n a r nner rd of heard His daily teachings, and observed His methods. As 

i?!Sm they became more fitted to act alone He sent them forth, 

, TT* 

their work. ] e tting them return and report all their doings to Him 
self, and helping them by His own comments, as occasion served. He 
used them whenever it was possible to do so, even if only to row a 
boat, or catch a fish ! He did not deter them from sharing in the dangers 
of Hia mission, nor hide from them His own spiritual life and com 
munion with the Father. Finally, and above all, He taught them 
to :wait themselves on God for full spiritual power, before actively enter 
ing upon their own life-service. 

Should wo not learn from all this many helpful lessons as to the 
introduction of young missionaries to their life-work to-day ? Is it well 
to leave them to find out for themselves much that we have so painfully 
discovered, and to make the same mistakes that we are conscious of 
Laving fallen into at the commencement of our service ? Should they 
not rather have, from the beginning, the counsel and help of elder 
brethren ? For inland work this is especially desirable, for the gravest 
results may arise from inexperienced action, and in -some districts an 
incautious step has been known to hinder the progress of the work for a 
long time. 

That the young missionary should begin, however, as early as possi 
ble, to do what he can for the spiritual good of the people, is very needful, 
as well for his own sake as for theirs. From the very first he can help 
Jby prayer, and encourage other workers with his presence and sympathy. 
And soon he may be able to begin the sale of Scriptures and tracts, 
to converse a little with the people, and to help, perhaps in singing, in the 
meetings. "What can be more deadening to tho spiritual life of a begin 
ner than to live long among the heathen, and do nothing for them ? 

Lastly, as to his mode of life. He should ever remember that he is 

Mode sent to be a witness for Christ, a reflection of the Unseen ; 

of life. an( j th a fc tig a i m mu st therefore be to seek, as far as in him 

lies, to become among the Chinese that which Christ was among the 

Jews. Ho should be accessible, sympathetic, not a preacher merely, but 

[helpful also to the people, in as many ways as possible. His life should 

bo as visible and like their own as ho can, make ft, that it may touch and 

influence theirs at all points, as far as may be. As a living object-lesson 

Le is to do good, to suffer for it, and to take it patiently, not seeking ven 

geance, but manifesting forgiveness. For this a man needs great grace ; 

as well as to be ready, always, for unwelcome calls and interruptions ; to 

take joyfully tho spoiling of his goods ; and to show by h-is example that 

God is an all-sufficient aid, and that tho help of any human arm is never 

really indispensable. But in the life of Him whom we represent this spirit 

was always found. Did He not say, "Him that cometh unto Me I will 

in no wise cast out ? " and at all times, did He not pray for His persecu- 

tors, and wait until God should vindicate His character and claims ? 

His missionary follower must, therefore, not seek merely for more of 
this spirit, but practically "find grace to help in time of need." 

9th.] KEY. D. HILL. 153 



Eev. D. Hill (E. W. M., Wu-chang.) 

Definition of Lay Agency. 
Basis of. 

Causes of revived interest in. 

Necessity for, implied in the responsibility of the church in regard 
to the heathen world. 

Summary of fundamental principles. 

The two branches of the subject: i., Extent desirable ; ii., -Conditions 

i. Extends to at least six departments of mission -work. Three 

discussed in other papers ; three here- presented, 
(a). Secular business ; (5), Charity; (c) Evangelism. 
ii. General Conditions. 

(a). Connection with existing missionary organizations, 
(6). Personal qualifications of Lay Agents. 
(c). Organic relation in the field. 
(1). Superintendency of. 
(2). Engagement for term of years. 
(3). Sphere of work. 

(4). Method of work with illustrative example. 
(cZ). Financial support. 

(1). Self-support by means of manual labor. 
(2). Self-support by private means. 
(3). Support by alliance with a society. 

THIS subject, being one of those which did not appear on the 1877 
programme, may bo taken as one of the marks of missionary 
progress during the interval which has elapsed since the last missionary 
Shanghai Conference, and as indicative of the greater 
complexity of missionary machinery which the roll of years never fails 
to bring. It is one which, during the thirteen years interval, has, by 
manifest and marked signs, been brought more prominently before the 
church than almost any other, and is destined to influence the forward 
inarch of events more directly and more widely in the future than it has 
in the past. It would doubtless be deemed more fitting by many if 
some member of that mission which has been so signally used of God in 
the development of lay mission work, had been entrusted with this paper ; 
on the other hand, the view of a sympathetic outsider, expressed with 
due diffidence, may not bo without advantage. 

The title of the paper, though so broad as to impinge on several 
others, yet limits the subject of lay agency to Chinese missions, and 
further divides it into two sections, viz., their extent and conditions. 

The work of the laity, as distinct from that of the clergy, is hero 
assumed to bo binding on the church of Christ in her foreign, as well aa 
her iome_service. 


By the clei gy I mean that class of men who have, by special vow, 
given themselves to, and by special orders been set apart 
for, a lifelong ministry of the Word of God, who are under 
more direct ecclesiastical control, and who in modern times 
are, for the most part, disallowed secular employment. By the laity I 
understand all true Christian men and women apart from this one class. 
That the clergy are called to the work of the world s evangelization 
is now an accepted axiom. That the laity have a like responsibility, the 
church is waking up to discern. 

The primary design of the Christian faith, which contemplates world 
wide diffusion, the example of the early church when all 
went about preaching the Word (Acts viii. 1, 4), thebestow- 
ment of special gifts antecedent to, and independent of, ecclesiastical office, 
conspire to prove that the evangelization of the world is not the work of 
one privileged class, but a common obligation incumbent on the whole 
body, and strange it is that in these latter days, though once and again 
laymen have been called to open new fields of labor, succeeding years 
should find so few to prosecute the work thus commenced. A brighter 
day, however, has dawned upon us, and as in all great religious revivals 
lay effort has been earnestly sought and spontaneously supplied, so we 
may hail the present missionary movement both as the index of a 
quickened life and the herald of a more signal triumph. 

This revived zeal of the church is doubtless duo, as in days gone by, 

to the conscious insufficiency of the existing staff of ordain- 
Causes of ... . 

revived in- ed missionaries to compass the work assigned them in the 

great mission fields of the world ; their despair of doing so 
with present agencies; their love for the souls of men; their inspired 
eagerness for a more rapid extension of the kingdom of God and for 
the hastening of the coming of the Lord. These thoughts, given to men 
in the field, have led them to seek help from God, and the help has come 
in the form of a largely increased lay agency. 

And whilst such thoughts have been stirring the hearts of mission 
aries abroad, corresponding influences have been moving on the minds of 
the home churches. They have seen the abundance, both of men and 
means, available for missionary enterprise, still lying idle ; they have 
felt the feebleness arising from buried talent and from wealth un-v 
employed; they have noted the multitudes of men and women who, 
feeling no call to the life-long ministry of the word in foreign lands, 
satisfy themselves that there is no field for service away from their own 
country, and there even, failing to find a sphere, sink into a sinful and 
slothful ease, cumbering the ground and checking the fruitfulness of the 
home churches ; they have recognized the fact that in the comparatively 
meagre staff of ordained missionaries in the foreign work, many see 
neither sufficient scope nor incentive for the employment of the church s 

wealth, and these thoughts have turned the attention of the 
* fo"?t. y homo churches to the subject of lay agency abroad. And 

the. conclusion arrived at on both hands is that the remedy 
for tha ecclesiastical congestion at home, and missionary exhaustion. 

May 9th.] KEY. D. HILL. 155 

abroad, is to be fonnd in tlie more extensive employment of laymen in 
the foreign field, and that the application of this remedy rests in great 
measure with the missionary body. 

To us will the home churches look to invite and welcome our lay 
brethren to the work abroad, and to find suitable spheres of service 
for them when they do come. It is well, therefore, that we give the 
subject a thoughtful consideration ; well too, that we entertain a broad 
and generous conception of the church s responsibility to the 
heathen world, not confining it to one department of service, 
but recognizing her obligation as the body of Christ to 
preserve symmetrical union with her Head, by going about 
doing good both to the bodies and souls of men, caring at once for their 
temporal interest and their eternal welfare, and in this two-fold duty 
reading the interpretation of the fact that the wealth of the world to-day 
is entrusted to Christian hands. 

The claims of intellectual culture are now generally acknowledged 
by the church, and educational agencies form one recognized depart 
ment of missionary effort. 

The claims of physical distress (except in the one branch of 
medicine) have not been so freely admitted. The famines of recent 
years, both in India and China, have compelled us to own our indebted 
ness to the heathen world in regard to their temporal necessities, but 
only in their acuter forms, and we have yet to learn that the chronic 
destitution of heathendom -rightfully claims a most thoughtful study and 
scientific relief. 

Here, then, I would laythe basis for the principle of the meiftarprin"- 
employment of lay missionaries in China : ciples. 

1st. That the evangelization of the world is the work -of the whole 
church, and not of one separated order. 

2nd. That present agencies are sorely insufficient for its accom 

3rd. That the many-sidedness and broad sympathies of the life of 
Christ can only thus be adequately shown forth by the church. 

4th. That the homo churches are seriously suffering by their 
self-centredness, both in the employment of men and money. 

5th. That the wealth of these churches needs other channels for 
its use in the foreign field than the support of an ordained ministry, and 

6th. That the temporal, as well as the spiritual destitution of the 
heathen world, justly claims the help which only the laity have it in 
their power to supply. 

Prom these general principles we proceed to consider 
1st. The extent to which this agency is desirable. 
2nd. The conditions on which it should bo employed. 
1st. The Extent. If the broad basis which I have laid down be 
allowed, then tho extent to which lay agency is desirable is 
almost unlimited. Reserving for tho most part, either on dcBiraWe. 
grounds of ecclesiastical law and usage, or on thoso of 
expediency, tho pastoral, tho disciplinary and tho sacramental f unctions o 


the church for the ordained missionary or native pastor, there are still the 
wide fields of evangelism and of education, of literature and 
Six depart- o f me dicine, of charity and of secular business, open to the 
lay missionary, into all of which it is desirable that he 
should enter. Three of these, as well as the employment of female agents, 
will be so fully discussed in other papers that I shall not trespass on 
those domains further than to remark in regard to the relative advantages 
of lay or ordained agents in any branch of service, that where a special 
gift has been bestowed, be it of healing, or of teaching, or of letters, the 
greater the freedom from other claims the more effective will the service 
be. Of the three departments which may not be so exhaustively dis 
cussed, viz., those of secular business, charity and evangelism, the last 
will, according to the evident intent of the framets of the Conference 
programme, demand our chief attention. In regard to 

The Secular Business of a Mission, 

whether that of the financier, the commission agent, the builder, the 

draughtsman, the land agent, or other similar engagements, there can be 

no two opinions as to the desirability, wherever the amount 

buffilf of of business warrants it, of having specialists appointed 

n- to undertake such work, and that such specialists should be 

laymen, wise-hearted men, like Bezaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe 

of Judah, whom "the Lord filled with the Spirit of God ia wisdom, 

in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship," 

faithful men, like the Levitical and other treasurers, secretaries and 

commission agents of the times of Hezekiah, Josiah or Nehemiah, even 

if, as in those days, it be expedient to appoint, as general treasurer, a man 

in holy orders. By such arrangement both time and funds would be 

economized, error evaded, and anxiety eased. 

A strong mission in the interior almost necessitates an agency at a 
treaty port. Buildings, especially if erected on a foreign model aiad at 
all numerous, require a practical builder. The transmission and general 
financiering of mission funds, if at all extensive or complicated, 
naturally suggest a lay treasurer, and such appointments would often 
ease an overburdened and semi-secularized cleric. In regard to 

The Charities of the Church, 

which were so marked a feature of her earlier years, and which havo 

been so strangely neglected in the missionary organizations 

* rities - of modern times, there is at once a sphere for lifelong effort, 

and, as in the case of Stephen, a stepping stone to a higher service, aud 

for this work the Christian layman is peculiarly fitted. 

His freedom from the spiritual duties of the ministerial office and 
the weight of care these necessarily bring, will give him ampler opportu 
nities for studying how best to succour those who are in need, so as, along 
with such succour, to pour what has been aptly termed " a porpotual stream 
of independence, intelligence and struggle" into the lives of mou who aro 
now losing thoir manhood through the discouragements of pauperization ; 

May 9th.J REV. D. HILL. 157 

his more frequent commingling with men of the world, and complete? 
acquaintance with the affairs of this life, will enable bim to adapt Western 
methods of charitable relief to the conditions of Oriental life ; and tho 
help he may thus render to his clerical brethren on the field by supple 
menting their service, and to his lay brethren in the home churches by 
providing a trusted and welcome outlet for their wealth, will preserve 
the symmetry of Christian service, and elude the danger into which the 
organized charities of China have fallen, of divorcing charity from 
church organization, and a religious cult from practical benevolence. 

These considerations all point to this as one department of mission 
work for which the laity are specially adapted, and hence, wherever a 
Christian church is called out of its heathen surroundings, or a mission 
station of any proportions is established, there let the chronic distress of 
the neighborhood find relief in the ministry of the Christian church as 
dispensed by its lay almoner, whose presence and ministry may help to 
bridge the chasm between the comfort of a missionary s home and the 
squalor of a neighboring hovel. 

But the dominant idea in the minds of most members of the Con 
ference in regard to the desirability of lay agency in China will doubtless 
centre in the work of 


This is confessedly the first and chief duty of the church of Christ. 
In early days, when the first preachers of the faith could say 
" Silver and gold have I none," it was felt to be superlatively 
incumbent, but when the charities of the church rebound- 
ed from their mission stations, they gladly adapted their itinerant work 
to the carrying out of the benevolent designs of the converts God had 
given them, never losing sight, however, of the fact that their own call 
was distinctly and emphatically to the work of evangelism, that is, to the 
widest possible proclamation by personal testimony of the glad tidino-g of 
salvation ; and whilst the chief of the apostles felt this to be his own 
high calling, we find that his plan was ever to have associated with him 
men who were fired with a like enthusiasm and had responded to the 
same high calling. Of these, some were solemnly set apart, others less 
formally consecrated ; some devoted themselves for longer, some for 
a shorter period of service, but all were bent on the one great work of 
making known to Jew and Gentile the Gospel of the grace of God. 

Somo found in this evangelistic itinerancy a training school for the 
more settled ministry of presbyter or bishop, whilst others, like the great 
Apostle himself, continued in the same to their lives end. 

Tho need of such an agency must have been felt by every missionary 
in this country, for without it tho evangelization of China is Neecl of ]ay 
all but a hopeless task. Opinions may differ as to tho relative evangelists. 
desirability of tho employment of native or foreign agents, but as to 
tho abstract question of a lay evangelistic agency there is a general con 
sensus of opinion, and that, not only as a concomitant of tho work of the 
pastorate, bat as a pioneering agency preparing tho way for snch work in 


the future. For the breaking up of new ground, for the broadcast 
sowing of the Gospel seed, for that initial evangelism which precedes the 
more formal establishment of mission churches, lay effort is both 
admirably adapted and urgently needed, and we should hail the day 
when in every one of the 1,400 counties of China Proper and in the 
reo-ions far beyond, lay evangelists are found, going forth two and two, 
proclaiming the Gospel of God and heralding the coming of His kingdom. 
The vast field which I have here assumed to be open to lay 
Large staff agency, through the great variety of the service required, 
required. naturally calls for a much larger staff of lay missionaries, 
larger not only than the staff now in the field, but relatively larger 
than that of ordained men; the same arguments which demonstrate 
the necessity of lay help on behalf of the nnevangelized and necessitous 
masses in Christian countries largely apply to a like need in heathen lands, 
and the supply of that need from the ranks of the laity will, in some cases 
at least, save the church from the fatal error of transferring her ordained 
ministers to secular service as did the Jesuits in early days in China. 

The extent to which it is desirable that the co-operation of the laity 
should be sought being so great, it will readily be seen that 

The Conditions 

of such co-operation must of necessity be various. A few general principles 

General may therefore be of more service than the discussion ^ of 

conditions. debatab i e details, and these, whilst applying more especial 

ly to the lay evangelist, may, in many particulars, meet the case of 

missionary lay agents generally. 

First, then, I would urge that laymen engaged in foreign work 

Labor tinder labor der the aus P ices of S0me esistin S missionary society 

some existing ratlaer tlian as individual and isolated workers, and hence 

"KB? that such societies be urged to provide a well-defined and 

fittin" place for such workers in their organizations. _ 

The unity of the church, the harmonious co-operation of her 
agents, and the conservation of force, all suggest this course ; and tha 
the time has come for such action, the Divine seal which has [been set 
upon the methods of the Inland Mission amply demonstrates. The rule, 
therefore, should be organic connection with a society; the except* 

isolated effort. jonV.tloaa h 

In the actual movement of missionary work, it will doubt esa be 
iound that in many branches individual effort will precede the acti 
the society, but this would only be repeating the history . 

in tho farst 


especially as regards the charities of the church, 
instance, generally took the form of individual and irregular effort for 
the amelioration of the destitute, and then, as timo went on, ana 
work grew on the workers hands, branched out into tho .various depar 
ments of organized benevolence, such as hospitals for the SICK, oipua 
ages for tho fatherless, asylums for infants, homc3 for Hi ca, 
Louses for tho poor and for strangers, each managed by its OPP" 

May 9th.] EEV. D. HILL. 159 

staff of officers, and being an integral part of the organization of the 

Such, in all probability, will be the course of modern movement, 
beginning with the individual; it will grow to be a common work, 
acknowledged by and linked with that section of the church with which 
its first promoters were originally connected. 

Whilst, therefore, we would welcome with both gratitude and glad 
ness every isolated worker in these various departments of missionary 
service, we should still keep in mind the ideal unity of the church and 
the strength of harmonious co-operation, and should work towards this 
ideal, ever ready to recognize the hour when organic union is practicable 
in the case of individual enterprise, and to hasten towards that day ; 
and, in the meantime, should do our utmost to develop such agencies in 
connection with existing organizations and not external to them. 

Assuming that the normal relation of missionary lay agents is that 
of connection with some missionary organization, let us further consider 
the conditions on which such relationship should be based, and for the 
sake of clearness consider these under the three heads of 
i. Personal Qualification, 
ii. Organic Connection in the field. 

iii. Financial Support. 

As regards the Personal Qualifications of the lay missionary, the 
principles which, generally speaking, apply to the ordained personal 
ministers of the church, equally apply to those who are <i ualilicatioils - 
not in orders. 

The one essential requirement of all missionaries, lay or cleric, is 
a conscious and approved call of God, and this attested by corresponding 
gifts, which, as in the case of the clerical, the educational, and the medical 
agents, should be both trained and tested for a longer or 
shorter period in the home work. Physically, there should 
be the " mens sana in corpore sano " with a doctor s certificate. 

Intellectually, a mind stored with a thorough knowledge of the word 

of God, and fitted by at least a good English education 

f ,i . , , ,, Intellectual. 

tor the acquirement of a foreign tongue. 

Morally, a readiness to " endure hardness " acquired by a training 
too frequently lacking in the colleges of the present day in 
the virtues of moral courage, and of self-denial, of patience 
and of perseverance, of adaptiveness to circumstance, of sympathetic un 
selfishness, and, above all, of practical love to the bodies and souls of men. 

In the case of the missionary almoner, there should also be keenness 
of insight into character, gained by experience in charitable 
work at home, buoyant hopefulness, sympathetic tenderness, 
and good business capabilities, with some general knowledge of medicine. 

Spiritually, they should be men full of faith and of tho 
Holy Ghost, who have learnt to wrestle for and with tho 8 P 5rituaI - 
souls of raen. 

For the obtaining of such men, the one method laid down by our 
Lord is that of prayer," Pray yc therefore the Lord of tho harvest that 


He send forth laborers into his harvest ; " but the prayer itself brings 
with it the responsibility, both of noting and asserting how great the 
harvest, how few the laborers, how deep the need. 

For the training of such men, the mission, evangelistic, and charit 
able work of the home churches, both in densely peopled cities and in the 
more sparsely populated rural districts, supplies a fitting seminary, and, 
in their selection, capability, rather than actual acquirement, should rule. 
Granted then that such men are given us of God, what is the organic 
Organic reia- relation they should hold to the church in their field of 
tioii in field. labor ? 

1st. They should be willing to work under the direction of --an, 
ordained superintendent. 

The sacramental offices of the church, the general oversight of the 
Superintend- work, harmonious co-operation with ordained brethren, and 
ent - the advantage of experienced guidance, of common counsel, 

and of mutual help, all point to this arrangement. 

2nd. That whilst HO permanent vow, as in the case of the ordained 

minister, is advisable, they should be willing to enter into an 

for term C of engagement (which would be open to renewal) for a term o 

years, the rule being, not less than five nor more than seven. 

The initial expenditure of time, labor and money renders this understand 

ing desirable, whilst on the other hand, the inadvisability of a life-long 

vow arises from the fact that lay service in the foreign, as in the home 

field, may in some cases be for the testing and training of men called to 

the permanent public ministry of the Word of God in the pastoral office ; 

otherwise, I see no reason why a man specially qualified for evangelistic 

work should not continue in the same to his life s end, though the weight 

of New Testament precedent favors rather the setting apart of men for 

the f ulfi Iment of a special mission. 

3rd. The sphere of the lay evangelist should be chiefly in new and 
6 here of nnoccupied districts, away from, but if possible reverting to, 

some central station. The Gospel will thus be more widely 
made known, visits can be more easily repeated, the possibilities of friction 
will be minified, the church of the resident missionary be quickened, the 
hands of the Bible colporteur and native evangelist be strengthened, 
and a door will be opened for and direction given to the missionary 
activities of the native church. Here again, however, apostolic precedent 
shows how some following as the Spirit leads, may, in spite of them 
selves, be carried forward in ever widening circuits, and hence, how deep 
the need, step by step, of waiting upon the Lord for our marching orders. 
4th. The Methods of Evangelism. First and last there should be 

the commending and committing of the evangelists and 
Methods of their wor k unto the Lord by the churches from which they 

go forth, then the open and fearless proclamation of the 
coming of the kingdom of heaven by means of street preaching and book 
distribution, and this further attested by medical relief, by ch&ritable- 
ness to the poor, by patience, and by the demonstrations of the Spirit. 

May 9th.] EEV. D. HILL. 161 

Together with this general proclamation, there should be the searching 
out and dealing individually with awakened souls, by inquiry, by visita" 
tion, by conversation, by kindness and by prayer ; the acceptance and 
repayal of proffered hospitality 5 adaptation to native life and to national 

As interest deepens, and inquirers multiply, visits should be more 
frequent, a place for meeting fixed upon and arrangements for Sabbath 
worship made; the most earnest, intelligent, and able man should be 
appointed leader, and, as the church increases in character and strength, 
the responsibility of pastoral care and support should be devolved upon 
her own ministers and members, and the evangelist move on to new 
fields, revisiting the old in diminishing degrees as the work matures. 

On these lines, the Wesleyan lay missionaries of Central China have 
been working for some few years. They began by mapping 
out five circuits around Hankow for evangelistic visitation ; iHastrated in 

they went two and two, one native and one foreign mission- We J^yan Lay 

,-, . . ,, . . . .Mission. 

ary ; they repeated their visits after a two, three, or four 

months interval ; they were cheered after a few visits by the coming f 
individual inquirers to their boats and their inns ; they then contracted 
the area of visitation and centred their effort on those places where there 
were evident signs that the Lord was working ; after months of instruc 
tion, repeated visitation and protracted probation, some of these were 
admitted to Christian fellowship and have since been the means of 
gathering others to the Lord, so that now there are three farm houses 
where little gatherings of native Christians meet in increasing numbers 
to worship God, and thus, even at this initial stage of the work, there is 
much encouragement to go forward with it, though the goal of a self- 
supporting church may yet be far ahead. 

From the idea of a self-supporting church we pass on to the ideal of 
a self-supporting missionary. This would settle the question of 

Financial Support 

without further ado, but it is an ideal rarely realized, and the cheap 
ness of labor in these populous Eastern empires renders Fina - 
self-support, by means of manual toil, almost impracti- 8U PP- 
cable if a man wishes to do much evangelistic work, tmless, indeed 
he be able and willing to adapt himself to a Chinese manner of 
life and accept its disabilities and discomforts as expressive of one great 
Evangel. Still there are (if not so precisely Pauline in method or iu 
hardship) a few doors open to men of high devotion and 

of resolute will. In the open ports the teaching of the ^y secular 
_, ... , employment. 

English language, or even the opening of a tradesman s 

store, and, in connection with such store, the employment of a Christian 
commercial traveller to visit interior cities, and thus bring somewhat 
widely to bear on the trading and commercial classes the influence of strict 
integrity and of Sabbath observance iu bnsiness life; a few rare posts in 
the Imperial Customs, and perhaps a superintendoncy iu connection with, 
the mining, ongiuceriug or telegraph services of the government. Bat in. 


almost every case the leisure from business calls, for evangelistic work 
would be but limited, and all imply a previous acquirement of the spoket 
language. On these and other grounds the missionary societies of the 
present day could hardly undertake the responsibility of such agencies 
though the layman thus engaged would naturally connect himself with 
some section of the church, to which the. fruit of his evangelistic effori 
would as naturally revert. 

Besides those, however, who, to follow out the principle of self- 
support would need to fall back on some business occupa- 
B me?us a . te tion > there is in tne home churches an increasing number 
of young men of private means who, by ordinary economy, 
might easily manage to support themselves whilst engaged in missionary 
work, and the fewness of their number in connection with the older 
societies is painfully indicative of either an attenuated spirituality in the 
home churches, or a lack of enthusiastic representation and appeal on .the 
part of the foreign missionary. 

A third, and the most common course, is that of financial alliance 
with some missionary society, and the basis on which this 

By alliance -,.. , ui /. i , 

with a society, alliance slioum be iormed is that of the family, a basis which 
I may say equally applies to the financial relation of the 
ordained missionary to the missionary society. As members of ona 
common brotherhood, let the funds be paid out of a common stock, 
acccording as each one has need. As numbers increase, the financial 
arrangements of the mission may be facilitated by fixing a maximum 
amount up to which any member may draw. The private resources of 
tha members would vary so widely that whilst some would hardly need to 
draw on the common fund at all, others would need the maximum 
amount. In case of a deficiency in the exchequer, the whole family would 
need to curtail expenditure. Mutual love, confidence and helpfulness 
would knit the family together and draw towards such a brotherhood the 
sympathy and aid of the home churches, to whom as members of one 
vaster brotherhood the same principles equally apply. 


Rev. A. Elwin (C. M. S., Hangchow). I have listened with great 
interest to tho papers that have been read this morning, and I think they 
have left very little to discuss. There are, however, one or two remarks I 
On the chart- should like to make. First, on what Mr. Hill bas said 
li cburcii Ue about charities of the church, or, in other words, tho 
distribution of money, whether to tho Christians or to the 
heathen. Do wo not all know tho difficulty of helping tho Chinaman 
in this way ? A dear brother onco said to me that ho felt his own soul 
Tvas injured because of his inability to fulfill our Lord s command in this 
respect. Ho felt every dollar bo gavo away was an injury to the 
church. My own work is almost entirely among tho poor, and my 
difficulty in helping them many of you can understand. Sometimes 
Dimcnityor ^^ }cn money has been given in special cases, with very strict 
in j unctiou I] ot to tell anybody, it has bcon found at tho iioxt 
visit that everybody knows all about it. That wo ought to 

May 9th.] EEV . T. RICHARD. 163 

help the poor we all acknowledge, but how to do this in China without 
injuring the church I cannot attempt to say. 

With regard to Mr. Taylor s paper, I can only say I think it most 
I only would desire to make a few remarks on Sec " The 
personal character of the missionary for China." I hope no 
young missionary will be discouraged after reading that chlSfofSs 
paragraph. May I ask which of us, young or old, can answer miesiouary." 
to the character brought before us there, viz., thoroughly consecrated to 
3d, unselfish, considerate, patient, not apathetic, long-suffering per 
severing, filled with energy, with no pride of race, etc., etc. But let ua 
not be discouraged ; we hear the Divine voice, " My grace is ~ 
sufficient for thee," and we rejoice that the great Helper is Divi ne on- 
ever near. couragementt. 

Let us remember that the eyes of the Chinese are ever on us. They 
)tice everything, our eyes, our clothes, our language, our daily life, and 
we all know in country places the outward appearance of the missionary 
is much thought about. If the missionary is tall, he is told "Sir the 
people in your honourable country are very tall." In a word, 
they judge of the whole nation from the English or American Im P<>rtancc of 
specimen they have before them. Plow careful this should 
make us. How easy to hinder the Gospel by a careless word or 
incautious act. 

Rev. T. Richard (B. M. S). As to qualifications, I would say, 
after the excellent papers we have listened to, in addition to 
the spiritual, which by far surpasses every other considera- ^e^Sdes 
tion, the missionary should have three other qualifications for spiritual, other 
highest service in China. quaMcations. 

(1). He should have a clear understanding of the difference between 
being a missionary and being a pastor or evangelist. Gener 
ally speaking the natives are to bo the pastors and evan^e- ne should 
lists. They will do that far more efficiently and economically hTfflg. 
than we can. It is the part of the missionary to present the 
claims of _ God and the blessings of Christianity in such a way that the 
prepared in China shall accept. He is also to see that all things neces- 
sary for the building up of the church arc properly established 

r /- 2) rM? e Sh m, ld bear iu mind thafc he i3 to establish the kingdom of 

,nina. I he conversion and salvation of individual 
men must be aimed at by all, but the Scriptures tell us that IIe j . 8 to cs - 
there is something more than that. The visions of tho Holy ffiffi?<5l 
Prophets, the preaching of our Blessed Lord, dwell on tho Uod - 
kingdom to a far greater extent than we generally do. If the king. 
doms or this world take into consideration tho physical, mental, social, 
national and international interests of their subjects, how much moro doe* 
our * atner in Heaven pity all tho sufferings arising from these. Wo are 
therefore, as members of tho Body of Christ, to embody this in the 
world ; in other words to mould tho many iu a mass, as well as to save 
individual souls. 

(3). Ho should study tho methods which God has put his seal to 
iu the salvation of tho world. If a medical man, or lawyer 
wcro to sot up practice without previous study, few would 
1 lor their advice. In this greatest art of all, tho salvation 

AF e A n 1 M ** ,1 A C 1. 1_ ~ 11 


E souls and of tho world, a previous careful study of historical methods 
Beoms axiomatic. There is Old jmd flew Testament history in the Jiisto, 

164 DISCUSSION. [Third day, 

ries of Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Polynesia. We often find that one 
or two men, or a handf al of men, have been able to mould incalculable num 
bers and bring them, with God s blessing, under the influence of Christian 
truth. To such students the problem before us in China, however stupen 
dous, presents nothing to make us despair. On the contrary there is 
every encouragement, for in the history of God s providence not only a 
lay agency, but very many other agencies, reveal the forces and resources 
of God in the salvation of the world. We wish the lay agency every 
success. But I do not like the name " lay agency " myself, for the reason 
that many, in a few years, make up for lack of former study and training, 
while some others are better trained from the beginning than some 
of us their clerical brethren. To my mind, therefore, a careful and 
constant study of the methods which God has honored in Scripture and 
in history, as well as in the various mission fields now, are indispensable 
for the highest qualification of the missionary. 

Mr. Edward Evans (Shanghai) said that having come out to China 
from business avocations at home, unsent by any society and uncalled by 
any particular church, without any college preparation, he felt under a 

debt of gratitude to Mr. Hill for his paper. He considered 
qualification, that the highest qualification for missionary service in that 

one cannot stay at home, but must qo to the mission field. 

Rev. Chauncey Goodrich (A. B. C. F. M., T ung-chow). I wish 

personally to thank Mr. Taylor and Mr. Hill for their admirable 
papers. I only desire to add a few words upon the first 

Onthequai- subiect the qualifications necessary for a missionary. This 
ideations of a ! a -m-* A x i L 

missionary, subject finds us at two points : r irst ; As to what persons wo 

shall ask for and seek to secure ; and secondly, As to what 
sort of men and women we shall be. 

The moment any one of us reflects upon the qualifications neodful 
for a missionary, he immediately thinks " some are different from me," 
of a larger culture, a higher wisdom, a quicker insight into men and 
things, a wider experience, a deeper spiritual life, a more absolute 
consecration, a more fervent zeal, indeed in every respect a larger and 
better man. 

At present I do not expect to add anything to the papers ; I only 
wish to emphasize two or three points : 

(1). As the first qualification I think of the power of love. . May 
The tir*t we venturo to r f er to tue great missionary 
qualification : i yyh o ] e ft ]jj a shining courts above 

And ran to our relief," 

and who was satisfied to live in this poor world for thirty years 
and more, and mingled freely and sympathetically with mou. Horo 
is our great example. Paul, too, loved men. Again and agaia he 
Bays, 1 long after you. And what docs his "Woo is me if 1 prcacli 
not" show but his yearning lovo for sinful men ? Wo want 
m cn of winning power, who draw men to them. Tho bees 
find tho flowers because of their sweetness. Wo want fra 
grant men. Wo want men who love tho Chinese, who aro drawn closo to 
them and who win .tho Ohineao to themselves and much better to 

May 9th.] KEV. j. EDKINS, D,D^ 165 

(2). I mention as a second qualification that a missionary should be 
a man of power. He should be a man of power to impress 
himself on other men. We do not want men merely because 
they are good. We want good men of character and power, 
not necessarily men of great intellect or wide culture, but men of some 
kind of power, men whose minds impinge on other minds, men who 
have a good deal of personality, and whose lives might be expected to 
bear fruit anywhere. Of course they should have spiritual power, or, 
as it has been recently expressed, they must have Holy Ghost power. 

(3). Once more ; missionaries should be men of cheerful hopefulness* 
We want no tombstone faces ; we want no missionaries whose 
lives suggest nothing so much as a vault or a morgue. 
While a missionary should never be a visionary enthusiast, 
Le should be as far as possible from a pessimist, always having an 
enthusiastic faith in the success of his work, this faith resting on the 
rock of God s everlasting promises. A missionary should carry an 
Allelujah in his heart, singing even in dark times ; hia heart being full of 
cheer and hope and victory. 

Eev. J. Edkins, D.D. (Shanghai) said that in speaking on lay agency 
he would urge that Christian workers were needed in all the 
occupations of life in this country, and it would be well if ttan w?5* 
men, skilled in each of the arts and at the same time imbued *u aiithe occii 
with the Christian spirit, could come to this land. The silk J 
trade languishes because the Chinese in the localities so productive do 
not know how to manipulate it in the best way to suit the in the silk 
foreign market. If Christian workmen, able to teach them, 
were at hand in those localities, this fault could be remedied. The tea 
trade languishes from the same cause. If Christian workmen in the tea 
knowing the methods were at hand, tea could be prepared so 
as to satisfy the demands of the time. Christian workmen might work afc 
mines and in various mechanical occupations of present importance, and 
if these men were in close connection with missionaries residing in the 
neighborhood, help would thus be afforded for spreading the leaven of 
Christian principle and enlightenment in that locality. Since reading 
" Praying and Working " many years ago it had always appeared to him 
that teachers of Western arts were wanted in China as much as at the Cape* 
and elsewhere, and that as Holland and Germany had done good work 
for Christianity by sending Christian artisans into some countries where 
they were required, so now in China the introduction of this principle of 
working would have very beneficial results. The governing authorities 
in China would learn to place a high value on Christian missions when 
they found that real benefits were conferred on their people in their 
trade and manufacturing industry by the presence of many skilled Chris 
tian artisans able to improve the commercial products of their country by 
showing their people how to prepare them for the market. The practical 
issues and tendencies of Christianity ought to develope themselves in 
China as they have always done elsewhere, and many lay agents, who 
were competent to instruct in Western arts, would also willingly become 
valuable Christian workers, strengthening the hands of the missionaries 
in directly promoting the spread of the Gospel. 

166 DISCUSSION. [Third day, 

Rev. W. Ashmore, D.D. (A. B. M. TL, Swatow). We ought to thank 
God for a revival of interest in the question as to whose business it is 

The call to * evangelize the world, and also of what constitutes a call to 
the the ministry. I admit special calls. I am not disposed to 

ministry. withdraw anything from that, and yet is it not true that 
we put an onus probandi on the Lord when it belongs on ourselves ? 
Our Saviour told His church that they should go into all the world and 
preach the Gospel to every creature. How few people consider that that 
means anything to them. They want a second order, and 
^JlhlluMa 8 will not act without it, so the first order is made of none 

TTT1 il IIP 

to the whole efiect. VV nen the head or a nation issues a proclamation that 
church. a jj y Oun g raen O f a certain age shall enroll themselves for 
military service, that is supposed to be sufficient, it means fill in some 
sense or other. If any young man does not obey, it is his business to show 
that he is exempt. It is not the business of the government to send each 
one an individual notification that he is included in the call already issued. 
Again, Is it so very difficult a thing to tell a poor sinner liow to be saved ? 
Some of us have unconsciously got the idea and have given out the im 
pression that a man is hardly fitted to go and tell a dying sinner about a 
Saviour, unless he has a certificate and has been taught Hebrew and 
Greek. Christ put this kind of work on the whole church, and not on 
men with diplomas alone. 

This bears on the work of our sisters also. They, too, must go forth 

as evangelizers. Some curious things will be apparent to any one who 

The first studies the Scriptures on this point. The first missionary 

missionary society for collecting funds to support those who were 

e C ciety of 80 " preaching the Gospel was a society of women. It was a 

women. society mentioned several times in the Gospels. Now it tells 

how they " followed Christ," and now how they "ministered to him of their 

substance," and now how they were with him here and there. Let us not 

forget further to whom it was said, " Go and tell my disciples and Peter." 

It was said to women, and the women went and delivered the message. 

Our colleges at home are devoted chiefly to the raising up of pastors, 
while the greatest need of dying mankind is evangelizers to tell them 
how to be saved. The churches need pastors, but the dead 
cvjuiwcfizcrs WOI> ld needs evangelizers. Wherever I went among our col 
leges at home I found that with many students, while they 
were thinking of this subject, down upon them would come the clutch of a 
church ; then when we spoke to them about the heathen and put before 
them the great work of going out to evangelize those who had never heard, 
they would begin to talk about how they could serve God and help ou 
missions at home, and that was the last of them. 

No one advocates having ignorant men in this service, nor retrained 
men. But these are relative terms. The "unlearned and 
ig norant men," as they were called in the Acts, were such 
only from the standpoint of the Sanhedrim. Those who fol 
lowed the master were mighty in the Word of God. 
The world demands too much of the minister of the Word ; it de- 
Minister and man ds that we shall be encyclopedists. When we send for 
preacher to bo a physician, we do not ask him if he understands music or 
st8 astronomy, but, Do you understand my disease and can you, 
euro it ? So when a man comes forward to engage in the work of soul- 
saving, the church ought to ask, Do you understand your Bible ? Do you 
know how to handle your Bible ? If thero is ono thing more than another 
that ought to bo emphasized by us as missionaries it is tho need of more 

May 9th.] EEV. JOHN L. KEVIUS, D.D. 167 

thorough mastery of the Bible. The battle of the truth in this world is 
to be fought with the Bible in hand. It only is the sword of the Spirit. 
Let^us therefore not pass over the "lay men" as we call them, though the 
distinction is not made very prominent in the Scriptures, but recognizing 
the greatness and importance of the pastorate and the necessity for separate 
attainments for that, let us welcome all kinds of qualified workers. 

This Conference cannot do better than to send out an appeal to 
Christians at home to bestir themselves and send out men to 
preach the Gospel. Let us join in making such an appeal, An t he home 
and I believe that God will add his blessing and we shall c ^^| e r | c " 
strengthen the hands of many young men at home who are 4 
saying, " Give me the requisite training and show me how I can go 
out among unevangelized men and preach unto them Jesus and the 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D, (Editorial Secretary, B. and F. B. S., London). 
I should like to make one or two remarks. In the first place I shall bring 
Mr. Hill s paper before my committee, and in the second place we want 
all our colporteurs to be in connection with missionary bodies, and that 
they may labour under ordained missionaries. 




Rev. John L. Nevius, D,D. (A. P. M., Chefoo.) 

WE are approaching the close of the half -century immediately following 
the opening of the five ports of China in 1842. It is certainly a fitting 
time in which to gather up for the use of those who shall come after us 
the lessons of practical experience which this half century of mission work 
has taught us. There are left a few of the early missionaries who are 
familiar with the history of the work from its beginning. We have with 
us one Dr. Happer whose life of active and useful labor covers the 
whole period. 

The theme assigned me by the committee is a very comprehensive 
one ; indeed, in its widest interpretation it embraces the whole field of 
missionary labor in all its departments. It is evident that I 
must confine myself to a limited number of topics and omit SpreheJ- 
for the most part the processes by which conclusions have SIV ^ 
been reached and the arguments which they depend on for support. These 
conclusions, though intended to be so far as possible representative, must 
of necessity be largely personal. I hope that this will exculpate me from 
what might otherwise appear an unwarranted obtrusion of my own views. 
Such of my opinions as aro confirmed by general agreement, will certainly 
give a vantage ground to those who aro willing to accept the conclusions 
of others, without spending yeara or a lifetime in working out the same 
results for themselves. 


We are to inquire how far the missionary methods hitherto used 
have proved satisfactory. I am glad to believe that in the 

No mistake , T . , 

In agencies agencies employed we have made no mistakes. It is assumed 
in this paper that chapel preaching, street preaching, itinera 
tion, medical missions, the distribution of books, native evangelists, pastors 
and teachers, native churches and schools, are not only legitimate agencies, 
but that they are in fact the agencies which, modified by varying circum 
stances, must be used in carrying on the work of missions. But it still 
remains a question whether we have in all cases made the right use of 
these agencies. In answering this question the experience of the past 
furnishes us many important lessons. 

It would be agreeable, and far from unprofitable, to dwell chiefly on 
Consideration the brighter features of missionary work, inquiring into the 
of sombre side 8ecre t s an d causes which have produced the grand results 

beneficial. w l i ich rejoice our hearts to-day. But a dispassionate consid 
eration of the more sombre side of mission work, which must include a 
record of mistakes, failures and disappointments, is likely to be practically 
of more benefit. I have at least one advantage, so far as relief from 
embarrassment is concerned, in the fact that the mistakes pointed out 
are largely my own. The object sought is not so much the presentation 
of my own views as the correction and supplementing of them by the views 

of others. 

Doubtless I am giving expression to the sentiments of everyone here 
present when I say that one great cause of failure so far as 
SSne greS there has been failure and of mistakes so far as we have 
mistake. ^^ m i 9 t a kes has been our want of faith and of reliance 
npon Divine aid and guidance. We have depended too much on man, too 
little on God. We have rested too much on human agencies and methods 
and too little on the direct power of the Holy Spirit. We have made 
too much of outward activities and too little of practical Christianity 
inwrought in our lives. There has been too much of self, too little of 
Christ. This has been our mistake above all others. In consequence of 
Ibis we have, I believe, made the second great mistake of attempting^ the 
premature introduction of foreign methods of evangelistic work, unmind 
ful of their inapplicability to the widely differing conditions of China. 
Pirst and foremost among all, evangelistic agencies must ever be 

The Preaching of the Gospel. I here use preaching in the scriptural 
sense. It is important to bear in mind that this word in our 
English version of the Scriptures stands for six different 
words in the original Greek, only one of which, (5/aAeyo^ai, closely approx 
imates the modern meaning of the word " preach." If, then, we take this 
term " preach " to represent the several words of which it is a translation, 
we must give it not a restricted and specific sense, but a very general one, 
including formal public discourse, but by no means confined to it. Con 
versation, teaching, the preparation of books, presenting the essence of 
Christianity in the concrete forms of healing the sick and relieving dis 
tress, are all preaching the Gospel, and that is the best form of preaching 
which is best suited to herald tho good news of salvation by Christ. . 

JMay 9th.] KEY. JOHN L. NEVIUS, D.D. J.69 

Many of us come to China with the idea that a missionary s chief 
employment is preaching to interested and eager crowds of heathen. We 
are all familiar with the stereotyped pictorial illustrations of this supposed 
typical experience. This conception of missionary life is the instinctive 
outcome of our early associations and training. Oratory or some form of 
public speaking has been one of the great forces of our Western civiliza 
tion for more than twenty centuries. We are trained to declamation from 
our childhood". -*A love of it is a hereditary passion of our race, and 
dependence on this mode of influencing men is a fixed habit. On our 
arrival in China the crowds which gather around us in visiting places 
not familiar with foreigners, tend to confirm this preconceived idea that 
preaching to crowds is to be our ordinary experience. We soon find, how 
ever, that the natives throng around us, not so much to hear us, as to 
stare at us. The apparition from the unknown "outside" country is not 
regarded as an oracle, but as a spectacle. We soon learn that this is only 
an evanescent phase of mission life, and moreover, that the crowds we 
have been addressing have in reality understood but a very small part of 
what we have said. In fact, the Chinese, even the mostcul- unaccustomed 
tnred, are utterly untrained and unaccustomed to connected t 1 ogica?dia e - d 
logical discourse. There is not a lecture hall in the empire. course. 
The only form of public instruction with which they are familiar is tho 
noisy theatre, in which the actors belong to a despised class, the acting is 
.low and artificial, and the ideas are conveyed largely by pantomime.* The 
difficulty which the Chinese have in understanding our preaching is further 
increased by their entire ignorance of Christian ideas and terminology. 
Their own methods of influencing their people are social Chinese 
and responsive, catechetical and conversational. This fact ldb 

suggests the methods which we should adopt in our efforts to influence 
them, while it largely explains why it is that public preaching in China 
.has not been followed by such results as were at first hoped for. 

The January No. of the Missionary Review contains the following 
in an article by James Johnston, F.S.S., from which it is evident that 
our experience in China is not altogether exceptional. He 

says : " There were, when I visited India more than thirty not excep- 

,, . . . c ,, *; tional. 

jears ago, three missionaries or the most pronounced 

evangelistic character men who would have nothing to do with educa 
tion, but spent their whole time in preaching in the bazaars ; all of them 
were men far above the average in talent, devotion and piety Lacroise 
Jin Calcutta, Scudder in Madras and Bowen in Bombay. These men 
spent a lifetime, much above the average duration, in untiring efforts to 
convert the natives, without succeeding in getting two or ,three converts 
to form the nucleus of a Church in these towns," 

Some missionaries adhering with tenacity to other "early ideas of 
what constitutes , religious ^services^^avo endeavored to add to the 

* Ibe Rev. T. Richard witnessed in Sban-si a most popular theatrical performance, 
which waa a f area representing a foreign, missionary preaching to a crowd of 


impressiveness of street-chapel preaching by commencing with reading 
a chapter from the Bible and prayer. I have myself been present at 
these exercises, when the natives, after a noisy expression of opinions and 
surmises as to what the foreigner with closed eyes and reverent demeanor 
might be doing, went out one by one, leaving the missionary with only 
empty benches before him. 

The practice is also not uncommon of making use of the public 
Admitting worship of the church on Sunday as a means of impressing 
heathen to an( j instructing the heathen, leaving the doors open for free 

Sunday . . ... . , . j 

services. ingress and egress to all. Sometimes-tne discourse is modinea 
so as to adapt it in a measure to both Christian and heathen hearers. 
The general result is that very little benefit accrues to either class. 
It seems to me very important that these two kinds of services should, 
as a rule, be kept distinct and conducted on entirely different principles. 
ISTot that church services should ordinarily bo held with closed doors and 
all heathen rigorously excluded. Such a course might be most impolitic, 
producing public distrust and suspicion. But it should be made 
perfectly clear by written notices at the door (explained and enforced by 
suitable persons appointed to receive strangers and show them the 
courtesy duo to guests,) that all are welcome on condition that they 
conform to the prescribed regulations. The Mahometans, in exacting 
reverence from .every one who enters their mosques, whether in time of 
service or not, teach us a lesson which we may well profit by. The 
presence of heathen in our church services, under the rules suggested 
above, may be the means of great good, without interfering with the 
advantages which these services are designed to confer on Christian 
worshippers. This matter, liko all others of importance, requires much 
care and oversight. 

Some missionaries, perhaps wisely, in order to avoid the injurious 
effects pointed out above, exclude even inquirers or catechumens from 
religious services until they receive such a degree of instruction as will 
enable them to participate in worship reverently and intelligently. 
Another agency closely allied to chapel preaching is 
The Christian Book Store. To be efficient it requires a shop on 

Christian a public street, containing an assortment of books, general, 

took store. sc i en tific and Christian, and a quiet reception room fitted up 

in Chinese style. This reception room should be provided with 

the conventional tobacco pipe and tea urn, and with foreign maps and 

pictures illustrating Western arts and customs. Such an establishment 

should have connected with it two, or better still, three 

of success! persons, who should bo men of business capacity, of social 
and literary culture, such as to command general respect, and last, but 
not least, having Christian sympathy and tho power of ready adaptation 
to circumstances. It is evident that a well-conducted Christian book 
store of this kind requires native agents with general attainments not afc 
all inferior to tho average preacher or helper. There will probably be 
found in most largo missions persons with special gifts, fitting them for 
being useful in this position, who would nol bo efficient preachers or 

May 9th.] BEV. JOHN L. NEVIUS, D.D. 171 

colporteurs. The advantages claimed for hook stores as compared with 
street chapels are, that they are always open ; are accessible Advantage 

to all classes ; are freely visited by many who will not enter over Bt et 

a chapel ; and provide for every possible variation of method 

in adaptation to individuals of every class and mental state. Here we 
have the most favorable conditions for disseminating a scientific and 
Christian literature, answering questions, solving doubts and suspicions ; 
and also for conversations and discussions. Book stores have proved very 
useful in Shantung and other provinces, and with the advantages of past 
experience in improving their organization and developing higher quali 
fications in the native agents conducting them, may be made still more 
useful in the future. 

Reception of Church Members. Some missionaries have received con. 
verts to church membership on their first profession of inter 
est in Christianity, while others have kept candidates wait- 
ing for years. There have been great fluctuations of usage 
in this matter on the part of individuals and missions. It would doubt 
less be right to baptize sincere and earnest applicants at an early date, 
but the difficulty is in determining who are sincere and earnest. 
Examinations of candidates for baptism presenting a well-developed 
Christian experience in persons just emerging from heathenism may well 
excite suspicion rather than inspire confidence. The man who passes the 
best examination may be the one least fitted for church membership. 
The testimony of natives as to the private character and daily life of the 
applicant is of great importance, but sometimes very difficult to obtain. 
Experience in Shantung has led us to lengthen the period Term of 
of probation. Our brethren of the English Baptist Mission probation. 
have extended it from a year to eighteen months. The rule of our 

mission, which is very much the same in effect, is as follows : " Except 

in special cases, all applicants for baptism shall be kept on probation for 
a period of six months after they have passed a satisfactory examination." 

Native Agents. Among the most important of the subjects we 
are now to consider is that which relates to the use of 
native agents. The first converts are of course brought into ^dhffi 8 
the church by the foreign missionary. Afterwards the work cvan s elizati011 - 
of agressive evangelization must be mainly through the native Christians^. 
The millions of China must be brought to Christ by Chinamen. Hence 
it is the duty of foreign missionaries to make the most of native agency. 
These and similar expressions may be regarded as missionary axioms, as to 
the truth and importance of which we assume there is no difference of 
opinion. Here, however, we meet at once the question, " In what way 
shall we make the most of our native agency ? " 

When I arrived at Ningpo in 1854 our mission there had several 
natives connected with it, in whom we had great confidence as Christians, 
and who had received a good deal of theological instruction in prepara 
tion for tha ministry. Still (chiefly, as I remember, in conse- p rac ticoia 
quence of the experience and advice of missionaries in India) ^ iu spo. 
those men were kept back from preaching. The rules of the mission 


were that they should not be sent into the country to preach, and that 
they should preach in city chapels only when a foreign missionary was 
present. Perhaps caution was in this case carried to excess ; still, the 
exceptional experience of the Ningpo mission in the reliable character of 
its native agents is probably largely due to the great care taken in the 
selection and training of them from the first. 

On the other hand it has been the practice of some of our mission 
aries to employ as colporteurs, evangelists and preachers all the men 
available, some of them soon after their baptism. In considering the 
question of 4 the. use of native agents our prescribed limits necessitate 
the most succinct and summary treatment. I shall confine myself prin 
cipally to our experience in Shantung, taking up in order different topics 
with which native agency is closely related. 

Opening of Neio Stations by Resident Paid Agents. It was not 
uncommon in former years to employ recently baptized converts to open 
sub-stations, supplying a hired house or chapel as a centre 
of operations. I recall five enterprises of this kind in Shan 
tung, every one of which failed. I am sorry to have to add that most of 
the agents used were afterwards found to be unworthy men, and their 
connection with the church ceased with their pay. 

Opening of New Stations ly Itinerant Paid Preachers. This form of 
Marked work has been very generally adopted and has been followed 
lts * by marked results. "When the natives thus employed have 
been carefully tried and trained, it is both legitimate and important. If, 
.however, young converts are pressed into service with inferior intellec 
tual and moral qualifications, and especially if the proportion used is 
large, so as to present to inquirers a well-founded expectation of employ 
ment on a fixed salary, the question becomes a two-sided one and leaves 
room for difference of opinion as to whether the final result will be a gain 
or loss to the mission cause. 

. , . The advantages of this policy may be summarized as 

Advantages. r J J 

follows : 

1st. It powerfully attracts public attention. 

2nd. It is calculated to draw adherents speedily and in large 

3rd. It detaches converts from idolatry and in most cases destroys 
the power of idolatrous associations and superstitions. 

4th. It affords special advantages for organizing companies of 
Christians into compact and homogeneous communities, and gives them 
defensive strength to withstand the opposition and persecution of the 
followers of the old religious systems. 

5th. It gives a firm control and authority over adherents, thus 
promoting outward conformity to the requirements of the church. These 
advantages have certainly great weight and importance. 

The policy of stimulating the growth of missions by the free use of 
money is carried out in Shantung to its fullest development 
by tho Romish church. Material advantages arc offered of 
man y kinds ; tracts of land are purchased and let to Chris 
tians or inquirers to work on shares ; money is invested in 

May 9th.] KEY. JOHN. L. NEVIUS, D.D. 173 

erecting buildings, affording employment to artisans of every kind ; 
schools are established, giving work to teivchers ; men are engaged as 
paid preachers, as remarkable for the greatness of their numbers as tbe 
meagreness of their qualifications. I am credibly informed that these 
temporal inducements are offered openly and frankly, whether with the 
sanction and approval of the missionaries in charge or not I cannot say. 
It is certain that the general impression has gone abroad tbrough the 
province that a person entering tbe Romish church is sure of having his 
temporal wants provided for and his law-suits attended to. A few 
persons have left our communion avowedly to improve their worldly 

Some of the objections to this plan are the following : 

1st. It weakens and may even break tip new stations Qb ecti 
by removing from them their most intelligent and influential to the plan. 
members, in order to use them as evangelists elsewhere. 

2nd. It presents Christianity too much as an alien system, supplied 
by foreign funds and propagated for the foreigner s benefit. 

3rd. It has a tendency to attract applicants for baptism, influenced 
by mercenary motives, and to retain in the church persons who seek 
mainly worldly advantages. 

4th. It involves the necessity of a large amount of money and a 
great deal of machinery and supervision. 

5th. It creates dissatisfaction and discussion in tbe native church, 
arising from real or supposed partiality in tbe distribution of favors. 

6th. By appealing largely to temporal rather than spiritual motives 
it vitiates the character of Christianity and diminisbes its power. 

7th. The worldly or mercenary element, which at first promotes a 
rapid and abnormal growth, is very apt to be the cause at no distant 
period of an equally rapid decline and disintegration. 

^Establishment of Stations ly Unpaid Native Christians. Experience 
in China shows that now, as in the early history of the church, Chris 
tianity may bo speedily and widely propagated by the spontaneous efforts 
and silent influence of private Christians. Moreover, rigorous and healthy 
young stations require less outside influence in their development than is 
generally supposed. By the use of books suited to the wants of young 
converts, and by gathering them into classes for thorough Bible instruc 
tion (in seasons of the year when they are most at leisure) 
and by occasional visits from more advanced Christians and s ^ r t k ) eou8 
helpers, the more intelligent church members may be well native^ Chris- 
fitted for the supervision of the stations with which they are 
connected, and this without changing their social relations, without 
Interfering seriously with their business and means of support, and with 
but a minimum of expense. During the early history of stations, frequent 
visits from trained helpers or evangelists are of the greatest importance, 
provided t he helpers do not remain and do the work for the young Chris 
tians, but teach them to do it themselves. 


The stations formerly under my care, numbering about fifty, situated 
in five different hsien and containing about 700 converts, originated 
exclusively without the use of native paid agents. The condition of 
these stations and the character of the converts will compare favorably 
with those of other districts which have had paid preachers for years. 
I believe that a large proportion of the stations now established in oMier 
parts of Shantung originated in the same way. 

It is not to be inferred from what has been said above that I would 
discourage all use of paid preachers. On the contrary, I think the 
course which I advocate presents the best methods for selecting and 
training a more efficient class of them than can be obtained otherwise. 
It gives time for testing the qualifications of the converts ; it leaves the 
more able and useful of them to develop and strengthen their stations 
and to prepare others to take their places when they are called elsewhere. 
It takes for granted that we do not transfer any man from the position 
in which he has been called until we have good evidence that God has 
called him to another sphere of labor. The transference from one position 
to another may then be made gradually,, these men being used at first 
only when their time is least valuable at home. The question of the 
preacher being paid by the native church or by foreigners we 
Presbyterian have not now time to consider. Among the rules adopted by 
aiieeiou. our Qwn m i ss i on w itb, regard to the selectioaand employment 
of native agents are the following : 

II. " No one shall be employed by the mission as colporteur or 
helper, who has not been at least three years a professing Christian, unless 
in exceptional cases to be determined by three-fourths of the mission." 

III. " No one shall be employed by the mission as a colporteur or 
helper who has not shown zeal for Christian voluntary labor for the 
spiritual good of his own family and neighborhood." 

XI. "No one shall be lured to do occasional evangelistic work in 
his own neighborhood." 

Organisation of Churches. As Presbyterians, we from the beginning 

of our work in Shantung were impressed with the great importance of 

ordaining elders (as we understand the word elders) in every Church. 

This we proceeded to do as early as possible. We found, however, that 

those who were at first inducted into this office were from intellectual 

and moral unfitness a hindrance rather than a help to the stations wkli 

which they were connected. We are now proceeding more 

organizing cautiously in the formal organization of churches, waiting 

churches. . . , 

until we have men who, to some reasonable degree, possess 
the requisite qualifications for the eldership. We Lave now nineteen 
churches organized with native elders. In the larger proportion of our 
stations we adopt a simpler form of organization, which may be regarded 
as initiative and tentative, placing over each station one or more leaders, 
assisted and superintended by helpers (.now principally licentiates). These 
helpers have charge of groups of stations under the general supervision 
of the foreign missionary. Our English Baptist brethren adopt iu the 
main the same plan. 

May 9th.J REV. JOHN L. NEVIUS, D.D. 175 

Theological Classes and Native Pastors. Twenty years ago our Pres 
byterian mission organized a theological class, composed of 

,, ,TT^ , , ., ,, . ... Theological 

eight members. We hoped that this would initiate a new classes and 

era of growth and progress. After a three years course of 
instruction, as careful and thorough, probably, as had been given to any 
such class in China up to that time, they were licensed to preach, and two 
of them were soon installed as pastors. One of them was not long 
afterwards put out of the ministry and excommunicated. The other is 
still a respected member of the Presbytery, and was moderator at our 
last meeting. He found after a few years experience that the pastoral 
relation established between him and his people was equally distasteful 
and unprofitable to both parties. About ten years ago he reverted to his 
old occupation as a farmer, preaching in the little chapel in his village 
and occupying very nearly the position among the Christians in his 
neighborhood that our leaders do in other stations. Six years ago another 
theological class was formed with seven students. After finishing the 
prescribed course of study they were licensed. Most of them were 
graduates from the Tung-chow-fu college, and are men of decided ability 
and promise. None of them have, up to this time, been advanced to the 
pastorate, and there seems little disposition on the part of the churches to 
call them. As yet, in the English Baptist and our missions, comprising 
together a membership of about 4,000, we have not one pastor in the 
modern sense of the term. I may state here that my colleagues regard 
me (and justly) as being chiefly responsible for what we now unite in 
thinking the ^premature organization of the first theological class. Our 
third theological class has just closed its first year of study. We 
believe that the instruction communicated will tell powerfully on our 
future work, though not probably in the way at first anticipated. 

This historical review would be incomplete without more special 
reference to the record of the paid agents who have been connected with 
our mission. I leave out of consideration entirely those who 
have entered our service within the last ten years . Previous of native 3 
to that time we had employed in Tung-chow and Chefoo, paid ageuts - 
including the first theological class, fourteen persons. Of these, six have 
been excommunicated, four have been dismissed as unsatisfactory, one 
has died in the service of the mission, and three still continue in its 
service. In other words more than one-third have been excommunicated 
and five-sevenths either excommunicated or dismissed. It must be added 
that the statistics of our mission at Chi-nan-fu and of the American 
Baptist Mission at Tung-chow-fu are still less satisfactory. There are 
other missions in the North and South whoso experience has not been 
very different from our own. I am glad to know that there arc some 
missions in China in which the defections of native agents havo been 
very few, and probably there is not another place in which they havo been 
so numerous as in Shantung. 

There must, of course, bo some failures, but there havo been too 
many, more than enough to constitute an emphatic warning _ 
to proceed cautiously in this matter. Wo are endeavoring fauoies. 


to profit by the lessons of the past, and we believe that our future 
statistics will present a better showing. It must at the same time be 
acknowledged that the men who have fallen away from our list of preach 
ers seemed at first to be earnest and exemplary, and that they commanded 
the fullest confidence, not only of those with whom they were specially 
connected, but for the most part of all who knew them. 

I may say -in general that all our missions in Shantung the 
American and English Baptist, the American Presbyterian and the 
Inland Mission are agreed as to the importance of making our churches 

self-supporting and self-propagating. The only difference of. 
^Self-support. . . rr . F . r , . . J 

opinion is as to the way in which this desirable result is to 

be brought about. So far in advance of all the rest of us as scarcely to 
be willing to acknowledge us as belonging to his school, is the venerable 
Dr. Crawford of Tung-chow-fu, who carries the theory of complete 
independence of pecuniary aid to its extreme limit. Others hold to the 
principle of self-support in different degrees. 

Rules adopted by our mission, looking toward the independence and 
self-support of our native churches, are construed so as to admit of 
considerable variation in practice in accordance with individual opinions 
and different circumstances and localities. It is generally understood 
that this subject requires further experience and the use for the present 
of methods both flexible and tentative. In the matter of self-support for 
theological students the success of the English Baptist Mission is most 
encouraging. Their students receive no monthly stipend, and oven their 
expenses for food during their course of study are only in part paid by 
the mission ; while it is clearly understood that after their studies are 
completed no employment or support whatever is guaranteed. With us in 
the Presbyterian Mission, our students, with their families, are nearly all 
of them dependent on the mission when they enter the class. Wo have 
found it necessary to continue their stipend during their course of study, 
and continued support is expected after the term of instruction is 

Denominatlonalism. It remains for us to inquire how far the spirit 

Denomina- ^ denominationalism has injuriously affected our mission 

itionaliam. methods, and whether mission work must bo conducted 

into the indefinite future on the same fixed denominational lines. The 

question of introducing into China the differences and dissensions of the of the West confronts us, and it is for us to consider solemnly 

whether this is the work, or any part of the work, to which the Master 

lias called us. 

I do not believe that hitherto the divisions of Protestantism have 
Hitherto not wrought so much evil as some suppose. This Conference is 
m evil. OI1 ]y ouo O f ^Q man y evidences of our essential unify and 
fraternity. It furnishes us also an occasion and an organization for foster 
ing and increasing this unity. In this early stage of work in China the 
^influence of missionaries preponderates over that of the native Christians. 
Tho ovil effects of donominationaliam bavo not yet had timo fully to 

May 9th.] REV. B. c. HENRY, D.D. 

develop. But is there no reason to fear that these evils will be greatly 
increased when denominational differences are mrre clearly defined ; when 
natives shall have the ascendency, and perhaps exaggerate their differ 
ences in order to find sufficient grounds to justify their divisions ? 
unless happily they are led to see that these divisions are indefensible, 
and take early measures to rid themselves of the fetters with which we 
have encumbered them. 

The rise of different denominations of Christians in the past was 
perhaps largely excusable, or even wholly justifiable. Questions of 
doctrine had to be decided, on which it was but natural (and also desirable 
for the elimination of error) that earnest minds should take side. Practical 
questions of policy could only be settled by a long course of trial and 
experience. Has not this experimental process gone on long enough, and 
is it not time to gather up and utilize the results ? We are not to throw 
away the lessons which past conflicts of opinion have taught us. In the 
doctrines and usages so tenaciously held by the different bodies of Prot 
estants there is much in each that is worth conserving and The church of 
contending for. Would it not be possible to select and combine 
the excellencies of all? Missionaries in foreign lands have special 
advantages for doing this. We are comparatively untrammelled by old 
associations and prejudices. There are many in the home lands beset 
with difficulties which are the growth of centuries, who have their eyes 
turned to us as the ones who should take the lead in this new departure. 
Notwithstanding our insufficiency to cope with the obstacles which such 
an undertaking presents, I believe God is ready to give us the needed 
wisdom and guidance if we attempt this work in His name. Our re 
sponsibility in this matter we cannot evade or relegate to our successors. 
We all believe that Christianity is the regenerating force which shall fit 
China to be a power for good as one of the leading factors in the future 
of the world s history. It is largely for us to determine whether the 
church of the future shall be a divided church, or the church for which 
Christ prayed, presenting in her unity the proof of her Divine commis 
sion, securing through obedience the presence of her Divine Lord, going 
forth to the spiritual conquest of the world, "fair as the moon, clear as 
the sun and terrible as an army with banners." 


Rev. B. C. Henry, D.D. (A. P. M., Canton). 

BY preaching is meant the proclamation of the Gospel by the living 

voice. Among the direct agencies of missionary work, this 

. .. ... T , . ,, ,. . i a a Definition of 

must ever hold the preeminence. It is the divinely ordained preaching. 

means of publishing abroad the " Glorious Gospel of the 

Blessed God." " Go yc into all the world and preach the Gospel to every 


creature." " How shall they believe in Him of whom they have not 
heard ? and how shall they hear without a preacher ? " " How beautiful 
are the feet of them that preach the Gospel of peace and bring glad 
tidings of good things." 

In the. multiplication of agencies and amid all the wonderful facilities 
for reaching: men in other ways, there is sometimes a danger 

The supreme 

method for that this original and we may say supreme method may 
be thrust somewhat into the background. It is not the object 
of this paper to enter into the philosophy of preaching, yet the writer 
feels that the paramount importance of this special form of work cannot 
be too strongly emphasized. With a firm belief in the " diversities of 
gifts and operations," proceeding from " the one and self-same Spirit 
which divideth to every man severally as he will ; " and with a hearty 
endorsement of every legitimate method of reaching men, whether it be 
educational or medical, moral or scientific, social or journalistic, direct or 
indirect, aiming, like Paul, to become all things to all men that we may 
by all means win some, I would still say that the public preaching of 
the Gospel must ever take the lead of all other agencies. 

We have not yet outgrown the conditions and necessities of the 
Scriptural methods, nor is it likely while the present dis- 

methods not pensation lasts, in which " it hath pleased God by the 
foolishness of preaching to save them that believe," that, in 
the leading features of evangelistic work, we shall be able to improve on 
the methods of John the Baptist, as he "preached " in the wilderness of 
Judea; of our Lord, who " spoke with authority ; " of Peter or of Paul 
and their fellows, who " went every where preaching the word." Nothing 
inspires, nothing arouses and moves men like the magnetic power of the* 
human voice. Man is a talking animal. He likes to use his own voice 
and to hear tha voices of others, and in the midst of the many, every 
generation has a few who can talk to some purpose. The man who 
addresses an audience of his fellow-men occupies a position of peculiar 
power and responsibility. This power becomes most evident, and the 
responsibility attached to it attains its highest degree, when a man 
addresses his fellows on moral and religious questions ; and its culmina 
tion is reached when the Christian preacher stands before a heathen 
audience and proclaims to them the message of salvation through Christ. 
The first desideratum in preaching to the heathen is to get an 
HOW to get an audience, to get the people in a position where they can be 

audience. preached to. In order to do this, the first step is to secure 
a place in which to gather the audience. In cities this is usually done 
by means of chapels, located on busy thoroughfares. To obtain such 
places is not always an easy matter. For various reasons the " Gospel 
Hall " is not always considered a desirable acquisition by the peoplo of 
the neighborhood ; and cases are known where, in the printed forms of 
.lease which all are required to use, chapels are classed with gambling 
Louses and other forbidden resorts. In most cases, however, a little tact 
and wisdom will secure a good room in a favorable locality. When it is 
renovated and furnished, the question then is, how to get the people in 

May yth.J EEV. B. c. HENKY, D.D. 179 

and keep fhetn there long enough to hear the message. At the outset 
many will come from motives of curiosity, and while the novelty lasts 
ifce chapel will be well filled. Usually in large cities, like Canton, the 
presence of the missionary is sufficient to attract a large audience ; but 
as the preaching goes on from day to day, it is often found necessary to 
resort to various expedients to attract the people. The open door, 
with a cordial invitation conspicuously displayed to all to enter, is not 
always sufficient. A table covered with books attractively displayed ; a 
hymn sung at the opening of the service ; a messenger at the door, a 
missionary if possible, to invite those who pass to enter, are means that 
may be used to advantage. 

When the audience is gathered before him, the great question of 
almost painful importance that has so often perplexed and HOW to 
even moved to anguish the heart of the preacher is, how to pre 
address them so that they may be attracted, interested, persuaded, won. 
How helpless the most fluent, the most learned, and even the most 
enthusiastic, feels himself at such times. The opportunity sought for 
has come ; the people he longs to instruct in the way of life are there. 
How shall he begin ? Before the mouth is opened to utter its first phrase, 
the heart must go up with overwhelming earnestness in prayer for the 
Spirit who shall "teach him in that same hour what he shall say;" the 
Spirit to whose descent and influence is attached the promise of power to 
witness for Christ. 

No specific rule can be laid down as to how he shall proceed ; no 
stereotyped form can be prescribed ; no prearranged plan can be depended 
upon. Circumstances, as a rule, must determine the course to be pursued 
on each particular occasion. The mind must be alert, and all the tact 
and versatility possessed must be brought to bear, that each occasion may 
be improved to the utmost. With a full appreciation of how 
difficult it is to make suggestions, even, that will be of 
practical value when such extreme variations exist, the writer would 

venture to mention certain aids that have proved helpful to himself and 

The first is the use of the Itlack-ljoard, which should be hung at the 
speaker s right hand in full view of the audience. The text, use of 
carefully selected for its conciseness and practical point, black - board - 
should be clearly inscribed in well formed characters. Extracts from 
the classics, or the Sacred Edict, may be written side by side with the 
Scripture text, for purposes of comparison and contrast. The attention 
of the audience is directed at once to the black-board, even before the 
preacher points it out. It gives dignity and form to the discourse in the 
eyes of tho people ; it brings tho words of Holy Writ before them in 
concrete form, and enables those who become interested to carry away the 
basis and substance of what they hear in a shape that can bo easily 
remembered, and often leads them to inquire into the source whence the 
words are taken, and thus to the study of the Bible. The use of pictures 
and scrolls is often beneficial in attracting and fastening tho attention of 
the people. 


Second. The use of apt and telling illustrations. The Chinese are 
often represented as greatly lacking in imagination. To a great degree 
this is no doubt true. At the same time the very nature and construc 
tion of their language shows that the ideographic signs which do duty in 
writing, require the full power of a vivid imagination to bring out their 
meaning ; at least it must have been so in the beginning ; and the lan 
guage and speech of the people to-day is figurative to a high degree, and 
Apt niuBtra- anv one WQO essays to address the paople, either by pen or 

tions. voice, will find it greatly to his advantage to use illustrations, 
even to the point of profuseness, but not imported illustrations. They 
must be the products of the soul, that speak directly and spontaneously 
to the ear and heart of the people. The writer has heard illustrations 
that would have been considered most apt and telling in the English 
discourse, fall utterly flat on a Chinese audience, and, on the other hand, 
has heard some which in English would be considered extremely dull and 
pointless, which, when given in Chinese, have struck with great force 
and produced undoubted effect. The cultivation of this style of preach 
ing is of special importance. The people expect it. They look first of 
all for pleasure and entertainment from these public speakers. I have 
often listened to their preachers of the Sacred Edict, and usually the 
whole discourse has been a succession of stories and illustrations more or 
less pertinent. I have listened also to our most popular and effective 
native preachers, and have found that one of the chief sources of their 
attractiveness and power unquestionably lies in their skilful use of 
illustrations. And despite the prosaic character with which they are 
almost universally accredited, I feel bound to admit that the Chinese 
have the faculty of the imagination developed in a high degree, and that 
they receive with evident pleasure discourses well garnished with 
abundance of pertinent illustrations. How like the pattern of the 
Master is such preaching ! What discourses were ever more richly laden 
with parables and illustrations than our Lord s ? What modern preacher 
uses simile and metaphor with greater aptness and force than Paul ? 
Let the illustrations used be drawn as much as possible from the life, 
occupations and surroundings of the people, the familiar objects and 
operations that appeal at once to their understanding, and they cannot 
fail to be interested in what they hear. 

Third. The use of the Chinese classics. A preacher to tho Chinese 
cannot afford to be regarded as illiterate. Their innate reverence 
Use of Chinese f r learning gives them a respect for the scholar that 
places him at once on a coigne of vantage ; and this is the 
position from which the missionary and the native preacher alike should 
start. Wo cannot afford to ignore the sacred books of their sages. It is 
not wise to do so. It may not bo necessary for the preacher to commit 
the classics to memory, although less useful drudgery is often performed ; 
but ho should be familiar with their teachings, familiar with the names 
of their sages and tho circumstances under which their respective 
teachings were given, and be able, on occasion, to quote them aptly, 
cither in support of what ho says or in order to point out their fallacy. 

May 9th.] EEV. s. c, HENBY, D.D. 181 

Such quotations invariably create a favorable impression and give the 
preacher a standing as one who has studied their books. It is a fact that 
the citation of a single hackneyed phrase from Confucius has given tha 
preacher, in the eyes of his audience, the position of a scholar familiar 
with the classics, and an authority as a teacher he could not otherwise 
.have attained. Many passages from the classics are in constant use 
among the people in proverbial form, and are frequently brought forward 
to cap the climax of an argument, to settle a dispute, or to emphasize 
some important statement, and the judicious use of one such quotation 
in preaching will often have more force than any amount of logic. 

Fourth. The use of native proverbs and maxims. Probably no people 
are more richly supplied with the currency of popular maxims, or use 
such more frequently in their speech than the Chinese. Their idiomatic 
phrases take naturally a proverbial form, and the study and use of these 
common sayings will be found to be of great advantage to the preacher. 

.These terse and pithy phrases strike and ring and rivet the 

attention. I have observed a man who had followed the 

labored argument of the speaker and perceived its force, while the 
audience was quite adrift as to his meaning, clear up the whole subject 
and draw exclamations of intelligent assent from many, by the timely 
utterance of a hackneyed proverb. 

Fifth. The use of passing events. To the intelligent portion of the 
audience the intercourse of China with Western nations, the- progress of 
science and modern inventions, and the endless succession of Passing 
events connected therewith, furnish congenial themes by 
which to open the way. With the more ignorant and superstitious, the 
constantly recurring calamities of flood and famine, fire and plague, and 
other striking occurrences of local interest may be used to awaken their 
hearts and teach them dependence upon the Ruler of all. The judicious 
use of passing events to arrest the attention and arouse the interest of 
the people has often proved most effective. 

Sixth. The aiithoritative declaration of Christian truth and of the duty 
of every man to believe in and accept Christ. Conciliatory-exordiums, 

irenical arguments, pleasing illustrations, deference to the 

r Authoritative 

classics and to social customs, are all useful in their place : declaration of 

Christian truth. 
Jbut it not infrequently happens that the most effective way, 

for the time, is to assume an air of authority, and clothed in the dignity 
and power of an ambassador of Christ, boldly to declare His message and 
urge His claims. The Chinese people are accustomed to accept teaching 
on authority without reasoning the matter out for themselves. They 
,are accustomed to the most pronounced forms of dogmatism, and accept 
without demur the deliverances of those whose authority they acknow 
ledge. In this phase of their character lies a practical lesson for the 
Christian preacher. It is no doubt true that, in ordinary cases, the 
simple dogmatic statement of doctrine is seldom effective ; the people, 
while they receive it without dissent, merely regard it as the statement of 
the speaker s creed with which they have no concern ; nevertheless, 
there frequently come times when the truth should be declared with all 


the positiveness the preacher can command. By careful study of the 
attitude of the people, by feeling the pnlse of his audience, he-can usually 
tell when they are in this receptive attitude. Then it is that, holding up 
the Bible, he -can declare it to be the fountain of spiritual truth, the only 
true revelation of God, and demand from them implicit faith in its 
teaching and acceptance of it as their rule of life, as the Word of God 
that liveth and abideth forever. 

Seventh. The crowning requisite in all preaching to the Chinese is 
singleness of aim in presenting Christ,- direct and pointed inculcation of 
saving truth. Every discourse should give, in some distinct 
inculcation of and intelligible form, the doctrines of the unity of God, of 
eaving truth. man , g 8infalnegSj tne atonement of Christ, His invitation 
to all, and the duty of all to repent and believe. Every incident and 
illustration, every thrust at popular superstitions, every appeal to ancient 
or modern authority, should tend in a clear and pertinent way to that 
one point. It may be quite possible for a man to interest his audience 
for hours ; but if, in that time, he fails to bring out the central truth of 
Christianity, salvation through the blood of Christ, he has failed in all. 
Eighth. The manner and bearing of the preacher are important ele 
ments in his success or failure. A dignity should clotlie him, 
iSriSfof tLe that the people may show respect ; and a conciliatory manner 
preacher. 8 h O uld be assumed, that their confidence may be invited. 
The style of language he uses should comport with the subject of his 
discourse. He should carefully avoid all blemishes of speech all coarse 
and illiterate expressions. He should aim to acquire a choiae and varied 
vocabulary, that his language may be a worthy vehicle of tli9 message lie 
brings. A speaker of the vernacular may acquire a simplo and elegant 
style that will be at once pleasing to the fastidious scholar and intelligi 
ble to the simple-minded, unlettered rustic. No pains should be spared 
in the acquisition and use of a suitable, varied and expressive vocabulary. 
In order to avoid monotony, various styles of speaking should bo used. 
Special attention should be given to the cultivation of a conversational 
style, and dialogues between the preacher and his auditors, introduced 
whenever it can be done effectively. The best time for the dialogue is 
after the formal discourse, which, for various reasons, should riofc be 
interrupted unnecessarily. It is always a step in advance wheu the 
audience will respond to the questions asked and a dialogue cau be 
carried on. The fear of ridicule often deters those who would otlierwiso 
like to discuss the subject matter of the discourse. To theso an invitation 
should be extended to drink tea and remain for familiar conversation 
after the audience has been dismissed. Eeleased from tlio formality of 
the regular service, a certain freedom is felt, and there usually comes an 
opportunity for the personal application of the truth. 

The foregoing are mere suggestions, growing out of tiio porsonal 

experience and observation of the writer. Iii this all ira- 

jSt KSw p 0r t an t matter of preaching to the heathen, evory uaaa must 

become a law unto himself, but to be a just and judicious 

law-giver to himself in such a vital mattter, ho must bo keenly alivo to 

May 9fch.] BEY. B. c. HENEY, D.D. 183 

the interests involved, t he special needs of each occasion and the rights 
and obligation of others than himself. He must be ever on the alert, 
ready to seize any fact or incident or circumstance that will open the 
way for the truth, conciliatory as far as is consistent with the message he 
brings, seeking for some common ground on which he and his audience 
can stand at the outset, bringing forward, it may be, some accepted 
doctrine of their own, to be received, modified or rejected, as the tests 
applied may determine ; never for a moment losing sight of the one object 
in view, but aiming at that object with all the skill of a practised crafts 
man ; wise with all the wisdom of him who winneth souls, watching for 
these souls as he who must give account. He must be ready to profit by 
the lessons of experience and learn to avoid mistakes that have been 
made manifest and to reject theories that have proved fallacious, and be 
ever strong in the conviction that the Word of God is the sword of the 
Spirit, and that the truth of Christ, simply and clearly presented and 
intelligently apprehended, must become the power of God unto salvation. 
It hardly comes within the scope of this paper to consider at length 

the results of chapel preaching : but as the crucial test of 

r * Results of 

every theory and method is found in the fruit it yields, a chap*i 
few words on this point may be admitted. The first and 
most evident result is the widespread publication of the Gospel. Not only 
the residents of the place hear the message, but observation shows that a 
large portion of the daily audiences is from the country, strangers in the 
city for a day or for a longer period, who hear the truth, for the first 
time it may be, and carry what they have heard to their distant homes. 
I have met men at distant points in the interior who could repeat much 
of what they had heard in the chapels in Canton, and some, after inter 
vals of ten or fifteen years, could give the substance of the discourses to 
which they had listened. Knowledge is one of the most potent forces in 
human society ; light is one of the chief agents in the production of life, 

what a dissemination of knowledge and what a diffusion of 

,.,,,, ., , ., . ? , , i . * Wide dissem- 

light follow the daily services or a dozen chapels in such a ination of 

city as Canton. It is thought by some that the palmy days of 
chapel preaching in Canton are past. There is no doubt a falling off, to 
some extent, in the attendance, compared with that of former years, but 
the daily audiences will still aggregate a hundred or more at most points. 
A few years ago the writer counted five hundred at one service of two 
hours, and knows that nine hundred have been counted at the same 
chapel in a service of four hours. Taking as the safer guide the smaller 
estimates of more recent yoars, the annual aggregate of attendances in 
Canton alone is something like five hundred thousand. The harvest time 
of chapel preaching is at the time of the literary examinations, when the 
cities are full of students and their attendants, many of whom are led to, 
attend the services, and so are brought into contact with the truth* 

Another result is the constant agitation of the subject in tb.6 minds 
of the people. The open door and the preacher s voice are 
a perpetual reminder to them that the doctrines of Jesus are agitation of 
being constantly and persistently proclaimed, Years and 


decades pass, but the same thing, goes on. The subject is -not allowed to 
rest for a day. The people learu from this that we are deeply in earnest, 
and the mere fact of such perseverance forces many to admit the claims o 
a doctrine so persistently preached. Again, the publicity oE the preach- 
ing and the full discussion invited every day show them that we have 
nothing to conceal, that everything is open to the light, that the minutest 
investigation is courted and not shunned, and that the more closely they 
inquire into our methods and teachings, the better are we pleased. In 
this way the respect and confidence of not a few are secured, and the 
honesty of our purpose and the purity of our motives acknowledged by 
many. Moreover, by this chapel preaching, the public is educated up to 
a certain point. Thousands have by this means gained a general know 
ledge of the Gospel, and thus the way is being prepared for the pente- 
costal days that we believe are to come to this land. 

So much for chapel preaching in the city. In South China, as far 

as the writer s observation extends, the only open air preach- 

Open t,?nl in<* carried on is done during itineration, so that these two 

p rcLCuiQg o -i i i j m i 

divisions of the subject naturally fall under one head. Ine 
greater part of what has been already said applies directly to this form of 
preaching, but need not be repeated here. 

At the various out-stations, visited on tours of itineration, where 
chapels have been established, the work of the city chapel is reproduced 
on a smaller scale. When these chapels are in market 
towns, it will be found that- on the days of the periodical 
fairs they will, usually, be filled with large and attentive audiences ; 
but on the intervening days it will be found that special attractions will 
be required to fill the rooms, and the time can usually be better employed 
in evangelistic tours among the adjacent villages. If it is diflicult to lay 
down rules of procedure for chapel preaching, who shall presume to draw 
up a fixed schedule for preaching in the villages? With all their 
outward sameness no two are alike, nor will the same method work 
successfully two days in succession. The first thing to be done is to care 
fully choose the time for visiting each place, so as to be there when the 
people can be found and gathered together. If it is a market town, the 
visit should be made on the day of the fair, when the whole country side 
will be in attendance. If it bo a village, the preacher should be there in 
the evening, when the work of the day is done and the people are at 
leisure to listen to him. I have known of missionaries visiting several 
villages in the course of a day, only to find the doors all locked and the 
people gone to work in the fields, and so have their labor for nothing. 
Havin- hit upon the proper time, the next thing is to conciliate the peo 
ple. A supply of books is a useful expedient to show them at once our 
purpose. A few words of apology for intruding into their borders, and a 
few complimentary remarks about location of the place and its surround- 
Ws, will open the way and lead to informal talks and simple lessons to 
the groups gathered beneath the spreading banyans that have sheltered 
the village shrines for centuries, or under the shadow of ancestral tern- 

Hay 9fch.] EEV. B. c. HENEY, D.D. 185 

3, or in the open court of some more spacious house. The more in 
formal and personal the story can be made the better. The rustic China 
man is even more suspicious of the missionary at first than his urban 
brother, but when confidence has been established he is the more hopeful 
subject of the two. He is oftentimes simplicity and ignorance personified, 
and must be approached on the level of his simplicity. As the imitation 
of nature is the highest form of art, so the greatest skill in village preach 
ing is shown in divesting oneself of all artificial acquirements and 
ornaments of style and expression, which may attract and delight a city 
audience, and in getting down to nature pure and simple, and then 
proceeding as in teaching a little child, patiently explaining, .repeating, 
illustrating, until the truth is made clear. 

In such work efficiency requires that there be a practical, systematic 
method of visitation. But little permanent good can be 
expected when a man goes through the country like a rolling 
stone, preaching it may be every day or several times a day, 
but never returning to the places again. Circuits should be carefully mark- 
ed out, and regular visits made at stated periods, so that the people may 
know when to expect the preacher. The missionary should be accompanied 
by at least one native assistant, and in the absence of the missionary, the 
natives should go two by two. Preaching should be made the business 
of every day, if not of every hour, and every opportunity should be 
improved as far as physical strength will permit. At the wayside resting 
place, at the inn, in the village chapel or school, in the house of friends ; 
with the old men at the village gate and the children playing in the court ; 
in the evening when their supper has been eaten and the people gather to 
smoke by the side of the pond or under the trees : " Sowing beside all 

Be constant and systematic throughout, but let the method followed 
be elastic enough to adjust itself to the infinitely varied cir 
cumstances under which the preacher is sure to find himself Elast |h U d of 
placed. There is a peculiar charm and inspiration in such 
work when one gives himself unreservedly to it. I have seen a hundred 
villagers filling the open court of a farmer s house, listening without a 
sign of restlessness until midnight to the story of God s love and Christ s 
redemption. Only a few days ago a preacher, after two hours of incessant 
speaking in the market place, was invited to an ancestral hall and refresh 
ed with tea and cakes, after which, sixty of the elders of the town, sur 
rounded by a dense throng of the men and youth of the place, requested 
him to expound to them, the doctrines of Jesus, which he did for several 
hours, desisting only when physically exhausted, and accepting their 
urgent invitation to return and preach to them again. 

It is not easy to suggest special helps or expedients in this form of 
work that would be of general utility. The one instrument is the 
preacher himself, filled with the Spirit and yearning for the salvation of 
the people he meets. Uis consecrated personality must impress itself, as 
he throws himself heart and soul into the work, adjusting himself to 


circumstances, ready to make himself at fcome with the scholar or tha 
village teacher, the farmer or the artizan, the boatman or the coolie. 
With a word of inquiry and sympathy for each in his particular line of 
life, and a manly appreciation of whatever is good in them, he gradually 
acquires an influence over their minds and hearts that will turn the feet 
of many into the Way of Life. 

Preaching to the heathen ! When shall we see the end of it ? Though 
our eyes may see it not, the time will certainly come in China when the 
heathen shall have passed away, and this subject of such vital importance 
to-day become a thing of the past, never to be recalled. In the meantime 
let us heed Paul s words to Timothy, and " preach the word, be instant 
in season and out of season." " Studying to show ourselves approved of 
God, workmen that need not be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of 




Rev. H. H. Lowry (A. M. E. M., Peking). 

IT is-with unaffected diffidence the following thoughts on so important a 
theme are presented for the deliberations of this Conference. 

It is to be assumed in the start that other legitimate and necessary 
forms of missionary work are not undervalued because not included in 
this subject. Translating, the making and circulation of books, education, 
and the healing of the sick, hold important places in missionary work. 
But the minister, called of God to preach the Gospel, must place the 
preaching of the Word above every other duty. At the same time we 
must allow that a formal discourse, delivered from a pulpit, 
Preaching j g not fa Q on ] v me thod of preaching the Gospel. The chief 
requisite is that the vital truth salvation by faith in the 
Lord Jesus Christ shall be conveyed frotc ono living soul to another. 
And the more intense the spiritual life of the preacher, the more effectual 
will be the presentation of the truth, whether to one soul or to a multitude. 
Sometimes the loving word spoken to a single person may be more 
effectual than much of tho learned eloquence of great sermons, though 
the audience may havo numbered thousands and included the most 
learned and refined of human society. 

Jesus made one of the earliest and plainest declarations of 
Messiahship to a woman of Samaria, in consequence of which many 
believed on Him. Dr. Whedon on this passage remarks, " The apostles 
had raro success there, tho harvest, perhaps, of this wonderful sowing. 
In this town of Sichem arose Justin Martyr, ono of the greatest Christian 
writers of the second century. Samaria became early tho seat of an 

May 9th.] EEV. H. H. LOWET. 187 

Philip preaches the Gospel to a lonely traveller, and thus introduces 
a knowledge of Christ into the Dark Continent. Paul converses with a 
few women b^y the river side, and the light shines forth soon to illuminate 
all Europe. 

The conventional method of addressing a lar^e audience does not 
discharge the full obligation of preaching the Gospel to every creature. 
This must not be omitted, but neither should the privilege of quietly 
instructing a single soul be neglected, for we cannot tell which shall 
prosper, this or that. 

Again, in addressing a heathen audience the plain and direct 
statement of Christian truths is to be preferred to a dis- p ]a;n Bta t eme nt 
cussion on comparative religions. Very few have ever been of ^ n th tian 
converted by this latter method. 

The Gospel is for the world, and approaching men on the broad 
ground of a common humanity appeals to their conscious need of some 
remedy for the unmistakable ills of life, and some rational issue from the 
present existence. The great facts of human distress and misery are 
patent to the most unenlightened intelligence. Let the consciousness of 
the awful calamity of sin and personal guilt be awakened in a soul, and 
let there follow the conviction that we preach a divine and almighty 
Saviour from sin ; let these great truths be illustrated by examples, and 
especially by the personal testimony of the living preacher, and we are 
much more certain to create a desire in the hearts of our hearers to 
embrace the truth than if we should with faultless logic completely destroy 
the foundations of their superstitions, or convince them of the sin and 
folly of idolatry. Let the preacher proclaim the truth, and assign the 
discussion of the prominent characteristics and differences of various 
systems of religious belief to the lecture or the printed volume. 

It therefore becomes a pertinent question, How can we reach the 
people with our message, and under what conditions can we so preach as 
to arrest the attention and receive the best results ? The subject assigned 
for discussion suggests three methods that practically cover Three 
the entire field : preaching in chapels, in the open air, and methods. 
during itineracies. I shall take up these methods in reverse order, which 
seems the more natural and chronological. 

I. Preaching to the Heathen during Itineracies. In the beginning of 
missionary work there are multitudes who will never hear 
the Gospel message at all unless from the lips of some iti? r acifs. 
itinerant. The importance of this form of work will not 
diminish for many years to come, even in places where the vork is 
most fully developed. China is an immense field, a fact which any one 
will appreciate who attempts to cross the empire in any direction, by any 
means of conveyance at command. Foreign missionaries can never expect 
to more than initiate and direct the work in a few of the many great 
centres of population. After foreign churches have multiplied their 
missionary forces many times, still the evangelization of China as haa 
been the case in all other lands must rest almost entirely upon the 
natives themselves. 


It will be well to keep in mind the distinction between touring and 
itinerating; the former being applied to long journeys where 
and tnere j g no expectation to again follow the same route ; the 
latter to repeated and regular visits to the same places. We 
may then well inquire what does this form of work imply, and what are 
some of the conditions of success. 

First. It implies some knowledge of the language, for preaching 

during itineracies is both a necessity and an essential duty 

tFnangywge of the missionary. The object is not observation, nor collect- 

imphed. ^ scientific information, however desirable these objects 

may be, but to give the people a knowledge of the way of salvation. 

Sufficient knowledge of the language of the people to make the delivery 

of the message intelligible is a necessity. The truths of the Gospel are in 

themselves sufficiently incomprehensible to ordinary hearers, but when 

conveyed in language that strangers imagine is some foreign dialect, the 

case is hopeless. 

Secondly. It implies a willingness to endure hardness and suffer 

privations. "Whatever charge may be made against the man. 

wi mngness ner of ^ e a dopted by missionaries, it evidently loses its force 

to endure w hen applied to the comforts enjoyed during itineracies, whe- 
hardsnips. * . , 

ther the reference be to the modes of travel, or to the enter 
tainment received in any part of China with which the writer is familiar. 
1. Among the conditions of success in itinerating, the element of 
time is important. Long journeys may be productive of great 
of success, good if the stages of travel are short, and sufficient time 
given to each place to allow the necessary work to be done ; little good 
will be accomplished by even repeated and regular visits to the same 
places if hastily made. No doubt many favorable impres 
sions, which have been made by a sermon or a book, have 
been lost from lack of information as to the means by which the promised 
blessings might be secured, no opportunity being given for interested 
persons to make the acquaintance of the preacher, or to inquire more 
perfectly the way of life. Paul, the greatest missionary, made long 
journeys, but he also made long visits at the chief points visited, pro 
longing his stay to months and in some cases to years. He not only 
eowed the seed, but remained until the harvest began to appear, when he 
proceeded to repeat the work in other cities, turning over the churches 
thus formed to the care of pastors. May not the same plan, faithfully 
followed in China, bo expected to produce like results ? 

2. Frequency and regularity of visitation is another important factor 
in this work. During the first visit the people are generally 


and regularity so filled with curiosity in regard to the person, nationality, 
manners, food and dress of the missionary that it is with dif 
ficulty attention can be attracted to the truth he desires to present. Mutual 
acquaintance will abate this curiosity and prepare the way for preaching. 
Trequent visits will not only familiarize the people with the missionary 
himself, but with his objects, his motives and his speech also, and thus 

May 9th.] REV. H. H. LOWBT. 189 

still further prepare them to intelligently receive his message." Illustra 
tions can probably be found in the history of all missions. The case of 
Dr. Kevins and his co-laborers in Shantung is familiar to all. The work, 
of the Methodist Mission in Tsun-hua and vicinity is the result of 
pursuing this method. Visits were made several times a year, scarcely 
ever being prolonged beyond one or two weeks duration in one place^ 
Gradually inquirers were found in the different cities and villages^ 
societies were organized, and thus the work spread until it grew into a* 
regular station with three missionaries resident, by whom the same 
methods are pursued in visiting places beyond, and like encouraging 
results continue to appear. 

3. Another important element in preaching" during itineracies is 
that it should be accompanied with Bible and tract distribu 
tion. The address of the preacher may not be fully under- ^It^Bfb] 1 ! 3 
stood, or may be soon forgotten, but his presence and his < j i a ?* b tr ?- ct 
words will lend interest to the books distributed, and, in 
many cases, lead to their preservation and to their being read. And, on 
the other hand, the sermon may furnish the key to a book or tract which 
otherwise would have remained unintelligible. It is encouraging on 
subsequent visits to hear repeated assurances that such or such a person 
has a book containing the doctrines preached. The reverence which the 
Chinese have for the printed character often leads them to accept the 
truth of a statement simply because it is made in a publication. The 
books thus distributed among the people form the subject of frequent 
conversation, and thus the name, at least, of our Saviour becomes familiar 
to many. This in itself is no small gain. It always makes one feel more 
certain that the message will be understood where many Christian books 
have preceded the preacher, than in places -where even the names and 
titles of the Saviour have to be explained. 

4. Another condition of success in this form of work is that the 
missionary should be accompanied by a number of well- 
trained native preachers. This I consider of great importance A t, C lin^ d 
in securing the best results. The advantages are many. r nat l ve r 
The character of the Chinese is such that a foreigner cannot 
easily gain their confidence suspicion, pride and conceit combine to keep 
them aloof. That a foreigner will travel through the country at his own, 
charges, preaching and distributing books, without some hidden oc 
selfish motive, either personal gain or the accumulation of merit, is 
scarcely a possible conception to a Chinaman. And it seems to be a part 
of the constitution of this people to use a middle-man in every transac 
tion, serious or trivial, and we cannot afford to ignore this fact when we 
desire to win souls. No matter how much we should prefer the more 
direct, manly method of standing up face to face to state an objection or 
make a request, that is not the way things are done in this country, and 
it is a waste of time and energy to quarrel with the conditions, or attempt 
to change the custom. Where no moral principle is involved success is 
surest along the line of conformity to native methods. 


We often overhear in a crowd questions concerning ourselves, or 
some statement we have made, addressed to a helper or an assistant, 
which the questioner would never ask us directly. The presence of a 
number of natives also not only tends to remove suspicion, but furnishes 
the best means of communication between the missionary and interested 
persons. And besides the direct assistance they give in preaching, this 
native force furnishes in itself almost the only means of following 
up the impressions that have been made. Interested persons will find the 
native preachers and engage freely in conversation with them, and by 
them may fce introduced to the missionary, and thus the opportunity is 
given to carry forward the instruction under the most favorable circum 
stances ; whereas without the presence of the native preacher the 
interview probably would never occur. I have known many instances 
where a servant, or even a carter, has been first approached, and afterwards 
introduced interesting inquirers. It is important to have, if possible, a 
company of reliable natives with us on our preaching tours. 

II. Preaching in the open air is closely connected with preaching 
Open air during itineracies, although in itself it does not imply moving 
preaching. f rO m one centre to another. 

One advantage of open air preaching is that one is nearly always 
sure of an audience. Let a foreigner stop anywhere in city or village 
and begin to talk or read and it will not require many minutes to collect 
a number of hearers. The fairs which are held in market towns afford 
excellent opportunities for preaching to large crowds, but perhaps better 
results are secured where the numbers are smaller. 

Care should always be had as to the times and places of holding 

open air services. There are good reasons why such services 

should seldom or never be held in certain cities. In times of 

public excitement, or in large cities where there is excessive curiosity, it 

is wise to refrain from preaching. By general consent, missionaries have 

avoided preaching on the streets of Peking, and probably there are other 

cities where prudence would indicate a similar restraint. Also in villages 

where fairs are held, it is important not to produce ill-feeling by taking 

a stand where the crowds will interfere with trade. 

Open air preaching is no innovation in China, nor is it new in the 

history of evangelistic labors. From the days of the apostles 

No innovation. ., _, , i j n i j j u 

it has been more or less employed in all lands and all 

ages with results that indicate the divine blessing. A very common 
sight on the streets of Peking is a crowd, varying from a few tens to 
^hundreds, surrounding some fortune-teller, or story-teller, listening 
to his stories. And no village of average size would be considered 
properly equipped without a stage in front of some temple where 
the people can collect, and where they will stand for hours witness 
ing some theatrical performance. In the country a " three days show," 
with pavilions and mat-sheds, will attract hundreds of people in the 
Busiest season of the year. Hence there can be nothing repugnant 
either to the sentiment or customs of the Chinese in assemblies in the 
open air, nor ia it objectionable in their minda for women, and girls 

May 9th. J EEV. H. H. LOWKT. 

to mingle freely in such companies, as a visit-to-any of these gatherings 
will prove. 

A missionary is, therefore, only following native custom when he 
collects around him, on the street or the common, a crowd of people to 
listen to his preaching. The success of the work will depend largely upon 
the style of address of the preacher, and his tact in keeping his audienc in 
terested where so many things combine to divert the attention. 

What has been accomplished in other mission fields votEfteid? 
in this way ought to be an inspiration for similar efforts in 
China. Mr. Soper reports from Japan as follows : " On the~Emperor s 
birthday began a work which resulted in the conversion of 
hundreds. That day will ever be noted as the day when 
the first open air preaching services began in the city of Tokio. On that 
day Bro. Ogata preached to large crowds in the Uyeno Public Park. 
Prom that time till the latter part of December the good work went on 
with increasing power and interest. As a result of this revival the 
pastoral reports from the district will show a gratifying increase in the 
membership of most of the churches." 

An extract from a report of work in Bangalore, India, is also very 
suggestive. " Brother Baker soon discovered that the ordi 
nary preaching services in the Church and on the streets 
would yield more speedy results if he could come into personal contact 
with a large number of natives. This he determined to do through the 
children, and visited the score of villages situated within a radius of 
about four miles, with the St. John s Hill property as a centre. He 
found the children so wild that they ran away from him. In some 
villages their priests, hearing of his determination to open Sunday 
schools, reported that he was an agent sent by the government to entrap 
and export them. Little by little he overcame their fears and gained 
their confidence. Soon the church became so crowded with childrn that 
it was too small to accommodate them, and overflow Sunday schools 
were held. The increase was steady and sure. In February there were 
70 ; in March, 249 ; in April, 269 ; and in May, 442 scholars. It then 
became necessary to find additional quarters. Rooms were rented, but 
they proved to be too small. No one place was large enough to contain 
the numbers that thronged to be taught the words of life. Brother 
Baker then divided the children into sections. The children of one 
district met at one hour, those of another district at another hour. Where 
there was no building the dense foliage of a huge tamarind tree served 
as a shelter from the rays of the sun, or where that was wanting the 
shadow of a high wall was chosen. In one case a deep ditch was selected 
as the only place large enough to afford a shelter. 

" The work grew until at the present time, October 31, there are 18 
Sunday schools held each Sunday. Some contain as low as 30, and so 
on up to as high as 400 scholars, making a total on the roll of 2,800." 

Similar results may not so rapidly appear from open air preaching 
in China, but good wi)l surely follow, in some cases producing a spirit 
of inquiry among the hearers, but more frequently iu making a largo 


nnmbcrof people familiar with the Gospel, and thus preparing the way for 
the future harvest. Hence, preaching in the open air, as time and cir 
cumstances permit, is one of the privileges that every missionary should 
esteem, who desires to be instant in season, out of season, preaching tl 
good news of the kingdom to all who will hear. 

Ill -Preaching to the Heathen in Chapels.-So far as foreign mission 

aries or societies are concerned, chapels must ever be hmit( 
in chapels. in numbe r Converts should, both by example and precept, 
be encouraged as soon a3 possible to provide their own places of worship ; 
but "or the" present we have mainly to deal with the methods of reaching 
eathen congregations; and for this purpose a commodious chapel well 
lighted and comfortably seated, possesses superior advantages. 
superior J? - P acher has better control over his audience in a 
*" "" ebapefthtTs possible in the open ai. In entering a chapel 
the people by that fact, place themselves in the position of gnests a, 
native eKn aeTte may be appealed to to check any disrespectful conduct^ 
In * chapel a systematic disconrso is made possible, and even progressive 
LstrncZr through a series of sermons. A chapel also gives the best 
ortnnUy for conversational and catechetical address, which is of so 

te wUtog to remain for conversation and prayer. It snrpmmg bow 

the truth. The remarks already made on preaching are 
here, but no fixed rules can be laid down. Un< 

- - 

Kev.J.Lees. ^^.^ ^ singing or praye r. On this poll 

Lees writes as follows : . -n rt 

" If possible, let the people take part ,n the services. 
all the time. My heathen congregation joins me in s.nging a few 

John, of Hankow, writes: "Let your 
Dr " JobD catechetical, conversational, educational Don t harangue, ti 

May 9th.] EEV. H. H. LOWRY. 193 

yon are sure that half a dozen people at least hare a fair chance of know 
ing what you are haranguing about. Secondly, whilst preaching try to 
find out the most promising among the hearers, and deal with Him, or 
them, in the most direct way possible. Third, if any one seems inspired 
with your preaching, get him into tho vestry, and talk to him personally, 
and pray with him if possible, anyhow pray. Fourth, put up a notice in 
the chapel informing every one who comes in that on certain evenings 
the native assistant in charge will bo in tho vestry to receive those who 
are anxious to know the truth and to explain it more fully to- them." 

The results of chapel preaching are varied, but of these 
I shall only refer to three : 

First, the Organization of Churches. The immediate object sought 
is the conversion of the people to whom we preach, and the formation of 
a body of believers into a Christian church. Hundreds of organization 
churches in various parts of the empire testify that this end of churches - 
has been accomplished. 

Second, the Wide Dissemination of Gospel Truth. The effects of 
chapel preaching are much more widereaching than simply 
the organization of a local church. Seldom is a sermon of Gospel 
preached in the great cities that does not reach tho ears of 
some one who will carry the message many miles away. In this way 
Gospel truth is constantly being published throughout China, and thus 
the soil is being prepared for successful reaping by future evangelists. 
Dr. John, in tho letter from which I have already quoted, remarks : 
" The influence of chapel preaching in extending the work in the in 
terior ifc is impossible to speak too highly of its value in this respect. 
As a, means of spreading abroad a knowledge of the truth it is invaluable." 

Thirdly, Starting Work in Distant Places and thus opening new 
fields of labor. Chapel preaching is perhaps the most fruitful 
source of starting societies in places far removed from the 
central station. In a letter Mr. DnBose writes : " Our 
Hangchow mission has just baptized twenty, one hundred li north of 
the city, started from chapel preaching. A whole section is affected and 
promises a big harvest." 

A man was converted in the Methodist chapel in the-^outhern-city 
of Peking, through whom an interest was awakened at his 

, , Incidents. 

own home forty miles south of the city, where there are 

now three regularly organized circuits and a constantly increasing 


Somo years ago a literary graduate, from the province of Shantung, 
was attracted by the truth at another of our chapels in Peking. This led 
to the opening of the work at his home four hundred miles, distant, 
where there are now enrolled two hundred church members. 

Such incidents might be indefinitely multiplied, but these are suf. 
ficient to indicate the great importance of chapel preaching. 

There are certain requisites, preparatory, or accessory, Requisites to 
to successful chapel preaching, that ought to be alluded to 


Much will depend on the character of the native preachers employed. 

It ia important that they should possess a good education ; it is vital that 

they should be converted men and well grounded in Christian truth. 

For protracted services a number of native preachers can be 

used to good advantage, both in securing variety in the 

exercises, and in carrying forward different forms of work at the 

same time. 

One of my most satisfactory recollections is of a fortnight spent 
with a company of five native preachers at one of our chapels in an in- 
terior city. Preaching was carried on all day, with inquiry and prayer 
meetings in adjacent rooms, and the evenings were spent with interested 
persons in prayer and conversation. 

It will often be found useful to have some of the most faithful and 
spiritual of the church members attend the services in the chapel, and 
to let them have an opportunity to give their experience, and state the 
reasons why they are Christians. This has been done in some of our 
chapels with gratifying effect. 

The chapel keeper may be a very useful agent if of the right spirit, 
not only through the politeness and kindness with which he receives the 
audience and directs strangers to vacant seats, but often in direct 
evangelistic labors. It often requires a little tact to get persons who 
come to the chapel for the first time to enter the door and be seated. ^ A 
chapel keeper who can succeed in this without confusion or attracting 
attention ia a valuable assistant. 

Day schools, dispensaries and book rooms for the reading or sale of 
books, also attract people to the chapel, and thus furnish an opportunity 
for them to hear the Gospel. 

Every chapel should be provided with convenient rooms where in 
terested persona can be seen privately, and such rooms ought to be 
accessible at other times than during the preaching services. 

This all suggests that the first requisite for successful preaching is 

that we have cliapels. The importance of securing good 

ilcationV locations and good buildings cannot bo too much emphasized. 

Some of our chapels, located on a back street, or narrow 

alley, or in a deserted part of the city, with only a dismal, dilapidated 

building for an audience room, are a disgrace to the church and a positive 

hindrance to the influence of the Gospel. The main object of these 

buildings ia to collect an audience to which we can preach ; and to place 

the building in some inaccessible situation, or to make ib so mean in 

external appearance that no respectable person will enter it, is. to defeat 

our own purposes. 

It ia not always possible to secure the situation we desire, but our 
:aim should be always to get the beat location possible and make the 
building at least as attractive as the best shops in the neighbourhood. To 
accept an inferior location, or continue in a poor building merely because 
it costs less money, ia neither economy nor wisdom. A thousand dollars 
.may purchase a chapel where a missionary may for ten or twenty years 
preach to fifty or a .hundred people \ whereas .five iliousand dollars at the 

May 9th,] EEV. H. H. LOWET. 195 

start might secure a place where his daily audience would be from five 
hundred to a thousand, and his influence be multiplied many-fold. I do 
not advocate Protestant missions making a display of wealth or power, 
but I do think we should avoid such false notions of economy as will 
necessarily confine our labors to a mere handful of hearers of no influence, 
and produce upon the respectable community the impression of either our 
penuriousness or poverty. If our chapels are the meanest buildings 
on the street, the meanest people on the street will constitute our 

The interior of our chapels also should be as attractive and as com 
fortable as we can make them. 

The advantage of a properly equipped chapel over an inferior build 
ing will be seen wherever the experiment is made. The attractive 
chapel of the London Mission at Tientsin proves this. The same is true 
of the new chapel of the Methodist Mission in the same city. This 
mission preached for years in a low uncomfortable building, although 
well located, without any satisfactory results, but after a good chapel 
was erected only a few yards distant from the old one, twenty-threa 
converts were received the first year. Mr. Wilson, writing to the, 
Recorder, says : " In Ch ung-k ing the size and quality of an audience 
to some extent the stability of the work itself depend greatly upon the 
character of the locality and the kind of building used." 

Such I believe to be the general experience. Hence I would placa 
as the first requisite for success in chapel preaching, large, commodious 
chapels, in good situations, on the best streets. The remainder will 
depend on the missionary himself, and the presence of Him who alone 
can give the increase. 

In conclusion, preaching the Gospel to the heathen, whether in 
chapels, in the open air, or during itineracies, should bo 
esteemed the most precious privilege of the missionary, 
These methods are all profitable, and should be pursued with 
the utmost vigor, never becoming discouraged because results do not 
immediately appear. The soil may indeed be hard, but we must with 
unfailing faith await the early and latter rain, and in due time the 
harvest will be gathered. Let our preaching be animated by the love 
that believeth all things, hopeth all things. These are the methods that 
have been pursued by evangelists through all the centuries, and through, 
which nations once heathen are now Christian. We may be assured that 
the preaching of the Gospel will bo the chief means in China s redemp 
tion, and long after our names have been forgotten by men, and our 
voices have grown familiar with the hallelujahs of the saints in heaven,! 
the shouts of the reapers will only enlarge our joy, and as we witness 
the ever increasing multitudes gathering within the gates of pearl, wa 
shall, with glad and wondering astonishment exclaim. * Behold, thepe 
from the land of Sinim ! " 



Rev. F. H. James (E. B. M., Chi-nan Fu). 

THE number of these sects in this province is very hard to ascertain. 
One teacher says they are " exceedingly many," another " no one knows 

how many." As far as I can gather, there are over one 

Number. i j j ... . 

hundred secret societies in Shantung. It is difficult to obtain 

accurate information about them and their work and aims; therefore, soma 
little time ago, I engaged a man, who formerly belonged to one of these 
societies, to compile a brief account of each one from reliable sources, and 
it is partly from his manuscript that the following notes have been 

Fifty-two societies are included in his compilation. Some appear to 
be almost entirely political. The people know no other way likely to 
improve the government, excepting that of improving it 
political. off the face of the earth. Hence the endeavour by meetings 
for worship, seances, etc., to attract the attention of the peo 
ple. Charms are sold, tricks of legerdemain performed, fortunes are told, 
marvellous stories of the healing skill of some of their leaders are related 
and are believed by the educated as well as by the ignorant. Anything 
that will draw the people together and furnish material for entertaining 
conversation, affords abundant opportunities for the propagation of their 
special doctrines and securing adherents and contributors. 

Some of the sects are almost, if not altogether, religious. Their 
books contain many of the best maxims and the highest moral teaching 
selected from the standard works of Confucianists, Bud- 
reiigiouB. dhists and Taoists. Exhortations to virtuous conduct, benev 
olence and cultivation of the heart abound. Skilful appeals 
to the best feelings and desires are strengthened by instances of the benefits 
obtained by earlier disciples. Yet it remains doubtful whether very many 
of these sects are quite free from seditious adherents. Some of their 
leaders make a good thing of it, and even among those who are most bent 
on effecting a change of the present rulers, there are not a few who are more 
earnest still in the matter of changing poverty for competence or wealth. 
It is easier, as well as more pleasant, to collect the subscriptions of 
gullible people and use them to procure present benefits, than to risk life 
or imprisonment by being too active in the political business. No doubfc 
a considerable number of them could, with great sincerity, sing the old 
couplet : 

" While other s plots against the state are hatching, 
My study ia the art of money catching." 

Tho chief doctrine of several is simple vegetarianism as a means of 
rectifying the heart, accumulating merit, avoiding calamities in this lifo 
and retributive paiug in tho next. Ouo society puts tho matter clearly 


May 9th.] EEV. r. H. JAMES. 

enough: " For every four ounces of meat you use in this life you will have 
to pay back eight ounces in the next." 

The " Book of Changes " is the text-book of several of these sects. 
It has all the requisite glamour of mysteriousness, unlimited capacity for 
being twisted into any shape desired, dark sayings, enigmas 
and mystical symbols, sufficient to shadow forth anything chiS^* * 
that is or is not, either in the heavens above, or the eaTth text-book 
beneath, or the waters under the earth. Out of this store- ^ 
.house these ill-instructed scribes bring forth things both new and old. 
If, in the next existence, they meet with some of our old mysticizing and 
spiritualizing commentators, doubtless they will soon feel at home, and 
improve the opportunity by sitting down together to a feast of fat things. 1 

One of the best of these societies devotes its chief attention to a 
crusade against the use of wine, opium and tobacco. Every 

i ,i , , -, , J Prohibition. 

member must renounce these and pledge himself never to 

gamble. It is a pity that their efforts are mingled with idolatrous rites. 

Another devotes its attention mainly to the repairing of decayed 
temples ; another to the purchase and burning of the best 
Thibetan incense, in order to enable departed souls, by smell- 
ing the fragrant smoke and following its ascending coils, to 
find their way to the blissful regions above ; another uses its funds 
chiefly in printing and circulating good books. One tries to persuade 
men to be chaste, to eliminate all passion, and by meditation and study to 
attain a state of perfect repose and self-control, so that every impulse 
may be followed without the least risk of falling into sin. Another 
sect spares no expense in purchasing copper and making images of 
Buddha, for "although Buddha is dead and passed into a higher state, 
yet will he dwell in a copper image and hear the prayers of the devout. 
He will grant whatsoever they desire, just as if he were here in the flesh." 

The chief teaching of another society is concerning the important 
and much-neglected duty of maintaining a patient spirit under injuries. 
Silence is a virtue in itself and the most effectual answer to reviling. 

Several of these sects usually meet in the night. This looks sus 
picious, but sometimes it is done because their books teach that certain 
acts of devotion are more efficacious if performed _at special hours. Some 
are fixed for mid-day, others for mid-night, and probably one reason ia 
that night is the quietest and most leisure time they have. Still, night 
assemblies are generally condemned, and doubtless the authorities have 
some reason for their denunciations of them. 

One of the largest sects delights in diving into the depths of the 
"eight diagrams." However, it teaches good lessons on 
" repressing lust," "speaking only useful words," with sage iT f &1 
exhortations on "conserving and refreshing the mental enerv 
gies by rest and quiet reflection." Some beautiful lines are issued 
against destroying birds ia the spring. " Gentlemen are earnestly exhort 
ed never to molest the birds during the three spring mouths. Remember 
liow the little ones in the nests long for their parents to return to feed 
and shelter them." Anyone who has seen how some Chinese children and 


grown up people torture birds, will not regard this admonition as un 
necessary. In some other countries the same teaching is equally needed. 

Among these sects are several " schools " with their peculiar methods 
for refining the spirit and nourishing virtuous tendencies. One is 
called the "mystic" school, another the "passive," and a third the 
"exercise" or "active " school. The first urges the great value of the 
profoundest thought, in order to attain the knowledge needful for the 
soul s highest interests. The second advocates perfect repose of spirit, in 
Order to avoid sin and develop the highest and purest spiritual condition ; 
while the third school exhorts men to subdue passion and evil ten 
dencies by tiring out the physical energies with hard work and exercise. 
Every one will admit that there is truth in each of these schools. Medita 
tion, rest of spirit, and more attention to healthy exercise of both mind 
and body, would be beneficial to most of us. 

So far I have discovered no evidence that any of these sects ever had 
any connection with Christianity. I do not deny that there may have 
been some connection long ago, but nearly everything seems to me to 
be against this theory. 

The fact that large numbers of Christians in this province have 
. been gathered from these sects, should lead us to give more 
tians gathered attention to them. Some of the best and most consistent 
Christians I know were once the devoted followers of these 
societies. And in spite of all the suspicion cast on them by the officials 
and the fact that numbers of their leaders and adherents have been 
punished for seditious practices, it is certain that a largo number, 
perhaps a majority of the most thoughtful, devout and earnest seekers 
after God are contained in these sects. With such people it is no 
political matter, but a strenuous endeavour to do the ntmost in their 
power to eradicate sinful habits, to do good, obtain rest for their souls 
and immortal life. Whether in the Christian church or in a despised 
and partially deluded Chinese sect, "patient continuance in well-doing" 
is a right and noble thing. It must not be lightly esteemed by us, since 
it may be as acceptable to God as the riper fruits of more enlightened 
people. A learned friend told mo he considered that these sects con 
tained " the only living sinners in China." Some of these people are 
foolish and superstitious enough, no doubt ; but even such may be more 
)iopeful characters than the orthodox Confucianist, who is intensely 
<{ wise in his own conceit." 

One of the discouraging things in studying these sects is the strange 
Birange mix- 5 : m i x ture of good and bad in them. The prayer-book tells us 
tur ndbfd d *^ a ^ * n *k* 3 life " the evil is ever mingled with the good." 
But we have been accustomed to the mixture in the West, 
and the majority of us do not suffer much depression on this account. 
"We are not so much shocked by bad temper in a minister or even by a 
little sharp practice in a church-member. It is another thing when we 
come to a Chinese sect of people who have never enjoyed a thousandth 
part of our advantages. We see patient endurance of persecution with 
occasional acts of disloyalty, study and superstition, rnediialiou aa<^ 

May 9fch.] EEV. p. H. JAMES. 

charms, self-denial and incantations, mortifications and good works tcr 
eradicate evil tendencies and habits practised one day and divination and 
idolatry the next. Here is one really seeking trath and trying to relieve 
the needy and suffering among his neighbours; there is one whose 
fortune-telling and seances are crafty impositions for the sake of gain. 
This is too much for us. The labour to find out sufficient to know how 
to deal with them is too great. It is easier to mark all bad and retire 
from further study. We have precedents for so doing. The Chinese 
have called all foreigners "devils," the Mohammedans label all but 
themselves "infidels," and Papists used to consign us all to perdition 
in a mass. Following these illustrious examples we have too often re 
garded all the heretical sects of China as idolators and nothing more. 
However difficult our task may be, we must learn more about them, and 
try to find out how to deal with them. Four-fifths of the contributors to 
the largest benevolent institution in the capital of Shantung are said to 
belong to one of the best of these societies. This is a remarkable thing-. 
People who give so much to help others are surely not to be lightly 
condemned as nothing but " self-righteous and superstitious idolators." 
God sees them as they are. Their mixture of bad with good does nofc 
keep back His regard for them any more than our mixed motives and 
actions restrain the unceasing outflow of His mercy toward us. He i& 
not perplexed by their blending alchemy with charity, and reverence 
with credulity. And we, who believe that "His tender mercies are over 
all His works," have reason to believe that He has been leading these 
people all along and will ultimately fulfill His perfect will concerning; 
them. The " Father of the spirits of all flesh," the " God of all the 
families of the earth," has not left Himself without witness, even among: 
this benighted and sin-stricken nation. A recollection of this may stimulate 
us in studying their literature and rites. And I think we shall be led to- 
the conclusion that their religious expressions indicate some advance on the 
three prevalent religions, a development of spiritual feeling for which they 
have tried to find utterance by coining new terms. Some of these may 
bo found useful in our explanations of Christian doctrine, for our present 
vocabulary is far from adequate to our requirements. Moreover, these 
expressions may be less objectionable than eome of those borrowed from 
Buddhism and Taoism. The very existence of these sects is proof that 
the people have felt a need for something not to be found in Confucianism, 
^Buddhism or Taoism, and it would be strange if this craving for more 
light and truth did not lead them beyond their old conceptions and 

Wo may learn something from them and wo may do something for 
them. By meeting them in a Christ-liko spirit wo may HOW to deal 
attract them. Kindness and patience will not bo lost upon Wllh lhen>> 
them. Let them see that wo are prepared to deny ourselves for their 
good, to labour and suffer for religion and for men. In timo this will 
Impress them and they will become raoro ready to considar tho claims of, 
our religion. Wo shall find an ally in their uusatisSed spiritual instincts. 
Thoir consciencoa will bo on oar side, and soon there will bo a ruoro ear* 


nest search for the light and peace we promise them. Harsh criticism of 
their mistakes and unsympathetic treatment of their difficulties must be 
avoided. One has well said, " The greatest thing a man can do for his 
Heavenly Father is to be kind to some of His other children." We must 
begin in a constructive and friendly, not in a destructive and dogmatic way. 
Find out the good they possess and encourage them in it. By developing 
this and adding knowledge of higher and better things we shall help 
them in giving np the bad and useless. As yet, but little has been done 
for them, though there are many encouragements to the work. There is 
more inquiry, receptiveness and earnestness among them than among any 
other class in this land. God is " not far from every one of them," and 
of many it must be true that their "souls cry out for the living God." 
We have just what they need and all they need. We may lead them to 
know God and to enjoy the unspeakable and eternal blessing of com 
munion with Him. 


1. -jfc |y| Jlfc, Tdi Yang Kiao=Sun Society. 
From the time of the Chow dynasty to the T ang dynasty this sect 
ia said to have flourished in Chiaa. Probably about B. C. 400 to A. D. 
650. By some said to be of native origin, others assert that Persians 
came to China in the Han dynasty and propagated it about A. D. 89-106. 
Has borne a good character and never been convicted of sedition. They 
worship the sun only when it is visible. Dull days and night time wor 
ship a lamp or fire as substitute for the sun. Members are still numerous. 

2.~l|jg -ft ffi y Chdo Kicang Kiao=Light Worship Society. 

Founded by Wei Yuen ($& $ji) in the latter Han dynasty some time 
before A. D. 220, exact date quite uncertain. Worship moon, stars and 
light. Barn paper, but not incense. Use charms and incantations. 
Have suffered punishment for sedition. Not so numerous as the Sun 
Society. Membership confined to men 

3. fr dt J&, Pci Lien Kiao= White Lily Sect. 

I I f^l^ *XA 

Founded during the Yuen dynasty, A. D. 1206-1333. Revived and 
flourished under the leadership of ffe $| 0$, Sii Hung-ru, in the reign of 
T ien Chi, Ming dynasty, A. D. 1621-1628. Follows most of the current 
forms of idolatry. Often punished for sedition. Very numerous. 
Known under many names in most if not all the provinces. 

4. jg JjJ , S z Ch wan Kiao=Sz Ch wan Province Sect. 

Another namo of the ^ ft jRi " Golden Elixir " Society. This 
name was given when a native of -Sz-ch wan was convicted of sedition, 
A. D. 1814, but tho original sect dates back to tho Sung dynasty, A. D. 
1101-1120. Said to have been founded by 51 $t H> Chang Tsz-yang. 
Very mystical. Idolatry, charms, etc., practised. Probably tho largest 
society in Shantung. Contains many literary men. Numbers many 
Bincoro and earnest seekers after trulli. Often, punished for spreading 

May 9th.] BEV. r. H. JAMES. 201 

5. |E H$ %fc, Wu Wei KiaoNonaction Society. 

Founded about the end of the Chow dynasty, A. D. 250. Said to 
have been established by disciples of Lao Tsz. Worships Lao Ts& and 
various deities. Uses charms, incantations, incense and paper. Not 
very numerous in Shantung, Not often convicted of sedition. 

6. j fH ifc, Pei Yiien Kiao White Cloud Society. 

Founded by |J| f^| jy, Wei Pei-yang, a Taoist philosopher of the 
Han dynasty. Much devoted to search for the drug of immortality, 
ascetic exercises, profound meditations to rectify the desires, etc., etc. 
Was once considered a very respectable society and had many learned 
and wealthy followers. Afterwards fell into disrepute and was accused 
of sedition, but has not often been punished for disloyalty. Not very 

Esien Kiao=Sect of the Sages and Worthies. 

Origin and date uncertain. Chiefly uses the " Doctrine of the Mean" 
as text-book. Delights in mysteries and predictions. Worships the 
" Great Extreme " or the ultimate immaterial principle of all things 
^ ;f|j. Does not worship any of the gods or use images. Composed chiefly 
of literary men. Has been punished for disloyal practices. Numerous. 

8. /V [ Ifc, Pah Kwa ITiao= Eight Diagrams Society. 
Said to have been founded about the beginning of present dynasty, 
A. D. 1644, by jjl %} % (Han Kuh-tsz) . Conforms to outward forms of 
current idolatry, but does not believe in worshipping anything beside 
heaven. Devotes great attention to issuing tracts exhorting people not 
to take the lives of animals and birds. Strict vegetarians. Opium, wine, 
and tobacco not allowed tojnembers. Very diligent in secretly propagat 
ing their doctrines. One of the largest societies. Often accused of 
seditious aims. 

Mu Kiao=*Mother and Son Society. 

Founded by fp H fj|, Lai Kwob-kieh, in the reign of H J|, Kia- 
k ing, A. D. 179G-1821. Chiefly engaged in divination, fortune-telling, 
predictions, occult methods of causing cash to produce cash, so as to 
ensure against empty pockets. Said to be seditious. Numerous. 

10. g| > |t Fah Lu Kiao=Sect of the God Fah-lu. 

Probably a branch of the Buddhists. " " god is said to be 
the highest of all divine beings, and those who join this sect claim to be 
the first rank of men. They also worship Leaven, earth and man, that 
is, sages, not ordinary men. Said to have come from India soon after the 
Buddhists came to China, A. D. 58. Very strong on the sin of taking 
life. Once a month allow a day s rest to their animals. Bears an excel- 
lent reputation. Not numerous. 


JJist of some of the Literature of the " Sects." 

Nos. 1 to 21 are text-books of doctrine and methods of cultivation. 
Of these Nos. 6, 7, 8, 13 and 21 are said to be the best. Nos. 22 to 29 
are used for public distribution. Some of these are not written by the 
members of the " Sects," but are popular tracts of many years standing. 
Nos. 45 to 50 are also used for distribution. Nos. 30 to 33 are medical 
books of the Sects. Nos. 34 to 39 are records of official trials of members 
of the societies for sedition, etc. Nos. 40 to 45 are mystical books for the 
use of members chiefly, if not exclusively. 


JR^B R J le^Rflfc^ S 


Rev, F. Ohlinger (A. M. E. M., Seoul). I have but a word to add 
to Mr. Taylor s paper. He mentions the "absence of pride of race " 
as an important characteristic of the successful missionary. I would 

emphasize the importance of the absence of pride of deuom- 
tS^iTridc". inational connections and peculiarities. While I believe 

that our division into so many denominations is a blessing 
and not a curse, while 1 believe in the utmost loyalty of every one to his 
own church, I am also convinced that we should hold our denomina 
tional names and peculiarities with the deepest humility, and that pride 
has no place in the foreign field. 

While I could not, if I would, discriminate between tho two papers 
to which wo have listened, I was specially interested in Mr. Hill s, bocause 
it deals with a matter concerning which I have had some correspondence 
and very profound convictions for many years. I am disappointed in 

May 9th.] EEV. Y. K. YEN, M.A. 

one respect only, and that is Mr. Hill s inability to recommend lay 
agency in Chinese missions, both in connection with, and independent of 
the home societies or boards. I do not lose sight of the fact that he 
has had considerable experience in the matter, while I have had none. 
But the question ever comes before me, again and again : Why could not 
the hundreds of positions on this Asiatic coast, now largely (I am happy to 
say not entirely) filled by men who are, to say the least, indifferent as 
concerning our work, be filled by devoted Christian men, who would carry 
on a work of their own on the one hand, and aid us to the, 
extent of their ability in the work we are doing on the other ? Vr s e * an 
I believe this Conference should send forth an earnest appeal ity^oik^s. 
for lay workers; some to come out under the various 
missionary boards, but ^many more independent of them. What the 
different missionary societies need at this time is more prayers, more 
money, and the inspiring spectacle of an army of consecrated workers 
going forth independent of them all. 

I am glad that I am working under a society that gives me all the 
liberty I can use ; but I should also be glad to see men out here working 
in their own individual way, free from the slightest obligations to any 
one but the Master, guided by the Holy Spirit alone, and relying upon 
their own strong hands and clear heads for support. There are so many 
ways in which such laymen would help on the work that I dare not 
begin to particularize. But I trust that this Conference will give some 
suggestion to Mr. Wishard and through him to the Y. M. C. A. of 
America that will result in the coming forward of Christian lay workers 
to fill the various positions which may, from time to time, be open to 
foreigners in these lands. 

Rev. Y. K. Yen, M.A. (A. P. E. M., Shanghai).-It strikes me that 
> whole attention has been confined to aggressive work among the 
heathen, and not one word said as to conserving those whom 
you have. We have a saying among the people here that it ^n/onhT 
is easy to become a Christian, but it is very hard to remain so. ch l" roh lo( * 
I think in your experience you must have found it easy to 
bring in Christians, but very hard to hold them in the congregation 
Alow me, then, to say a few words on this matter of conserving 
Lhnstians. We Chinese, whether ministers or Christians, do not stand 
in the same favourable position as you from Western lands do We have 
thirty or forty generations of physical inertia, heathenism and narrow- 
minded education behind us, which you have not. It is not fair for 
oreign missionaries to expect from the Chinese ministers or Christians 
the same amount of enterprise or activity, the same religious knowledge 
piety and spirituality, as you would expect from your countrymen 

_ Sometimes foreign missionaries speak very disparagingly of Chinese 
ministers and Christians, as if they were worth nothing I think that i< 
very unreasonable and unfair, seeing that they have all this load behind 
their backs. Guizot, in his Civilization, says that Western civilization 
has been marked by diversity, and Eastern civilization by uniformitv 
and as a consequence your Western civilization has a progressive and our 
Eastern civilization a stationary character. The Chinese are 
inactive physically and mentally. If the Chinese were aSi^phSi. 
live, physically, they would find their queues and flowing call y "* " 
clothing in the way, and so would not wear them, as I do this 


queno on my- head or this ma-lewa on my back to-day. I have lived in 
foreign countries and imbibed some of the Western activity, and I alwavs 
said if there is one Chinaman who will cut off his hair and throw off 

Uln; V T ^ rS i/.l rS n . t0 , d0 , ifc ; A S ain > ^y * ^active 
mentally [f not, why should they study books two thousand years old ? 

Why is it that they look with disdain on any new form of education ?," 
*oa all think it is good to introduce Western education, bat the 
How the Chine * kjgjf behind your backs. There is a series of prim- 
Chines tregard ers > published by the authority of the governor of Honsr- 
SS. k 5? a splendid series for young beginners to study Chinese 
with. had my own boys study it, and I recommended it 
to one of my friends. Now the name of the book is ts u-hsio primary 
An illustration. Btud , v **% & the same sound for vinegar. My friend s 
teacher refused to teach it to his sons, saying disdainfully 
I am not going to have vinegar study, soy study, but Confucian classics. 
Then again as to piety and spirituality. Not long ago I took some 
foreigners into a temple, and there were plenty of women worshipping 
The friend said, " The Chinese are very spiritual " I waa 
SrcSSS: f "? * tel1 him the trufcb > aD <* I did not tell him all the 
worship. truth, but you know that the Chinese only worship the goda 
through selfishness. There is no such thing as real piety, 
acknowledging the deity as our God, and ourselves as His children 
I say the Chinese have all these loads behind their backs ; and therefore 
you cannot expect them to attain to your standard as regards activity 
enterprise, knowledge and piety all at once. 

Therefore I pray you to make allowance for your Christians. Do 
not disparage what they have. Try to lead them on and encourage them. 
I should bo sorry to hear missionaries say as I have heard, " I believe there 
is no Christian in my congregation." 

Another way of conserving your Chinese congregation is that no 

DO not en- missionaries, either in conversation among themselves or in 

thpfr u ^?t articlea m P a P ers > should pick out all the worst phases of 

characteristic*. Chinese character. I am sorry to say we have very bad 

phases ; at the same time we have also some good phases. 

\Vhy cannot you pick out all the good ones and try to put in the back 

ground the bad ones? I think there is a bad effect in always talking about 

the Chinese bad phases. We know at this time there are many Chinese 

who read and understand English, and they say the missionaries are not 

trying to do us good, but to malign our character. They report it to the 

Lhmese who are Christians, and their feelings are also hurt, and as a conse 

quence their hearts grow cold towards Christianity. The foreign 

mercantile communities again are not friendly to us ; and when they hear 

these things spoken of the Chinese, they say it is of no use to teach 

anything to them. Their prejudice against our people increases, and natur 

ally ours against them also, and the Gospel is hindered, for the spread of 

the Gospel is promoted according as there is a good feeling between 

foreigners generally and the Chinese. A third way of conserving your 

Umstians is that you will be more friendly and more sympathetic with 

L have seen in foreign countries that pastor is most successful who 

altivates friendliness among his congregation, and not ho who preaches 

Advocates *J 1Q most eloquent sermons and attracts the largest audience. 

TOS? Human nafc are is the same everywhere, and so if you wish to 

-Chinese. preserve your Chinese congregations and bring them up to 

MI i. real s P iritualifc J an <* m ako them better Christians, I pray that 

yon mil enow so much sympathy with thorn as in you lies 

May 9th.] EEV. A. F. H. SAW AND REV. T. K. YEN. 205 

I confess ifc is a great bore to have Chinese in your study talking by 
the hour, taking up your time and tiring yon with insipid things ; but, at the 
same time, that is no reason that you should break off all in 
tercourse. Because they are bores is no reason that yon Andinter- 
ehould shut them out altogether. Try in some way to asso- "Them"" 11 
ciate with them and make them feel that you are glad to see 
them, although they must not trespass on time which is important 

To encourage intercourse with Christians tho first need is a Chinese 
parlour. When I was in one of the stations a brother was sayino- that he 
was going to build a new house. I said that I had seen many 

missionaries homes, but very few with Chinese Darlours - The mission - 
i 11 ,-,, . |*iiOj anes homes, 

why could you not have a Chinese parlour with furniture and 
scrolls and pictures ? Now, we know that the Chinese shoes are not always 
clean. It is not because they do not want them clean, but it is of the 
nature of their shoes that the mud will stick on. Therefore they are 
naturally reluctant to come into your parlours and dirty your floors and 
your matting and your carpet, whereas if you have a Chinese parlour 
they will come in freely. Then, again, your foreign mode of arran<nno- 
the furniture puzzles a Chinaman; he is afraid he is sitting in the 
wrong chair, or in a high seat, whereas if you have a regular Chinese 
parlour he knows exactly where to sit. If you do have parlours, have 
them arranged nicely with scrolls and pictures, on the same scale with 
the furniture of your other rooms, so that the Chinese will see that you do 
not treat them with disdain in receiving them in your Chinese parlours 
but because they like it better. 

As a -corollary to what I have said, let me beg yon that when you write 
for reinforcements, you will get meu who are patient, forbearing and 
loving. _ Twenty and more years ago coming to China was a great thing ; 
now it is a simple matter. Many come out now who might not have come 
then. Consequently, perhaps, people may come out without any great calcul 
ation of the sacrifice to be undergone or any idea of the work 
to be done. Therefore I say, be choice about your men, be sure The kind of 
to get out those only who are patient, loving, forbearing. Let m V vautod ry 
no one come out who is harsh or unkind, who will not hesitate 
to stamp his foot and pound on. the table when settling accounts with the 
Chinese catechist, a case of which I heard lately. Some may say, " If a 
man does not have all these virtues, let him come out and develop them." 
I say China is a bad field to develop them. The Chinese are slow and 
dull of understanding, and if a man is not patient at home he will 
be more impatient out here ; if he is harsh there, lie will be harsher here. 

Rev. A. F. H. Saw (F. C. M. S., Nanking). Will the Conference 
ask Mr. Yen about the relative importance of wearing Chinese and foreign 
dress by missionaries ? 

Rev. Y. K. Yen. I think there is no cast iron rule to suit all cases, 

I think in some places where foreigners are better known 

and where they would look strange if wearing Chinese dress, g^ enrin?. 

let them wear the foreign ; but in places where Chinese dress 

is more convenient and the foreign would be novel to the Chinese, let 

them wear tho Chinese. As, with regard to married and single mission- 

206 DISCUSSION. [Third day, 

aries there is no rule : in some places married people are better, in 
others, single people so there is none in the matter of dress. Each man 
must judge for himself in the place where he moves. 

Rev. A. Elwin (C. M. S., Hangchow). I wish to say a few words 

on a very difficult subject, a subject brought before us by 

Denominational j) r Noyius viz., what is generally called denominational 

diflbreuccs. __ . 1,1- i -i. i , 

differences. Now union is a very good thing, and it is what 

we all desire. But what is union ? I will tell you what it is not. I stand 
before you to-day as a minister of the Church of England, and I am 
not afraid or ashamed to say I am thankful that I do belong ^to thafc 
church. But over there stands my brother who is a Presbyterian, and 
there a brother who belongs to the Baptist Church. Standing here, I say 
to these my brethren, " My friends, union is a very good 
What "union" thin" 1 , commanded by our Lord and recommended by all ; let 
us therefore have union. You come hero to mo, stand 
by my side and join me, and we will have union." That would not betruo 
union, and yet there arc not a few in this Conference who, when they 
Bpeak of "union," mean little else. 

May I say a few words as to how we try to manifest true union in 

Hangchow ? If you want union, it is most important that 

The nnion in _ ou s i lou i<\ make up your minds that you will have it, 

and do not let littlo things, little differences, hinder it. 
In Hangchow we have our Mien-li-we, or Society for Mutual In- 
struction. On the first Tuesday in the Chinese month 
Mien-u-we. ^ ^ Q native preachers and teachers, and all the foreign 
missionaries, meet together for mutual help and encouragement. Of 
course all the proceedings at these meetings are in Chinese. 

The foreign missionaries also meet once a week for a united prayer 
meeting. But I may add that you may sometimes see in 
United Prayer Hangchow what I doubt if you could see in any other station 
in China. We have now in Hangchow about twenty-three 
missionaries altogether ; sometimes you may see all these missionaries, 
except any prevented by illness, gathered round the table 
Union mani- o f the Lord. All the Christians know this, and thus wo 
LorcTs table? manifest our union. It is true that in this church a prayer- 
book is used, in that it is not. In this thero is a bishop, in 
that there is not. In this church certain rules are followed, in that ^ no 
such rules are in force; but what does this signify when the practical 
union of the missionaries is so manifest when from time to time ail tho 
missionaries may be found gathered in united service, from the gray- 
headed Bishop Moule, our veteran missionary, down to our lately arrived 
Presbyterian brother who, perhaps, has only been in the country a couple 
of mouths. This, I believe, is true union, and I do not believe that at 
present, at least, any other union is possible. 

. W. Muirhead (L. M. S., Shanghai). We Lave all expressed our 
high appreciation of Mr. Yen. I have had the pleasure of knowing him i 
many years, and can only say he is a power in Shanghai, and is very 
highly respected by all his native brethren. 

May 9th.] EEV. w. MUIEHEA.D. 207 

I mentioned ta one of my native preachers in anticipation of such a 
large Conference as we are now having, that the native 
brethren should meet and consult about the same, things, a f to a^ativ 
and, as in the case of our friend, I believe it would be an conference, 
advantage to us. It is not simply in regard to the proprieties 
of our missionary life that wo are thankful to Mr. Yon for what he has 
now said, but there are matters still more closely connected with our work, 
in which we need the advice and counsel of our native brethren, perhaps 
far more than we are in the habit of asking it./ 

,1 am inclined to regard tho subjects which have come before us i to- 
xlay as the most vital and central portion of our work at this 
Conference, referring to the kind of men we are wanting to 
come to our assistance in tho prosecution of our work, 
and the kind of labour in which wo wish them to be engaged. The kind 
of men who will come out, and tho kind of work in which they will 
engage, will depend very much on tho form and expression of the appeal, 
which I hope will bo drawn up by this Conference and sent homo to 
England and America for tho purpose. The two papers that have been 
read are of the highest importance and wcro written by men of thorough 
experience in regard both to the secular and tho spiritual departments of 
the work. Mr. Hudson Taylor speaks well on the subject 
of the call to mission labour. Wo want such men in the arys call?" 
foreign field as have acted the part of missionaries in their 
home life, devoted men and women who have given themselves to similar 
work in their own immediate neighbourhood. If they have not been 
missionaries at home, in one form or another, I fear they will prove to 
be poor missionaries abroad. I bless God that tho thought came 
to my mind when I was fourteen years of ago simply on reading such 
words as these : 

<( Shall we whose souls are lighted, 
With wisdom from on high, 
Shall we to men benighted, 
The lamp of God deny." 

Though God s dealings with men are very different, it does seem in 
His gracious providence that if men are to be called to any department of 
tho mission field, there will be influences at work on them that will con 
strain them to come without hesitation or reserve. I wish, The 
indeed, that every man and woman, pondering the thought missiouary s 

, * , . _ . I j * l vUuocLruiioii* 

of engagement in mission work, were thus inspired in regard 

to it, and led to say, " I am bound over to the service of Christ, body, 

soul and spirit, wheresoever He is pleased to call me." 

Lay agency is a matter of high importance in what we are now consider 
ing. When I was at homo I was called to a meeting to consult &rr 
with brethren from China and India on this question. I ^ 
<*avo m y unequivocal testimony in favor of lay agents with certain 
qualifications being employed, and brought forward various instances of 
their usefulness and after- development, none more so, indeed, than my 
honoured predecessor, Dr. Medhurst, who came out when ho was twenty- 
one, as a printer, and subsequently arrived at a very high standard of 
missionary attainment. Further, I eaid that I knew men in the field, 
especially thinking of the China Inland Mission, who would develop in 
course of time to a high degree of fitness for the work. I am sorry to say 
that at that time the idea was opposed by the missionaries then present. 
They thought their native pastors and teachers would look down upon 

DISCUSSION. [Third day, 

such a class of men and so the thing was negatived, but I am glad to 
say the subject is now regarded in a different light at head-quarters, and 
arrangements are being made for engaging the services of suitable men 
of that class, while urgently desiring the presence and labours of 
missionaries of the highest order in a field of such capacity as China. 

Rev. W. H. Watson (E. W. M., Kwang-chi). This morning our Chair 
man referred to the question of charity, and the brother who 

The question 8 poko afterwards spoke truly when ho said that that question 

of chanty. r r j . . , 

was the ono most difficult to solve, and was the greatest trial 

to the ordinary missionary. That we have como out hero is the proof 
that we desire to do all the good wo can to all men, but we feel our 
hands aro tied in this question of charity. 

It seems to mo that wo shall have rather to reconsider our position 
as Christian missionaries. We stand too far removed from the Chinese. It 
is impossible in these Eastern lands to live altogether like the people, but 
it seems to me it is one of the most important questions that can come 
before this Conference, how far we can divest ourselves of those Western 
disadvantages even though they be the refinements and conveniences of 
civilized life which prevent us from coming close to our Chinese 
brethren. Wo heard this morning a distinction drawn between ministers 
and laymen. In what is the distinction to consist ? Is it to be in the 
fact that the laymen go farther towards the west (of China) and endure 
more toils and hardships than the ministers ? I trow not ! We who aro 
ministers of Christ are surely called to be a pattern to all men, in neces 
sities, in distresses, in afflictions, for Christ s sake, and it would bo a 
shame to us ministers of Christ s church in China if any layman could 
put aside the requirements of Western life more than we. 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor (C. I. M). I would suggest that the subjecto 

brought before us this morning should be submitted to the consideration 

of a committee. I think the general feeling is that the time has come for 

taking steps to bring these subjects before the home churches, and I 

believe they arc ripe for a message from China. Not many, if any, of the 

societies would now be sorry to see an efficient band of unordained 

workers acting under tho direction of their missionaries in 

An appeal for the field. I feel very strongly that the time has come to 

"workers . 4 appeal to the churches to send out a very large body of 

workers, and that they should not be connected with any one 

society, but with all the societies and all the churches. Each society lias 

many men of experience, highly qualified to direct younger brethren, 

who, helped by their experience and guidance, would be invaluable. 

others thau ^ wou ^d be a great mistake in the erection of a building to 

architects employ only architects. Architects aro very useful, but they 

funding! nee< i tt g rea * number of other artificers to help them. I rvm 

sure that most of oar experienced brethren cdald do moro 

work if they had help of the kind we have spoken of. 

May 9th. J EEV. j. L. NEVIUS, D.D. 209 

Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D. (A. P. M., Chefoo). I fully agree with every, 
thing that Mr. Elwin has said. I do not object to denominations. I 
object to denominationalism. I do not object to the differences that we have 
in the different Protestant bodies. The union of which I speak is union 
based on those very differences. I do not wish us to be anything less 
than what we are to-day for the present. We may grow into something 
else in the fnture, that is, in God s good providence. The idea of 
abolishing or changing that grand institution, the Church of England ! 
No, never ! It has led the host of God for many years. We have fed 
on its literature. We have been fired by its martyrs, who have laid down 
their lives ia the islands of the seas and in Africa. No, Christian friends^ 
union among Christians ia all the more conspicuous because Presby 
terians and men of the Church of England can stand side by side, as 
in Hangchow, and preach together the Gospel of Christ. The people say, 
"Behold, how these brethren love one another." It is a higher and 
nobler exhibition of true Christian charity and union than 
uniformity. What we want is not uniformity, but diversity 
in the church as in all God s works yet in all that diversity, 
nnity, the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. I have spoken of 
the Church of England. Then we have Presbyterians and Baptists. 
There is bone and backbone and muscle in them. We. want them. They 
have done great things for Christ, and in the future they will do more. 
There is the noble Methodist church, which has gone to the frontier 
in America, and is foremost in every good work. They have set us a 
noble example. They have noble principles and elements in them. 
Would you abolish them all, and shall we come into one system of 
uniformity, and all be stamped as belonging to the same type ? I think 
not. That is not what we desire, at least not what I desire. 

What do we want ? I do not think we want much more than what 
we have. I have met a brother in the street and I have greeted 
him, but I did not know whether he was a Presbyterian 
or Methodist or Baptist, and it was a matter of unimpor- 
tance. He was a Christian brother, he was a Protestant 
missionary. He came to China actuated by the same impulse that 
brought me here. He came to help me, and I came to help him, "All 
for Christ." What do we want more ? Christian brethren, I say we 
want nothing more than to give an outward expression to what 
we have already. That is all I desire at present ; that is all I ask for 
at present. We have met here as a Conference ; have we not enjoyed it ? 
Have we not been uplifted by it ? I would not lose the memory of that 
little prayer meeting, by which this day s sessions were introduced, for a, 
great deal. We have come here for a feast of fat things. His appe ai 
We have realized the communion of saints. All our differ- to the 
ences have been obliterated for the time being. How long 
will this last ? Soon we must separate ; perhaps we shall never meet here 
again. I would like to have some permanent recognition of what w& 
have here now in this Conference. I would like to have some organiza 
tion on a larger scale, exactly corresponding to what Mr. Elwin has- 
said exists in that old city of Hangchow, where at one time I hoped to 
spend my life for Christ a full recognition of one another Baptists as 
Baptists, Presbyterians as Presbyterians, Methodists as Methodists, all 
coming together around the Bible, actuated by the same spirit and 
joining hands in the common work for the Lord Jesus Christ, all co 
operating together in one plan. Can we not do that ? I trust that we 
may have some organization by which we may express this unity fron 


this Conference on to the next, and by which the matters of business that 
come up, addressed to the Protestants of China, may be attended to 
efficiently. The wisdom of this Conference, I am sure, is fully equal to 
give expression, as a permanent thing, to this unity which is already 

One more word with reference to lay agency. I know that that is a 
burning question at home among our secretaries. Missionary boards at 
Lome are willing to be instructed by their own missionaries, and ] 
take it for granted that such a representative body as this will send out 
an expression of its general sentiments, which will have tremendous 
power and authority in England and America. "We have not come 
here simply to talk and have a pleasant time. We must do something. 
We must bring this Conference to some practical conclusion. If not, 
I shall feel ashamed in going home and presenting the records, which are 
now being carefully written by our honoured secretaries, to the world. 
After waiting twelve years, until most of us have grown to gray hairs, 
to come here with the accumulated experience of half a century and 
do nothing but talk, it seems to me would be a sad conclusion to such a 
Conference as this. 

Rev. J. N. B. Smith (A.. P. M., Shanghai)." One soweth and another 
reapeth." Oar work is two-fold sowing and reaping and immediate 
results are no criterion to judge by. The work is ours ; results are God s. 
All of us can sow. To some may come the glory of the harvest. Yet 
oftentimes the harvest is of another s sowing. Let us comfort ourselves 
with this, " The Word of the Lord shall not return unto Him void ;" and, 
" He that goeth forth weeping, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless 
return again rejoicing, bearing his sheaves with him." 




Miss A, C, Safford (A. S. P. M., Soochow). 

AN old Eastern proverb says, " The axe handle is of wood ; the tree is 

not cut down, save by a branch of itself." A woman can 

A C pto n f CIlt best understand and influence her sister woman s heart, and 

hence the work of Christian for heathen women in helping 

to cut away the roots of idolatry .has become " one of the 

component parts of foreign missions." 

The following view of its aspects in China, at the present time, is 
compiled from statements sent to the writer by lady workers in different 
parts of the empire, in reply to her enquiries. Where such statements 
were not received, recourse was had to published reports. 

This work has been prosecuted at the oldest stations for about fifty 
years ; at first, chiefly by the wives of missionaries in -connection with 
the work of their husbands, or, in part, independent of that. 

May 10th. "J MIS&A, c. SAFFOED. 211 

In later years single ladies have largely augmented this working 
force. We are building on a foundation laid by others ; we have entered 
into the fruit of their labors ; ifc is but just that to-day we embalm their 
names in grateful hearts. Many of them have passed away, but their 
works follow them and their " memory smells sweet and blossoms from 
the dust." 

Outside of the period above mentioned, a time so much shorter has 
in most places marked the commencement of woman s work for woman 
in China, that the laborers deem it too early to speak of results ; a fev? 
reports dwell on results anticipated in the future rather than on those 
realised in the present ; others, again, tell positively of good wrought. 
But not one report expresses discouragement as to ultimate success. 

The work of many ladies scattered through a vast country, each 
province of which has varied customs and dialects, must take diverse 
forms which, however, may be classified under two grand divisions, viz,, 
educational and evangelistic work. Besides, there are the departments 
of medical missions and literary work, having close relations to these 

The educational work embraces teaching girls in boarding and 
day schools and the mental culture of grown up women Educational 
in training schools, reading and industrial classes, and in work< 
other ways fitted to elevate them and qualify them for the work of 
teaching their country-women. 

As school work is to be fully treated of by other writers, it would 
be superfluous for me to give minute details of its methods. Suffice it 
to say that the boarding schools have a higher literary course than the 
day schools, and in most of them industries are taught that will be useful 
to the pupils in after life. Instruction in the Scriptures is made of pri 
mary importance, as it is also in the day schools. In these last are taught, 
to some extent, the native classics and elementary books on Western 
learning and the Christian religion. 

The great aim in both grades of schools is to win the girls for 
Christ, and through them their parents ; and to make them stronger and 
better in every way for their life work. 

Lady missionaries have shared largely in the government and 
teaching of boys boarding and day schools, and the import- Ladies work iu 
ance of such aid is well known and generally acknowledged. boys Bcho l8 - 

Many excellent native male teachers have been trained and brought 
into the Church, and some divinity students have been taught systemati 
cally and carefully by ladies. 

This has been woman s work for man. But Christian men havo 
done so much towards converting and teaching Chinese women that it 
is impossible to separate clearly the results of these labors. To some 
degree the work of the sexes must be distinct ; but there should be a 
limit to this divergence. The highest good "is only to be perfectly 
attained and represented by the co-operating endeavors" of men and 
women extended throughout the empire as the years roll on. 


As to the results of girls boarding schools, whilst fears have been 
expressed by some that " they half-foreignize the girls and 

girls board- nnfit them for life and home work," one of the ladies who 
ing schools- . . . 

writes thus reports quite a number of conversions in a 

boarding school she had at one time conducted. 

The general opinion, where they have existed longest, seems to be 
that a number of useful school teachers, personal teachers, Bible women, 
and of earnest, consistent Christian women, have been educated in them. 
Some, as wives of pastors, prove valuable helps to their husbands in 
teaching their less favored Christian sisters ; and in their daily lives aa 
mothers they perhaps exert their widest and deepest influence. One 
lady writes : " Wo have tried to follow up the careers of our girls after 
they leave school, and they are those of the average Christian at home. 
If not aggressive for religion, very few, if any, go back entirely to 
heathenism." Some from these schools have died, leaving full testimony 
of faith in, Christ to the very end. 

In the day school work there is less stability, and much of the 
reaping time is in the future ; but not a few of the pupils 
have been improved in know ledge, manners and morals, have 
carried good impressions to their homes, and many of them 
will probably be saved from ever sinking deeply into the ancient super 
stitions of their fathers. If in none of these schools actual conversions 
have been so many as were hoped for, or the results been all that could be 
desired, we may believe that they are educating China s faith and 
conscience towards the dawn of a better day. The effect produced 011 the 
minds of outsiders by association with girls trained in Christian schools 
is well illustrated by an incident given by a missionary. He says, " I 
once visited a far away out-station, where one of our school girls had 
been married to a Christian young man. One evening I was sitting 
before her house, when a number of women collected and expressed their 
admiration of the knowledge this young woman possessed." " Do you 
teach all the girls so well as this one ? " was the question put to me ; 
" It is remarkable what she knows. She speaks to us of things in 
heaven and on earth." 

Allusion has been made to training schools and classes of different 
kinds for women. Some of these are exclusively for the 
n r training o Bible women ; others are opened with the design 
i ns t rnc ti n g an d lifting up the mass of fhe female members 
of the churches ; and classes, in which heathen women and girls as well 
as Christian are taught to read, are formed at different stations by lady 
workers, eager for the intellectual and spiritual improvement of those 
around them. At several mission stations buildings have been erected, 
where women from the country are received for a few weeks or months of 
study under a missionary lady, according to the time they can be spared 
from home. 

" From a training school opened in 1872 fifty wpmen nave been 
employed as helpers in different missions, and nearly all have given great 


May 10th.] MISS A. c. SAFEOED. 213 

In another school, " In about four years over one hundred women 
Lad studied, most of them only a few months, and nearly all had learned 
to read." 

The conclusion usually expressed as to the utility of these efforts is, 
that perseverance with those who desire to learn Las always resulted in 
success ; that women who, previous to instruction, " had not learning 
enough to read a book, or vocabulary enough to understand a sermon, or 
mental discipline enough to follow continuous discourses," have devel 
oped in some small degree a new type of character and a new type of 
life. Their training has struck a key note of reaction against impiety, 
superstition and the degradation of womanhood. 

The evangelistic division of "Woman s Work in China goes hand in 

hand with the educational. It consists in visiting from 

, , - ,, ,. , 11. ,1 ,, Evangelistic 

house to house for the purpose of telling to the women the work for 
Gospel message ; receiving visits from them with the same 
object; holding prayer meetings and Bible readings with Christian 
women; and meetings with the heathen, and Sunday school work for 
women and girls. There is also a vast amount of energetic, loving 
labour performed jn caring for the poor and homeless, and giving 
practical sympathy to the afflicted and sorrowful. 

The foreign lady commonly visits accompanied by a native woman, 
a Bible woman if she has one. Sometimes she sends the Bible woman 
alone. Those who are visited not only hear the truth, but are invited to 
come to the mission home for further instruction, especially to the 
Sabbath services. Where native Bible women are employed, their work 
has often proved very satisfactory ; and traces of their diligent and faith 
ful teaching are not wanting. But their number is utterly inadequate 
to the need, and hence a large part of this difficult labour has been done 
by foreign workers, often nnder trying conditions, owing to the timidity 
of the native women and to the crowds of men and boys who flock in 
such numbers after the foreigner, even into the houses, that instruction 
cannot be imparted to the inmates, though the homes are open and a 
kindly welcome offered. This is apt to be the case, particularly in the 
cities ; country visiting is more encouraging, and in some parts of China, 
ladies suitably attended make long tours amongst the villages. Where 
there are Christian families, they remain some time in a family, teaching 
Scripture truth in every place to all who will come. Where there are no 
Christians, rooms may be rented in a town for a few days or longer, and 
taking up her abode there, often in exceedingly distasteful surroundings, 
the missionary instructs the women who come to her. These visits are in 
some cases renewed every spring and autumn. Or a lady may go out for 
a single day to five or six villages only, and repeat these visits at regular 

Much good seed has been sown in the hundreds of villages visited in 
these ways, countless pages of Scripture truth circulated, and in more 
than one instance the nucleus of a church has been gathered. Native 
women have rendered efficient aid. A lady missionary states that "several 
new stations have been opened by the voluntary labors of such earnest 


women, not paid specially for the work, and when no foreign lady was on 
the field to superintend." 

A most successful method mentioned has been for the native Chris 
tian women " to form themselves, under the care of the missionary, into 
a band to go out and seek their heathen friends and neighbors." 

A worker, who has had much experience in city visiting, gives it as 
her judgment that " this work is in a sense desultory ; in most cases our 
teachings, scattered in many directions, are never heard from again." 
Still, she adds, " as the results of such work at our station during the 
last fourteen years I have seen about thirty women gathered into the 

"\Vith regard to the meetings held for Christian women, it is observed 
that through this means the ladies conducting them become fully ac 
quainted with the home lives of the female church members and learn 
to sympathize with their trials. Such meetings enlarge Ihe knowledge 
of divine things in those church members who are present, and teach, 
them ht)w to overcome that fear of man which brings a snare and has 
made it a very heavy cross in some parts of China for the native 
women to attend public worship, lest they violate the strict rules of 

A heathen husband who had listened unseen to the teachings given 
at a meeting for heathen women declared, " The doctrine is good, it is 
pure, it is an excellent religion for women and girls," and gave his 
consent for his wife to enter the Church. 

Temperance and missionary societies for women have been organized, 
and one anti-footbinding society has been reported. These will doubtless 
result in much good. 

As in the educational, so it is in the evangelistic division of work, 
Women s woman has something to do for man. 


work for men. One of our best missionaries, who has herself labored 

much in this line, has presented such a just view of our obligations in this 
respect that I insert it verbatim. She says, " The work we may do for our 
servants and for workmen who are occasionally employed in repairs about 
our premises, and for the Christian men in our churches, is very important. 
I have repeatedly met men away off in the country who greeted me most 
cordially, but whom I did not know. Enquiries elicited the reply : At 
euch a time I worked on such a foreigner s house or wall and his wife 
showed me kindness. She is an excellent woman. I saw you at her 
house. As to our servants and the Christian men, they will often come 
to us with their sorrows and perplexities, especially their domestic 
troubles, and this affords us opportunities of impressing Scripture truth 
they will never get so well in other ways ; and we can comfort, instruct 
and touch them in a way no ordinary circumstances would allow. In 
another form we may do much good to the Christian men on our country 
visits. Our instructions to the women aro rehearsed to their husbands, 
and I have often seen them put in practice before my visit of four or five 
days had ended, and as zealously by the men as by the women. Again, 
we may reach these men by our hospitality. I do not mean lavish expend- 

May 10th.] MISS A. c. SAPPOED. 215 

ifcnre upon them, nor our entertaining with food all those who call, but 
our giving some time to interesting and amusing them, if need be, so as 
te make opportunity to edify them. These litHe attentions go farther than 
our arguments to persuade them to educate their daughters, and besides, 
we may do them great direct good. I am sure every wife, at least, may 
do much in this way." 

Medical work by lady physicians and nurses has largely developed 
in some parts of China. From hospitals and dispensaries 
located in central positions they have diffused the benefits of ^oik* 1 
scientific treatment to suffering native women, and have 
favorably impressed alike the patients treated and the minds of the outside 
population ; " giving them a kindly feeling, which it is hoped extends to 
mission work generally." Some lady physicians have made tours to 
towns and villages around their homes and thus reached many persons. 
The training of intelligent native female assistants, with a view to their 
becoming in time physicians and nurses to their country-women, is another 
branch of this work, from which much is hoped. 

As religious instruction is always given in connection with hospital 
work, a knowledge of Christianity is thus widely disseminated, and tha 
good effected is multiplied a hundred-fold. Of one hospital we are told 
that " a number of native Christian women in the town voluntarily give 
an hour each day to teaching the in-patients, going daily in turn," which 
shows how their sympathies are enlisted. We must not forget tha 
informal medical work done by ladies skilled in homely remedies and 
dispensing them as opportunity offered, in connection with their other 
labours. Hundreds of homes have been opened in this way, and much 
accomplished in winning the hearts of heathen women. 

Woman s Work in China has contributed to the enlightenment of 
the Chinese through the press. Works suited for schools and 
for general circulation, in Wen-li and in different dialects, 
have been published by ladies, and have proved extensively 
useful. By frequent letters also to missionary periodicals, and by more 
than one volume about Chinese life, religion, etc., ladies have performed 
an important part of missionary labour in stimulating and sustaining an 
interest at home. 

We may well pay a tribute here to the scholarship and literary work, 
of the late lamented Miss Fay, who, her Chinese friends said, " Never, 
iailed to make the most difficult parts of the Chinese classics easy to her; 
pupils ; " to whom Dr. Williams wrote in reference to his dictionary ,, 
" It owes a great deal to your painstaking revision of its sheets ; " and 
whoso name is recorded by a distinguished Chinese scholar in one of his 
works, the only foreign name thus honored by the literati of China in 
modern times. She could turn aside also from classical lore to write for 
tho women and children of tho Church those Scripture catechisms iu the 
Shanghai colloquial which have taught to so many tho new and living way. 

Iu reviewing tho different agencies mentioned, it appears thafi 
difficulties and objections aro connected with each one, but tho lotigor wa 
live iu Olriua tho Ic33 inclined probably we feel to give ihe proeminencQ, 

216 PIBLS SCHOOLS. ^Fourth, day, 

to i any special department over the others- All have been beneficial in 
some way, and there is encouragement in alL 

Whilst our sole desire is to win converts to Christianity, we cannot, 
in a fair estimate of work, limit it to the number of conversions or gauge 
it by names on Church rolls. Indirectly, Woman s Work in China touch 
es many lives. Thus there is through it more appreciation of female 
education amongst Chinese Christian men ; and an impulse has been 
given in its favor, shaking the belief that women are helpless creatures 
without brains, who cannot be taught. And with this higher ideal of 
womanhood an impulse has also been given towards moral and social 
reforms. For where Christianity comes it must create in those who 
receive it, and their families, a sentiment against infanticide, bound feet, 
early betrothals and early marriages ; and it will put the relation of 
mother and daughter-in-law in the right light, by teaching that "a 
woman s duty is not that of slavery to -another woman, but of loving 
companionship to her own husband." 

On the whole, Woman s Work in China exhibits growtk in the use 
of old methods, and reaching out after better developments in the new. 

May it ever be founded on the Word of God ; and continue, through 
the doctrines and the practice of a pure Christianity, its endeavors to 
plant in the minds and hearts of Chinese women " a Godfearing, 
Sabbath-loving and Bible-reading culture," nntil this empire owns the 
avray of Him who is King of kings and Lord of lords. 


Miss Hattie Noyes (A. P. M., Canton). 

" THE darkest clouds of heathenism rest upon the minds and hearts of 
the women of China, and it is of the very first importance that they be 
instructed and enlightened." Such was the opinion recently expressed 
by a missionary from ono of the large interior cities of China, and 
doubtless a responsive echo is found in the heart of every worker in this 
rast mission field. 

And as the Chinese themselves become Christianized and educated 
in the wider sense of tho term, they will inevitably reach the same 
conclusion which ono of their countrymen, who recently 
graduated with honor from one of the highest institutions of 
learning in a Western land, has expressed in the following 
words : " Tho question of female education in China is of 
especial interest to me. I believe tho crying need of China is tho 
elevation of her women and their liberation from the social shackles 
that bind thorn. Sho must remain stagnant so long as she allows her 
daughters to be made household drudges and denied tho light and, 


opportunity to cultivate and cherish an interest in things beyond the 
four walls of their homes. That those who need help most should he 
helped first is a truth as old as the hills, and as trite and undeniable 
as that two and two make four. My country-women should have the 
first claim on the attention, sympathy and charity of Christian people in 
more favored lands. That they have not had the consideration they 
deserved in the schemes for the evangelization of China is inexplicable 
tome. .The seed of a man s faith in the providence of God is planted 
in his heart by his mother, and no one else can do it half as well. And 
it is needless to say that the surest way of bringing China into line with 
America and Europe is by giving to her daughters the advantages 
of .a Christian education." Such are the conclusions of an educated, 
intelligent .Chinaman, who has had an opportunity in a Christian land of 
seeing and .appreciating what Christianity and education can do for 
woman. ,In the early days of mission work in a certain field attention 
was given only to the instruction of the men, with what for a time were 
supposed to be satisfactory results ; but in a few years it was found that 
the next generation, following the teachings of their heathen mothers, fell 
back to the plane .from which their fathers had been elevated, showing 
conclusively the mistake which had been made. With few exceptions, 
however, missionary workers from the time of the Apostle Paul down 
through the centuries have recognized the necessity of educating tha 
women as well as the men, and we have the highest authority to ,p(o r tapt 
for -so doing in our Saviour s example. Among the different 8ch P Y% f rk . 
plans for educating the women and girls of China, the 
school work must hold an important place as furnishing the best means 
of giving regular and systematic instruction. Both boarding schools and 
day schools have their place and their own peculiar advantages and 
disadvantages. That they are generally approved is evident from the 
fact that they have been so universally established in connection with 
mission work at .different stations. 

The work in boarding schools, as compared with some other kinds 
of work, necessarily involves a, larger expenditure of funds, and time, and 
strength, and it .is important that the best methods bo employed for 
obtaining tho most. satisfactory results. It is of course impossible to 
estimate tho amount of results as compared with investments in exactly 
tho same way in mission work that may bo dono in other things, and yet 
in a certain way tho same wisdom must bo used, in order that the best 
results may bo attained. In different places such different conditions 
exist that plans and methods which may -bo best in ono part o tho 
mission field may not be found practicable OP advisable iu another. 

But thcro are somo principles which must be of universal applica 
tion. And first, and most important of all, a mission school should 
.always be regarded as an eyengelistic rather than an educa-, BTftBgdlfltle 
tional agency. Jfc may seem that these interests are neces- gjtgjlga 
sarily identical, and in general perhaps they may be, but it 
will sometimes bo found that one or the other must take a secondary 
place, and the precedence should always be given to the former. It 

218 GIRLS SCHOOLS. [Fourth day, 

should ever be kept in mind that the main object of our schools in this 
heathen land is different from that of those in Christian countries, where 
religions instruction reaches the minds and hearts of the young through 
so many different channels. The instruction given in mission schools 
should resemble that of the Sabbath schools in the home land rather 
than of week-day schools. Knowledge is power, but not necessarily 
power for good ; and knowledge without Christianity, like unconsecrated 
wealth, may prove a very doubtful blessing. The thought should be 
constantly kept before the pupils that it is their duty first to accept for 
themselves the Gospel message and then as far as possible make it known 
to others. Freely they receive, freely they must give. 

As there is naturally more or less difference of opinion with regard 
, to certain questions, which must come up in connection with 
Met boa d rdSg the boarding schools, and as no one can presume to decide such 
echooi, canton. qnestiong for others, it will doubtless be the best way to give 
in this paper the methods which have been adopted with success and 
thoroughly tested during nearly two decades in the school in Canton of 
which I have had charge since its commencement, except during my 
absence from China, commencing with five scholars in 1872 and now- 
numbering 120. 

And first with regard to the admission of scholars. We have always 
received the children of both Christian and heathen parents, 

Admission of pivinjy the preference to the former when obliged, for want 
scholars. & o , . . ., . 1.11 

of room, to refuse admission to any. "As wo nave there 
fore, opportunity, let us do good unto all, especially unto them who 
are of the household of faith." Tho advantages of the plan seem to be 
many. Wo are thus enabled to reach out into tho heathen families around 
us and send into their darkness rays of light, which may show them 
tho first steps to a better and higher life. Wo always strive to impress 
upon tho minds of tho scholars, when they go home for vacation, that 
it is their duty, oven if they aro not professing Christians, to repeat to 
others tho teachings which they havo received, and show them how, if 
they aro faithful, they can reach many whom wo cannot have the opport 
unity of meeting, and who may otherwise never havo the privilege of 
hearing tho glad tidings of great joy which they havo received. 

And wo havo often received, oven from tho little ones, most satisfac 
tory accounts of their efforts in this direction. 

Many years since, a little girl only eight years of age, camo to tho 
school, and after three or four months went homo to spend 
Good work t uo snmm er vacation. Sho told her grandmother, with 
whom sho lived, what she had been taught, that it was wrong 
to worship idols, and persuaded her to throw away lior idols and, as in 
telligently as she could, commence the worship of the true God. - Afte 
receiving more instruction the little girl and her grandmother were both 
received into the Church. The former, now a young lady, is a successful 
teacher in the boarding school, and her grandmother is employed as a 
Bible reader by the Missionary Society of the school. A younger brother 

May 10th.] MISS HATTIE NOYES. 219 

has also become a professing Christian, and is a scholar in the mission 
school for boys. 

Several of the very best and most efficient helpers that we have had 
have been the children of heathen parents, and I have met with nothing 
during my missionary life more touching than the intense anxiety that 
some of them have felt and expressed for the conversion of their parents 
and relatives ; and in some instances their prayers and efforts for the 
salvation of their friends have been blessed to their conversion, and they 
are now the children of Christian parents. We feel convinced that 
nothing could be a greater assistance in developing the missionary 
spirit, which we desire above everything else to foster in the school, than 
the fact of having these scholars from heathen families with us. 

Years ago the scholars who were Christians, without any suggestion 
from any one, formed a society, which in its object and A , chr}gtian 

method of work corresponds almost exactly with the Endeavor 

., , bociety. 

Christian Endeavor Societies of more recent years in the home 

land. Without the formality of organization, the active and associate 
members meet every Sabbath evening for the express purpose of 
praying for their school-mates and unconverted friends at home. On 
Monday evening a prayer meeting for the Christians is held, led by one 
of their number, and on Tuesday a general meeting, conducted in turn 
by the missionary ladies, native teachers and Bible readers, and on Friday 
afternoon each department has its own prayer meeting. In these ways 
we strive to train the scholars to become workers while they are with us, 
so that when they go out from the school we may hope that they 
will be prepared to take up any work which may come to them. Since 
the school was first opened in 1872 one hundred and sixty of the 
scholars from the different departments have been received into the church, 
and of this number eighty-two have been employed as helpers, either as 
teachers or Bible readers, by our own or other missions, and most of them 
have proved satisfactory workers. I should mention here that from the 
opening of the institution there has been a department connected with it 
for teaching women and training Biblo readers. The scholars in this 
department have not usually been Christians when they came to us, but 
inquirers, those who had heard something of the truth and were seeking 
to learn more. Naturally a large proportion of these, when they have 
been taught more perfectly, become decided Christians, and many of them 
we find suitable to bo employed as helpers. They often go back to work 
in their own villages, for although it is doubtless still true that " a prophet 
is not without honor, save in his own country and in his own house," we 
find that any such disadvantages are more than counterbalanced by the 
advantages they have in working where they are known. 

Many of these workers have proved very faithful and successful. 
One old lady has been teaching for several years in her 
native village, her school sometimes numbering over thirty Wo ^ f en Bibl 
scholars. Four times in the year she comes into the city 
to attend the communion services, usually bringing with her several 
women, who have been under her instruction, and from time to time 

* SCHOOLS. [Fourth day, 

some one who has come to ask to be received into the church. The 
examination by the session of those whom she brings, always .shows that 
they have been carefully and thoroughly instructed. She has labored on 
faithfully for several years, and, entirely unaided, has been the means of 
gathering a little band of ten native Christians. One of the scholars, 
whose education was entirely received from her, is now employed as a 
Biblo reader,- Another woman, who was blind when she came to our 
school, .and could only receive instruction by listening while the other 
scholars were .being taught, has been at work for several years in her 
native village, and a good number have been converted tjhere through her 
efforts.* The scholars in the school naturally feel deeply interested in the 
success of those of their number who thus go out as missionary workers ; 
and .as they return from time to time with their reports, sometimes 
bringing their .sheaves with them, the interest is maintained. Last year 
a missionary society was formed in the school with most 
#(8 gratifying success. The queers are all Chinese, and prove 
in the school. ca p ft ble,and ; emcient. The socipty is now supporting two 
Bible readers, and the regular monthly meetings are well attended and 
most interesting. At each meeting two of the members are appointed to 
prepare papers for the following .meeting, containing general information 
regarding some country and the mission work being done in it, and in 
this way the different mission fields are taken up in turn. There are 
forty-four members in the society. At the last meeting it was found 
that the contributions for the month amounted to eight dollars and 

forty cents. . . 

Another form of missionary wprk in connection with the Training 

School for Women .has been visiting in the wards of the 
Vi^iung wards hospital and teaching the patients. At .times, five or six of 

those who were considered qualified to do so have spent 
several hours a week in such work. In the department for women many 
of the scholars have, when they cpme to us, some knowledge of books, 
and they remain in school a Ipnger or shorter time according to circum 
stances. We feel that it has boon a benefit to the school to have tkia 
department connected with it, and think that wherever practicable the 
plan might be adopted with advantage. Wherever different branches of 
work can be thus combined there must bo a corresponding economy of 
expense, . and also of time in the superintendence. Four times in tho year 
the Christian women from tho adjacent villages come into tho city to 
attend tho communion services, often bringing with them several of their 
friends, who spend a week or two in tho school and thus learn moro or 
less of Christianity. In the girls school the danger of doing anything- 
which will unfit the scholars for, or make them unhappy in, the home life 
to which they must return, has been kept in mind and caref uMy guarded 
against. For this reason partly, and also that as many as possible may 
receive the advantages of a course of study, we have, not intended, as a 
rule, to keep them more than four years in school, and have found it 
most satisfactory to receive them at about twelve years of age, although 
this rule has been a very elastic one. In the early days of the institution 

May 10th.] MISS ^ATTIE NOYES. 221 

we required from the parents written agreements, pledging themselves to 
allow their daughters to remain in school three years, attd to allow us a 
voice in the arrangements for their marriage . Brit this plain was long 
since abandoned. Usually the girls are more than willing to remain with 
ns as long as we think best, and their parents are willing they should do 
so. And with regard to making arrangements for the marriage of our 
scholars, we have come to feel that it is a responsibility 
which we are not called upon to assume. Whenever 
we can render any assistance in arranging a marriage, which 
seems to give prospect of proving a happy one, we are willing to do any. 
thing in our power, bat much prefer that the parents, or those who are 
considered the proper persons, should arrange such matters themselves. 

When the parents are Christians, they of course select Christian 
husbands for their daughters, and, as a rule, when the girls in school 
become Christians, if their pa rents allow thefn to enter the church, they 
expect that very likely they will marry Christians, and if the girls are 
very decided about the matter, as they usually are, they will probably in 
the end have their own way. Those", of course, who are violently opposed 
to Christianity will not allow their daughters to come to the school at all. 
Doubtless many of us have known of instances in which a Christian wife 
has been the means of leading her husband to Christ. Some years ago 
one of our girls married a heathen, who had no knowledge of Christianity- 
To-day he is the Chinese teacher in the theological department of the 
Presbyterian Mission School rn Canton and one of the most valuable, 
efficient and earnest helpers connected with the mission. So while we 
deprecate such marriages, yet if they are entirely beyond our control I 
think we need not feel discouraged, nor hastily conclude that the training 
of years is wholly lost, but remember rather that " all things work 
together for good to them that love God," and " God will not leave His 
own " 

We have never made any rules with reference to the practice of 

foot-bindinsr. Our influence has always been strongly exerted 

, , J . ,. 5 J . , Foot-binding, 

against it, and we have succeeded in persuading a good 

number of both women abd girls to unbind their feet. It is without 
doubt only a question of time ; the practice will be given Tip as soon as 
public opinion will allow it, which we may hope and expect will be sodh. 
None of the Christians bind the. feet of their daughters, and to allow" 
them to remain the natural size is moi e and more becoming consistent 
with respectability and a good standing in society. There have beeti 
ninety-two girls in connection with the schobl during the past year, and 
of this number only five have bound feet. 

The instruction given in the school is mainly based upon the Bible and 
its teachings. A portion of Scripture is recited daily by each scholar, and 
those who remain in school four or five years are expected to commit 
to memory the whole of the New Testament in the classical style, and 
to be able to render it in colloquial and explain ita meaning. 

GIRLS SCHOOLS. [Fourth day, 

Many have also committed to memory the Psalms and other portions 

of the Bible. After long continued and careful consideration 

ins C troction. of this question we have come to the conclusion that no 

other education can be given them which will be as valuable 

to them in this life, and as good a preparation for the next, as the careful 

and continued study of the Word of God, and so we are convinced that 

it is well for much of their time to be given to this. As Frances Havergal 

has written, God s promise is, " My word shall not return unto Me void, 

but it shall accomplish that, which. I please, and it shall prosper in the 

thing whereto I sent it." 

Besides their Scriptural lessons they read a number of Christian books 
learn to write essays and letters, study geography and various books of 
general information, music, vocal and instrumental, and give a few hours 
of each week to the study of the Chinese classics. This is necessary in 
order that they may be fitted to become teachers. 

Doubtless at some time in the future there will be schools in China, 
where her daughters will be able to obtain such an education as will con 
form to our Western ideas, but we feel that the time is not yet. Still, as 
of old, " the harvest is plenteous and the labourers are few," and it seems 
that now we must teach only what is most-important and give to the 
largest number possible such an education as will fit them to live Chris 
tian lives and be helpful to others. As the scholars are with us only for 
a limited period, we expect them to give their time wholly to study. 
They take care of their own rooms, and habits of personal neatness are 
insisted upon, which must have an influence over them during all their 
lives. In the long summer vacations in their homes they have abundant 
opportunity for learning how to perform domestic duties, and we feel no 
anxiety lest they should suffer for lack of such instruction, as the Chinese 
have for so many centuries possessed all necessary information in that 
line. * Our ambition for our scholars as they go out from their alma 
mater is that they may be found " throughly furnished unto all good 
works." * Some of them, we trust, will be useful as teachers and able to 
engage in active mission work. I hope that the day is not far distant 
when in China, as in other lands, women may become successful teachers 
of boys schools. Not that I think it would be a better or higher work 
than teaching girls schools, nor even a wider field of usefulness, but it 
will be a sure indication that* women in China are rising to take their 
proper place, to the same plane upon, which their sisters stand in Christian 
lands. would doubtless exerfc*a strong and much needed influence 
in this line npofl the youthful masculine mind. .. Wo have already taken 
some steps in this .direction, as we nave had two schools in 
teachers of which there "were "several boys taught by women, and in the 
l8 Sabbath school women have taught classes of boys. The 
larger number of our girls, however, will probably find their spheres o 
usefulness in their homes, and we rejoice in believing that whatever 
failings may be found in their Christian character they will prove faithful 
as Christian mothers in bringing up their children " in the nurture and 

May 10th.] MISS HATTIE NOTES. 223 

admonition of the Lord." The girls who have been with us in past 
years and now have families of their own, we find begin to teach the 
little ones from their earliest years to know and love the name of Jesus, 
and their faithfulness we often feel might well be an example to many 
parents in Christian lands. The work in day schools is necessarily quite 
different from that in boarding schools, but perhaps not less important. 
It has been said that it is too much like casting bread upon the waters, 
but even so, is not the command to do this plain, and the promise sure ? 
" for thou shalt find it after many days." This is not the only promise 
which is to be obtained after patient endurance and waiting. We must 
recognize at the outset that the harvest from the seed sown in day 
schools will not, probably, be reaped until after many days. Bat is there 
in this fact any reason for discouragement or for withholding the hand 
from sowing ? 

There are many advantages which belong to the day schools alone. 
The scholars return to their homes daily, taking with them their 
Christian books, which they study more or less in these 
homes and thus some seeds of truth are scattered. A most Day schools - 
interesting fact came to my knowledge a short time since. In a letter 
written by a missionary in one of the Northern provinces it was stated 
that among a large number of converts whom ho had recently baptized, 
nineteen received their first knowledge of Christianity from their 
children or grand-children who were scholars in mission schools. We 
frequently meet here and there those who have obtained some knowledge 
of the truth from scholars who have been taught in day schools. One 
of the medical ladies of our mission was called some time since to see a 
Chinese woman. She at once commenced doing something for the relief 
of her patient, who said in apparent surprise, " I thought the first thing 
you would do would be to pray to the true God." The lady asked her 
how she had heard of praying to God, and she told her that she had 
attended for a time one of the mission day schools. We must expect 
often to lose sight ourselves of the seed sown in the hearts of these 
scholars, but we can remember always that there is One who watches over 
all, and He alone knows "whether this or that shall prosper, or whether 
both shall prove alike good." 

The expense connected with the day schools is. comparatively small, 
and we find that through these scholars we come in contact with a 
class of families rather higher in the social scale than those to which 
the scholars in the boarding school as a rule belong. In many of these 
schools nearly all the girls have bound feet. A few years since we had 
in Canton a large number of day schools, but at the time o the war 
between France and China it became necessary to close nearly all of them, 
and it has been with more or less difficulty that they have been re-opoued. 
It is a fact of some significance, we think, that at that time when so 
much of the deep-seated opposition to Christianity came to the surface, 
the most intense feelings of hostility seemed to bo directed especially 
against the schools for girls. Our plan in the day schools has been, 

224 GIRLS SCHOOLS. [Fourth day, 

whenever practicable, to have a room in connection with the school-room, 
to be used as a chapel for women s meetings, and to have a BiWe reader 
live at the school, whoso duty is to visit the families in the vicinity and 
as far as possible induce the women to attend the meetings, which are held 
at the school whenever it is visited by the missionary lady in charge. 
In the commencement of our work we were obliged to employ heathen 
teachers, but we now have Christians in all the soheols. Nearly all of 
them have been trained in the boarding school and many of them prove 
very faithful and capable, so that/ in some schools the scholars make 
nearly as good progress in their studies as those in the boarding schools. 
The success in all these schools must depend largely upon the character 
and efficiency of the native teacher^ and the first and most important 
qualification for the work mttst ever be sincere love for the Master and 
His service, and an earnest desire for the salvation of others. 

And although progress may sometimes seem slow and the work dis 
couraging, let us never grow weary, being assured that no more impor 
tant or telling work can be done for China than that of giving to her 
daughters the advantages of Christian education and thus raising them 
to their proper and rightful position in life. In order to claim and 
obtain the respect and consideration which should be theirs, they must 
prove themselves worthy of it. Enough has already been accomplished 
to prove their capability; only give them the opportunity and they will 
be able to demonstrate the fact that their seeming inferiority is only the 
natural and inevitable result of the treatment which the women of China 
have received during the centuries of darkness, which we may hope are 
soon to be succeeded by a new era. 

I heard recently of a school in which a Chinaman is employed to 
teach the girls, and the facility with which they acquire their lessons 
seems to be quite a revelation to him. 

Last year the native Christians in connection with our mission 
formed a society for the purpose of encouraging the careful and thorough 
study of the Bible, and three prizes were offered for the best papers 
written on selected portions of Scripture. The contest was open to 
all the native Christians and assistants excepting the ordained ministers. 
The first prize was awarded to the wife of one of the assistants, a 
graduate from our school and now one of the teachers. Some years 
since I asked an intelligent Chinese teacher why the men of China 
were so unwilling that the girls should be educated, and he admitted 
that many of them said that the girls could learn readily, and there 
would be danger, if they wore permitted to study, that they might 
in time know as much or more than men, which could never be allowed. 
But as the men of China themselves rise to a higher and better plane of 
thought and feeling as they become educated Christian men, we may 
hope and expect that such feelings will be laid aside and that the darkness 
o ignorance, superstition and prejudice will fleo away before tho bright 
beams of tho Sun of Righteousness. Wo have had most gratifying 
evidence that some of tbo men who have married educated girls ap 
preciate very highly the education of their wives. With thankfulness for 

May 10th.] MISS LAURA A. HAYGOOD. 225 

all that has been accomplished and glad anticipations and hopefulness for 
the future of China, let us go forward doing with our might what our 
hands find to do, sowing beside all waters, glad if we are permitted to 
reap the harvest, thankful if we can only sow the seed, remembering 
always that sooner or later the harvest is sure. 


Miss Laura A. Haygood (A. S. M. E. M., Shanghai). 

I AM much perplexed as to what aspect of the broad question assigned me 
it will be most profitable to present on this occasion. 

Are Schools for Girls a necessary adjunct of missionary work ? What 
part have they in preparing the way for the coming kingdom 
of our Lord and Christ ? Is our commission to children as a necessary 

T ! adjunct of 

well as to men and women ? Is it as true to-day as three missionary 

thousand years ago that if we " train up a child in the 

way he should go, when he is old he will not depart from it ? * 

Some of us believe that it is, and believing it, think that no higher 
work can be undertaken by a missionary than that of training the 
children of this land to believe in the one true God, to reverence His 
sanctuary and hallow His Sabbath. 

Is our commission to the children ? Can we ask the question since the 
Lord Himself has said, " Suffer little children, and forbid them not to come 
unto me ? " If to-day we are ready to say with Peter, <: Lord, thou know- 
est that I love Thee," does not the command come to tis as truly as to 
Peter, u Feed my lambs ? " Are these lambs less dear to the heart of the 
great Shepherd because they have not yet been gathered to His fold ? 

May we not help to make ready the hearts of the children for the 
coming kingdom by preoccupying them with Christian truth, by giving- 
them a Christian vocabulary, by teaching them their need of a Savior 
and showing to them the love that is ready to save them ? May it not be 
true of many of the fathers and mothers of China that " a little child shall 
lead them " to light and truth, when older and wiser people have failed ? 

These things granted, there can be no further question as to whether 
schools for girls are a necessary adjunct of missionary work, and it only 
remains for us to consider when and how they shall be introduced, what 
methods shall be used in carrying them on, what courses of study shall be 
adopted for them. 

Our schools for girls may all be grouped under the two general 
divisions of day schools and boarding schools. Of these, in D schools 
entering upon a new field, or opening a now station, day fordau^tucrs 
schools should unquestionably, I think, have the precedence. 

NOTE. TLo conclusions reacbed in this paper are based upon work and observation ia 
Shanghai and may not be equally applicable to other see tions of China. L. A. H 

r i 

BToea. Fa 

228 GIRLS SCHOOLS. [Fourth day, 

Bin and of a Savior, however good our Chinese, it is as if we spoke to them 
in an unknown tongue. In giving our girls this Christian vocabulary 
we have done still more for them. "We have planted seeds of heavenly 
truth in immortal souls, which watered by dews of heavenly grace may 
spring up and bring forth fruit to the honor and glory of God. I do not 
think that it will be possible for girls so taught ever to go back" to the 
blind worship of idols. These are ultimate results. As incidentals to 
daily work, I think that we shall find that girla going day by day from 
our schools to their homes, with words of Christian truth npon their lips 
and stories of Christ s love and power in their hearts, are preparing the 
way as nothing else could do for the visits of the missionary and the 
Bible woman. Mothers all the world over are ready to receive and 
welcome those who have brought good gifts to their children. If we can 
go a step further and hold at our day schools from time to time mothers 
meetings, or gospel meetings, by whatever name they may be called, they 
will help, I am sure, to widen the influences for good. 

I have left but little time for the second division of my subject 

Jt Boarding Schools for Girls. If Christian teachers are neces- 
Boarding . . 

schools for sary for girls day schools, boarding schools for girls are 

imperatively necessary for the education and training of 
such teachers. As important as theological schools are for the traiaing 
of preachers and evangelists among the men, are girls schools for the 
training of teachers and helpers among the women. Indeed, I believe 
them to be more important, for the man has a far better opportunity than 
the woman for receiving outside the school the training necessary for his 

Our experience with boarding schools for girls has, np to ihis time, 
been limited to charity schools, and it is the work of such schools that 
I wish for a little while to consider. Since the objective point to which 
the work in these schools is usually directed is not simply the education 
and elevation of the individual Chinese girl, I think it 
^afschooie 1 eminent ly desirable that every such school should be made in 
the truest sense of the word a normal school. To this end 
the pupils should be chosen with great care. Except in very rare cases, 
I think that only girls from Christian families should be admitted to such 
schools, and even then only such girls as have shown some aptitude 
for study. If they may be selected from girls whose minds and hearts 
have been tested in day schools, so much the better. Girls of promise 
having been chosen, the parents should, I think, be required to pledge 
themselves to allow their daughters to remain in school until they 
reach womanhood, and should give to the foreign teacher in charge 
of the school veto power at least in the matter of betrothal. These things 
having been satisfactorily arranged, the teacher may enter 
hopefully upon the instruction of the pupil. Through the 
entire course great care should bo taken not to unfit tha girl 
for life among her own people, and to this end everything that would 
reasonably enter iuto the duties of a Chinese girl in her own homo should 

May 10th.] MISS LAURA A. HAYQOOD. 229 

find a place in her school life and be taught her more thoroughly and 
more systematically than would be possible in her own home, while she 
is being trained in habits of order and cleanliness quite foreign to the 
home and life from which she has come. To be more specific, she should 
be taught to cook her own food ; to cut, make, wash and keep in order 
her own clothes ; to care for and keep neat and orderly her bed and her 
room ; to care for sick pupils ; to help those younger and weaker than 
herself in all sisterly ways ; to treat with consideration and respect those 
older. She must be so drilled in these things that fidelity to the 
principles involved will be a necessary part of her life. At the same time, 
we must guard carefully against allowing her to grow up in ignorance 
of the usages of polite Chinese society, for it is as a Chinese woman, 
thoroughly furnished for every good work, that we wish at last to send 
her forth. That her heart may be kept in touch with her own family 
and their friends it seems to me exceedingly desirable that she spend a 
part of every year in her own home. For this the usual vacations of the 
school will be quite sufficient. 

While thus trying to prepare our girls wisely and well for the 
duties that will come to them as wives and mothers and friends, we must 
keep in mind the fact that they are to become the teachers of their own 
people, and to this end we should endeavor, I think, to make them 
respectable Chinese scholars. But with the study of Chinese classics 
there must go hand in hand the study of Western science, made more 
and more thorough, more and more extensive, as the years go on, giving 
to them broader and broader vision, making their hands stronger and 
yet more strong to help in uplifting the daughters of China. 

But first and last, and all the way through their school life, they 
must be taught the truth as it is in Christ Jesus. The Bible should be 
a daily text book. They should be " rooted and settled in the faith " by 
" line upon line and precept upon precept." They should be made familiar 
with both the colloquial and the classical Scriptures, and should be trained 
to use them wisely and well for the instruction of others in righteousness. 

I have said nothing about the foreign teacher in connection with the 
boarding school, but I feel that there are no missionaries 
upon whom heavier burdens rest or greater responsibilities 
devolve. It is solemnly and awfully true that the schools 
are in a large measure what the foreign teachers make them. They are 
at once parents and teachers and monarchs in this little world. The 
ideal teacher must combine in herself a mother s tenderness, a teacher s 
wisdom, and a ruler s strength. Her watchful love and her guiding hand 
must be felt everywhere. 

Given such a teacher, anointed from on High for service, given the 
presence and the blessing of Him who is " wisdom and righteousness and 
sanctification and redemption," and we may hope that in the Chinese 
church of the future the daughters will be found "as corner stones 
fashioned after the similitude of a palace." 



Miss C. M. Cushman (A. M. E. M., Peking.) 

WEBSTER says, " Reach " means " to deliver by stretching out a member, 
especially the hand ; to attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand." 

.If we would reach the women there must be a stretching out of loving 
hands. Folded arms will never save sinking souls. 

It is one thing, however, to reach a woman with the finger tips ; it ia 
another thing to make her feel the firm warm clasp of a 
the C whoie loving hand, pulling her away from self and sin and the dark 
ness of heathenism up into the sunshine of God s loving 
presence, where God s own dear children dwell. 

While it is impossible to do the latter without the former, it is of 
little use to touch a woman with the finger tips, unless we get enough 
hold to give her a lift upwards. 

Matthew says, when our Lord saw Peter sinking, " He immediately 
stretched forth His hand and caught him." Concerning a wicked and 
disobedient people the Lord said, "All day long have I stretched forth 
my hands unto them." Matthew also says of the Master, " He stretched 
forth His hands unto His disciples" and said, " Behold my mother and 
my brethren." 

Shall we not do well to follow the Lord s example in our efforts to 
reach the women " immediately " " all day long ; " meanwhile recogniz 
ing them as "our mothers and our sisters ? " 

Once upon a time our Lord gave instructions to seventy people whom 
He was " sending before His face to every town and city, whither He 
himself would come." 

It certainly is of interest to us, who have come here to help prepare 

the way for the coming of the Lord to these women, to learn 

methods and what methods He himself wished His -disciples to use, and 


what instructions He gave them. 

Luke says the Lord said to them, "Go with a salutation of peace," 
" eat and drink such things as are set before you," " heal the sick," 
" tell them the kingdom of God is come nigh unto them." 

Is it not possible that sometimes, with a mistaken zeal for the last 
injunction, we forget to give the "salutation of peace," refuse t" eat 
and drink," neglect to " heal the sick," and thus shut the dor<, or 
perhaps fail to open the doors for the coming in of the Lord s kingeUia ? 
M With what measure ye mete it shall be measured to you again," 
js eminently true in our intercourse with the women. A smile will win 
a smile, courtesy will be repaid with courtesy, and a salutation of peace 
will usually be rewarded by a peaceful salutation. 

It is impossible that our Lord requires of missionaries to China that 
they shall literally eat and drink everything that is set before them, for 


May 10th.] MISS c. a. cusHMiN. 231 

that would be disastrous fatal to most, and no missionaries would 
remain to tell about the kingdom ; but if we would win our hostess good 
will, we must at least show that we appreciate her hospitality. 

How often our Lord inspired and strengthened faith by healing 
the sick ! By example, as well as by direct command, He 

" r i Medical 

taught that healing of the body is one of the merciful, tender, work, 
sure ways in which He would have us win hearts for Him. 

Hearts are very much alike the world over, and in many ways it is 
safe to judge Chinese women by ourselves. 

The dear mother in our home was taken suddenly and very danger 
ously ill. We were friendless in a strange city. It was midnight, and 
our hearts were very anxious, for the white face we watched with such 
solicitude was growing whiter and whiter. Scared and frightened, we 
knew not what to do in our helplessness. By the assistance of a police 
man, a physician was found. He came a stranger, but he gave remedies 
that brought relief, and our dear one came back to us from the borders 
of that mysterious land. How we loved that doctor ! Why, if it was 
said, " There goes the doctor," we all went to the window to watch the 
man pass who had saved our mother. How we hung upon his words ! I 
think if we had been heathen he could easily have led us to be Christiana ! 

There is a strange and close sympathy between the soul and the 
body in which it lives, and tho one who repairs the tenement gets a 
strong hold upon the soul- tenant. 

Tho dispensary and hospital afford grand opportunities for breaking 
down prejudice, winning confidence and gaining access to the women, 
and where the medical work is accompanied by faithful telling of 
the Physician of souls, it is sure to be greatly blessed in reaching the 
women. Here, as in nearly all departments of the work, the faithful Bible 
woman is needed, and is honored of God, and proves herself Bibi c 
one of the best agencies for reaching her sisters. 

We have found a sewing class an attractive method for reaching 
heathen women. Indeed it has been necessary to limit the number 
received, selecting those women who do best work and at the same time 
take most interest and make most progress in reading. They come from. 

one to four o clock and receive about two cents an hour for 

Sewing class. 

the time they sew. Meanwhile, the Bible women and mis 
sionary ladies have constant access to them. A stamping outfit and, 
embroidery, with the patchwork that is sent in such quantities from 
tome, with plain sewing, form the basis for work. We get more or less 
of an equivalent for money spent in sewing work done. 

The Sunday-school is also an attractive place to the women, and 
the Sunday-school class affords an excellent opportunity for Sunday- 
meeting them and seed sowing, and often leads to further 
acquaintance, which, followed up by personal efforts, reaches hearts and 
wins souls. 

A class for outside girls that varies from thirty to fifty, and another 
one for boys, we think, have done much towards making a friendly 


feeling in the neighborhood around our mission, and some mothers we 
know have been reached through this means. 

God has heard the prayer of long years that has been going up from 
His children, and the " doors are open " in China to many homes, and it 
is ours to enter in. Of course the homes afford fertile opportunities for 
reaching the women. 

If we remember the directions the peaceful salutation, the drinking 
Home ^ tne CQ P ^ tea > *ke sympathy for the sick, the telling of 
visitation, the kingdom by God s blessing more or less of the women 
are sure to be reached. 

We, in return, should remember the injunction to hospitality so 
often repeated in the Scripture, and our doors should be open to them 
so that they will be made to feel that they receive a genuine welcome. 

In looking for agencies to win the mothers, we should remem 
ber that God has put the mother love in their hearts, and 
Vnfluence." ^ fct ^ e ^ an ds have wondrous skill with the mother s heart 

" Oh Lord thou knowest how my girl came home from the day 

school and told me of the doctrine and led me to Jesus. Now I ask that 

every one of these girls may go home from this school and lead their 

lathers and mothers to Jesus." Such was the prayer I heard one of our 

day school teachers offer. Before many months had passed, 

four of those for whom she had prayed were at the altar 

with their girls asking for admission to the church. 

A proud Manchu woman in whom several missionaries were inter 
ested, resisted for a long time all their appeals to her to make a confession 
of her belief in Christ. At last she yielded, but she told me, " It was 
not the sermons I heard that moved my heart. It was my boy who 
came home from the mission school, and with tears in his eyes begged 
me to go to heaven with him. Night after night ho wept for me, until 
at last, when it came New Year s, and I was cleaning up my house, 
I said, I will make a clean sweep and have my heart as well as my 
house clean, for when a child is so interested in my soul it is time I took 
some care for myself, " and so a child led her and she has become one 
of our best workers. If the boys and girls whom we reach can be made 
to feel the burden of mother s soul, some mothers are sure to be saved. 

Our mothers love us, and we who know Chinese women, know that 
they, too, have the mother love, and their hearts ache for the children 
they mourn as lost, or " thrown away." If we give them the glad news 
that the children are not lost, but safe in the arms of a gentle Shepherd, 
and if they can be made to hear the voices of their children calling to 
tkem from heaven, will they not respond ? 

How we need the Holy Spirit as we meet these women, to help us to 

remember that each soul is stamped with immortality ! If we would 

make our best efforts to save a thing, we must know that it is in danger, 

" By mv an( i that it is worth saving. It is only God s Holy Spirit that 

can reveal to us the dangers of heathenism and the priceless 

May 10th.] MISS c. M. CUSHMAN. 233 

worth of these immortal souls. After all the methods we may devise,, 
it is not by might or power, but by His Holy Spirit that the women are. 
led to us, and that we reach their hearts, and that they are won for 
Christ ; and constant prayer alone ensures constant abiding of the Spirit 
with all His helpful influence. 

How shall we preach to the women? A heathen man once said to 

me, " If I were going to turn the course of a river, I should 

1-11-. T 1-. -. Preaching, 

not begin by closing it up, but I would open an easier and 

better course for it, and so, if I were to- preach in the chapel, I would 
not fight so much against heathen gods ; I would show the people a 
better God." Shall we say to the women, " You are very wicked and 
sinful ? " or shall we say, " The father is very tender and merciful ? " 
Shall we say, "You are very far away from God?" or shall we say, 
" Your father is very near you ? " Shall we say, " You are far down in 
the way to hell ? " or shall we say, " The door that leads to the heavenly 
palaces is just near by and wide open ? " 

Our Lord said, " Tell them the kingdom of God ia come nigh 
unto you." Oh for tact and wisdom and power to show the women how 
pleasant are the ways of righteousness and how flowery are the paths 
of peace ! 

Love is the secret of success. It is love that will take ua close to 
them ; love is the magnet that draws them up. It must be 
by this tangible love of ours that they get glimpses of the 
love of Christ that constraineth us. 

When we give a woman the feeling that we love her, and really 
wish to help her, we touch a chord that responds, and we press on the 
magic spring that is sure to open the woman s heart. 

This is not done so much in crowds ; but one by one, in hand-to-hand 
encounters, are the conquests made. It is done by earnest, intense, 
persistent, personal going out after individuals; never giving up; 
remembering that "all discouragement is of the devil;" not being 
disheartened because they do not come up to our wishes or Personal 
standard, but remembering them in their weakness, even as Contact? 1 
God has remembered that we are weakness. 

If they had been angels we had had no mission to them. 

On the other hand we should not lower the standard for them. By 
God s blessing not a few of our sisters have been saved, and perhaps the 
most effective way to reach others is to make soul winners of those who 
are saved themselves. 

If these can be so led on that their lives and all their influence shall 
say, " Come ; " if they can be led so near to Jesus and become so like Him 
that heathen people will be obliged to say, " See how these 
Chrishans live and love;" then we have an influence for of a changed 
reaching others that will be resistless in its power. What can 
plead with euch eloquence as the changed life of a true Christian ? 

As Ananias laid his hand upon ono of old and said, " Brother Saul, 
receive thy sight," so should wo lay our hands upon each church mem 
ber and say, " My sister, I want to help you to sco more clearly the way, 


so that yon can lead others. Ton belong to the chnrch, and we expect 
yon to be loyal to the chnrch and true to Christ." 

A feeling that one is being looked after, and depended upon to be 
faithful, is often a great help to weakness and an inspiration to best effort. 

As a great help to our women, I think as far as possible they 
should be taught to read. In this it is only the beginning that is most 
difficult. A little taste soon creates an appetite for .reading, and many 
a woman, who would be seared and discouraged at a big book and 
small type, will attack with good courage a small book with big type. 

We have found our training classes afford good opportunities for 

Training teaching the women. We invite them to come as our 

classes. guests, providing fuel and water, and giving each woman 

about seven Mexican cents each day, as we find that each prefers to cook 

her food in her own way. 

We can hardly appreciate what it means to a woman, after years of. 
home drudgery and toil, to come away from all her cares and the little 
village where she has had so little of Christian help, to a company of 
Christian women, with only her own simple meal to provide, and the 
privilege of learning to read and study God s book, with a class of 
women who are in sympathy with her, under the instruction of teachers 
who love her and are willing to spend and be spent for her. 

A woman who joined our class this winter said upon her arrival, 
"I got to thinking it over at homo how far these several years I have 
believed in the true God, bub I don t know what His doctrine is, and 
so I fixed a purpose to come up here, and if it proves that I have not the 
intelligence for learning many characters, I do hope I can understand 
the doctrine somewhat, and when I go home be able to tell of the truth, 
for there is not an nnderstand-it person in onr village." The fact that a 
woman feels she does not know what it is she believes, hampers and 
cripples her in her efforts to reach others, however true she may be iu 
her love to Christ. As she comes to take the Bible in her own hands 
and read it for herself, she becomes qualified to help others. 

Not all the women who come make regular Bible readers, by any 
means but if they are made more efficient working members the labor 
for them is not in vain. The class affords good opportunity to ascertain 
who are best qualified to be trained for special workers. 

Such are some of the methods that I have seen employed for reach 
ing the women of to-day. At best, the work for them seems like 
repairing an old house. 

Although the grace of God can make marvelous changes, the wear 

and tear of long years of heathenism is hard to efface or 

Wear and tear reDa i r an d it is impossible, much as we would sometimes like 

Of heathenism. 

to do it, to tear down the whole structure and begin again. 
With the child s character wo begin at the base, and by God s help 
wo may hope for a structure that shall bo fair and beautiful, strong and 

May 10th.] MISS c. M. KICKETTS. 235 

We work for the woman of the future as well as of the present. 

Delightful work young soula to win, 
And turn the rising race." 

The girl of to-day is the woman of to-morrow. These girls, whom 
God has put in our charge to-day, will be wives and mothers in a few- 
years. The thought that we work not only for these girls, but that we 
reach the mothers of the next decade, puts grandeur and 
sublimity into our work for them, and, as we work, we dream Dreams of 
beautiful dreams of a time when the women shall have leen 
reached, and at their mothers knees, even as we did, the children of China 
shall hear the sweet old story of Jesus and His love, and be taught, as wa 
werej by Christian mothers to " Crown Him Lord of all." And we have 
entrancing visions of this land as it shall be when it can be said of it, 
" Our daughters are as corner stones polished after the similitude of a 
palace." And at last, "when He cometh to make up his jewels," " these 
shall come from far, and lo, these from the North and from the West, and 
these from the land of Sinim." 


Miss C. M. Eicketts (E. P. M., Swatow). 

THE women of China, as regarded from an evangelist s point of view, 
resolve themselves into two classes the rich women, who are never seen 
outside their own doors, except to be present at a play or on some special 
occasion to worship the idols ; and the peasant women, who in some parts 
(notably among theHakkas) labor in the fields, and are more or less to be 
met with spinning at their doors, drying various things in the open 
spaces, or attending to the fowls and pigs. Peasant women are also 
frequently to be met with on the roads going to, and coming from, 
markets, and going from one village to another to visit friends. 

The houses of the rich are not so accessible as those of the peasantry. 
Nevertheless, it is seldom difficult to pay a visit to a rich 
lady if you are able to secure an introduction. Sometimes 
the bare fact of being a foreigner will bring a pressing invitation to come 
but this is generally merely to give the household a sight of a lady from 
the West, and to gather from her some account of the strange manners 
and customs of her barbarian country. 

It is a true saying in China, as elsewhere, that it is " hard for the 
rich to enter the kingdom of God." They are willing and delighted to 

ie what is to them an unusual sight-a foreign lady, dressed in a costume 
trange to their eyes and are rather amused by hearing her speak their 
ongno with her Western accent, and occasional idiomatic difficulties 
Sometimes they are interested in hearing about God and creation, but 

mg m easy circumstances, they care little for a heaven that is seemingly 


far away, or for the pardon of sins whose burden as yet they have 
never felt. 

"With the peasant women it is otherwise. Their life has been, in too 

many cases, one long toil for the very barest necessaries of 

peasant j-j e> Th e i r heavy labor, and still more, their scanty feeding, 

WOU16U. " 

has too often made them stupid and dull. But they, too, 
have great curiosity to see a foreign lady who has traversed thousands of 
miles of land and water, and take much interest in examining the 
difference of her costume from their own. 

They are drawn and attracted by a wise mixture of kindliness and 
earnestness with a little dash of humor, and are quite ready to listen to 
anything that promises a little diversion from their dreary and well-beateu 
daily path. 

There is very little difficulty in gathering small knots of people in 
various parts of a village. The farther away from the coast ports, the 
more easy it is to collect a smaller or larger crowd. The work to be done 
by these village talks is of the nature of broad-casting seed. But the 
seed must be cast into prepared ground, and not thrown up into the air, 
where the currents of wind will carry it possibly out to sea or river, 
where it will never fructify. 

"Prepared ground," some one will say, " How can heathen hearts 
be prepared ground ? " 

That question touches the rim of our greatest difficulty, namely, 
our own need of faith. 

God has sent ns to sow the living seed of His own gospel, and He 
is, therefore, much concerned about the preparing of the ground. His 
providence ploughs up the hard heart ; His dews and kindly influences 
soften and make ready for the message that is also of His providing. 
When a God-given message falls into a God-prepared heart, it will reach 
to that heart s innermost recesses and echo and reverberate there nntil 
all the soul is hushed into a listening awe. 

God is going to reach the women of this great empire, and He is 
honoring our women of the West to be His hands, His feet, His voice to 
them. Let ns realize, whenever we go to them, that it is not we alone 
who are going; it is He who is saying still, "Them also I must bring, 
and they shall hear my voice." Shall we not pray 

"Lord, speak to me, that I may speak 
la living echoes of Thy tone, 
A.S Thou hast sought, BO let me seek 
Thy wandering children lost and lone." 

The first requisite for reaching the women of China is to have 
Faith, the ^ a ^ ^at God means to reach them, and that He means 
first requisite. to a u ow you to bo His fellow-worker. 

When you sit down and speak to twenty listless women, somo look 
ing at your clothes, some examining your features, somo idly standing 
because others have gathered round, do not suffer that indifference to 
wither your faith. Do not allow yourself to think of tho iron barrier 
their ignorance arid sin has set up between themselves and God. Look 

May 10th.] MISS c. M. RICKETTS. 237 

over their dull, cunning, worldly-faces, and away behind their lovely skies 
see the face of Christ who died for them, looking down with patient love 
and saying to you, " They shall hear my voice." "No matter that their 
faced are like flint, that their hearts seem as hard as one of their own 
mill-stones, I have all power given unto Me, and it ia I who bid you 
speak to these people the words of life." 

We must gird up the loins of the soul and exercise a calm strong 
faith in the power of Him who sent us, sure with a divinely wrought 
certitude that " He is able to save to the uttermost." 

The second requisite for reaching the women of China,-is, that you 

have sympathy with them, so that you may enter into their 

. / , ,, , a Sympathy, 

sorrows and joys very truly, that you may in some measure 

feel what a barren and sordid life is their inheritance from past genera* 
tions, and feeling this learn to desire most earnestly that the barrenness 
may be transformed into beauty, the poverty transmuted into divine 

To talk down to" them from a lofty height of superior "Western civili 
zation, despising the facts of their every-day existence, is very easy for a 
cultured and lettered person, but by that very scorn such a one is unfitted 
for any conscious contact with their daily round of petty cares and 
fretting anxieties. We need to possess the faculty of feeling with the 
women and understanding by the power of sympathy how life looks from, 
such a colorless, monotonous spot, varied only by dark tragedies of 
death, and sin, and shame, which make lurid gleams over the dim shape 
less features of their days. We need to figure to ourselves the darkness 
of their minds, the fears by which they are haunted, the poor hopes and 
desires which act as the animating springs of their lives; and so under 
standing their difficulties to teach with uttermost patience the most vital 
truths of our holy religion. In this way some solid ground may be 
placed under their sinking feet, as a vantage-ground on which they may 
stand fast and breathe in the larger air of a more spiritual life. 

Needed, perhaps, even more than sympathy, is a sincerely loving, 
gracious spirit in all dealings with the women. They are 
very sensitive to a true love, and very keen to discern be- A Io 
tween a love that is real and simple and a love that is feigned and 

The absence of love in their lives makes it dearer to them than to 
those whose lives have been more favorably circumstanced. 

There is a magnetic power in a Christ-like love that is not to be 
calculated by human arithmetic ; it may perhaps be described as the 
yearning of His Divine Spirit in us for their salvation. This tender and 
strong desire for their souls is of the greatest help in speaking to them, 
subduing their restless garrulity, hindering their frivolous questions and 
bringing them into a more passive condition, in which God will make 
deep and lasting impressions on their spirits. 

Speaking to them without this passionate heart-break over their lost 
estate is much like pouring over them a cataract of sound, that has iu it 


no vivifying power, and they are not to be drawn out of their " pig 
philosophy," their gross materialism, by any high sounding phrases. 
They are well accustomed to classic exhortations to virtue, which they 
consider are obeyed when they admire and applaud the sentiments 
expressed, but to carry these out in their daily conduct is an idea that 
has not yet dawned upon their minda. 

Believing in God, using His gifts of sympathetic love as we speak to 
them, we have further to ask, What is the instrument of which we are 
to make use in our endeavor to bring them to Him ? "We are not to 
"sacrifice to our own nets," and rejoice in our own plans and methods, 
but whether in drenching spray and driving shower, or in days weary 
with burning sun and hot wind, we must cast out at His word the ample 
folds of the gospel of the grace of God, the death of Jesus and His 
resurrection. The meshes of this net will close around many and many 
a living soul, and unlike the toiling fisherman who casts his fish in dying 
agonies upon the ground, we shall draw them out of the death in which 
they are, into a new life on the glorious shores of the eternal world, 

It is sometimes said that the Chinese are willing enough to listen to 
words about God the Creator, but that they dislike the story of the cross. 
As far as I have had experience in speaking to heathen people, I find the 
old words of the inspired book true, Christ crucified, to some a stum 
bling block, to some foolishness, but "unto them which are called, the 
power of God and the wisdom of God." I have found not a few listen 
with great attention to the declaration of Christ s dying love, but I never 
venture to speak that word unless my own heart is penetrated with a 
sense of Christ s love to me ; to name such love unmoved, can only 
hinder its operation on the hearers. 

I have dwelt more at length upon the manner and spirit that will 

win the hearts of Chinese women, than on methods to be employed. It 

is my belief that methods are secondary, but, though secondary, far from 

unimportant, and in the few minutes that remain, I wish to 

note brieflythe methods that we have found most satisfactory. 

First among these, I would place the native agency of Bible women. 
The Bible woman, when her heart is in the right place, has some 
advantages which a foreigner cannot possess. First, she has 
Bible women. hersel j been in the exact condition of her hearers. She 
knows the depths of that ignorance in which they are plunged. She 
knows their habits, their temptations, their modes of thinking and feel 
ing, and therefore she can appeal to them and carry home her appeal, by 
illustrations drawn from their common life, such as they can well 
understand and appreciate. Further, she has at her command a whole 
store of proverbs and sayings, which give point and force to what she says. 
She knows how much may be expected of them in the matter of coming 
regularly to worship, and can tell them how to arrange their household 
matters with this end in view. She can meet objections to the keeping 
of the Sabbath in the same way, and instance her own case, or the cases 
of other Christian women, in proof of how, by care and labor and prayer, 

May lOfch.] MISS c, M. EICKETTS. 239 

six days work can provide seven days food. She can give much -good 
advice about the training of children and the sort of home rule in which 
Chinese parents are all so deficient. 

We have one woman among our Swatow Bible women who can 
almost always gain and keep the willing ear of her country 
women. She is very cheerful, honest and kindly, and 
wherever she goes, carries with her a wholesome sunny 
atmosphere, which the people insensibly feel and enjoy. She-has stores 
of proverbs and a good deal of humor, aud her patient tact in securing 
a hearing for her message has often surprized and delighted us. 

When the people ply her with irrelevant questions as to her home 
and connections, she replies, "I have only one twig of a mouth and I 
cannot answer so many things. What I am saying is of life and death 
concern to you." 

Once a woman said to her, "If you do not keep the -new year and 
the idol s birthdays, how do you get good things to eat ? " 

To which she replied, " Am I thinner than you are ? " 

"No," said the woman, "you are plump and well-looking," but here 
she returned to the attack, declaring that happiness came by worship 
ping the ancestral tablets. 

The Bible woman promptly quoted a proverb to prove by the wisdom 
of the ancients, that happiness and comfort come rather from filial 
children and careful economy. 

"lang-tsu thai laii, ^^^^g " Feed a child to wait on your old age, 
Chek koh huang ki." ^^ $}f8l La y U P grain against the day of famine," 

and then she went on to show that filial children were a good gift of the 
good God in heaven, and that the wisdom to practise economy came from 
Him also. 

Another method of reaching the women is through their residence 
in the hospital. In the Swatow hospital there are frequently 
seventy or eighty women patients, often remaining many hospHai 112 
weeks, and seldom less than a week or ten days. These pat 
women hear the gospel at the morning and evening services. Some of the 
young women of the church, mostly old school girls, have volunteered 
to teach them, six women giving an hour a day on working days. 

The women students who are reading in the Bible woman s house 
make early efforts to teach, chiefly in the hospital, trying to use in this 
way what they have learned. 

Miss Harkness (one of the ladies of our mission) has a class-room in 
the hospital, where she teaches the women to read Romanized colloquial, 
and she reserves the hymn-book in Chinese character for those whose 
eyes forbid their reading smaller Roman letters. 

She has taught quite a number of women and girls to read by this 
means, and this is a plan by which the gospel story may be promul 
gated in the most unlikely quarters, and is a very effectual breaking up 
of the fallow ground. Several women, who have attended the class, have 


become enquirers, and two or three have been baptized since its com 

Visitation of country stations and of villages is another method of 

reaching the women, and this we do by taking a Bible 

itinerations. woman an ^ Jiving either in the station chapel or in our 

house-boat, and from such centres making a circuit of the villages. Our 

visits at the houses of the Christians, while being a very great pleasure 

and stimulus to them, is an excellent opportunity for telling the gospel to 

their heathen neighbors. 

In a visit of a fortnight, from which Miss Black and myself have 
just returned, we visited twenty-five villages, and in these, forty-two 
families. In each family we had opportunity of talking to the heathen 
from the door step, and in this way must have told the story of God to 
nearly a thousand people, to many more, if we reckon the children who 
flocked round. Sometimes the crowd was large, and we divided it by 
separating to a little distance, one of us in the house, the other outside. 
This is a broad-casting of seed and a cherishing of that which has been 
already sown, both most needful if we are to reach the millions of this 
vast country. 

The last method I will mention, and that most closely 
na!h a e n feaic connected with reaching the women, is the training of a 
agency. na ti ve female agency. 

Our plan is at present to take any of the -women of the church 
who are free to come, for two or four months at a time, and to do our 
best while they are with us to teach them the gospel very simply, clearly 
and practically, making them well understand what Jesus expects of 
them, and trying to fit them for telling the gospel plainly, and forcef ullj, 
to any who wish to learn. 

Out of these women we choose the most reliable and Christian 
characters to train for Bible women. The residue, though perhaps not 
fitted to become evangelists, are generally able to do something towards 
teaching the church members in their own villages and to tell the gospel 
more intelligently to their heathen neighbors. 

By some such instrumentalities as these we hope to reach a great 
many of the women of " our own generation " and bring them into the 
light of God before death wraps them in the impenetrable folds of the 
outer darkness. 

It is helpful to think, as we gather here from so many parts of 
China, that we are all fellow-helpers towards one glorious end, not 
isolated atoms driven by the wind and tossed, but a compact army, 
whose leader sits in Heaven directing our movements, and who is leading 
us all most surely to one magnificent issue, the gathering, namely, from 
this ancient land of some of those multitudes which no man can number, 
who will stand one day on the sea of glass, having " washed their robes 
and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." 

Beloved friends ! Is not this an end worth living for, worth dying 
for ? Should not every fibre of our being thrill with gratitude to Him 


who has called us to take even the smallest part in the salvation of this 
gigantic empire from the bondage and thraldom, of ages of wrong and 
misery, of sin and shame ? 

Let us toil on patiently towards this glorions goal, our eyes on 
Christ, our hearts fixed on the perishing, and our hope actively expecting 
great deliverance for China, expecting that her imperial diadem shall be 
among the many crowns that are one day to glow on the brow of our 
King and Redeemer. 


Miss Mariamne Murray (C. I. M., Yang-chau). 

EVANGELISTIC work we understand to mean-the making known* of the 
Gospel by preaching or teaching, gathering in enquirers, and instructing 
them in the Scriptures. 

For this work, anywhere, we will want, besides love to God, love to 
souls, faith, hope, perseverance, but, above all, the power 
given us for this work the filling of the Holy Ghost. Now 
we wish to think of this work in China, and especially in 
new and untried fields, where there are no Christians, and where there 
are difficulties we do not have at home. 

For such work we shall first of all want experience experience of 
God and His power. We may not trust in our experience of methods or 
organizations ; but in a new field in China, we shall want to know, and 
believe in, the power that can influence hearts and turn them from dark 
ness unto light. Perhaps to some extent there has been prayer for this 
new ground, but not to the same extent as at home, nor by people living 
on the ground, and so we miss it. At first the people may seem indiffer 
ent ; the Blessed Spirit has not brooded over the chaos, and the light 
does not come. 

We shall want hope. In the measure we have experience we have 
hope (Rom. v. 4). We shall want, too, a cheerful readiness to adapt 
ourselves to circumstances. 

Here it will help us to consider our Master s method : " He became 
flesli and dwelt among ^ls" for our salvation. He did not stand afar off 
and teach. He came and lived among sinners, and the light shone. He 
was as much the Son of God in the flesh as He was in Glory ; this was 
His plan to reach the lost, and we do well carefully to consider it, being 
"fellow- workers with Him." 

This is why some of us wear the native dress and live in native 
houses, if the climate of the place permit ; we want to get near to the 
people ; we want them to understand that it is love, a religion they have 
not known before. Then we want patience and gentleness with a peoplo 


who may deceive, cheat and perhaps seek to injure us ; and willingness to 
endure hardness, even laying down our lives if need be : having before us 
a fixed purpose, our one great thought being, how to reach souls with 
the gospel. 

We have come to China (both men and women) in answer to the 
great commission, " Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to 
every creature," and just as of old the women understood it and waited 
-with the disciples for the power of the Holy Ghost, so now we believe 
Christian women, influenced by that same commission, and ^having that 
same power, have the fitness to be witnesses for Christ in China. 

Wo have spoken of experience, hope, adaptability, patience, gentleness 

and loillingness to endure hardness, as necessary for evangel- 

womea ^fa wor i s: i n China, and we believe God has made Christian 

have them. 

women capable of all these. 

We know that God has already used women as evangelists, and we 
come now to think of the advantages or disadvantages, as it may be, in 
unmarried women engaging in this work in China in new fields. 

The women of China, we know, are more ignorant and degraded than 
the men, so it is a great work. If only women can reach women in 
China, then as surely as we women are sent, we have all that is needed to 
do this difficult work. 

Before us are millions of mothers and daughters willing to be 
friendly. God has given us influence, and we are able to reach the 
homes of China. 

If we can go into new fields, and if Christian women will come and 
work, can we not reasonably hope to reach multitudes of this generation 
of mothers and daughters, and shall not the Gospel in this way take 
hold of the nation, and might not the next generation be to a large 
extent Christianized ? 

Our plan of work for new fields has been in this way. A thoroughly 
trustworthy native Christian goes to a certain city or dis- 
Pla fornew 0rk trict, as it may be, and for two or three months he will live 


among the people, selling gospels and preaching. By and 
by he becomes friendly with the people and makes known our wish 
to come and live there, and perhaps a house is mentioned. The lady 
worker or workers (there are generally two), with their woman, will 
then come to the place, and if the house is not got, live in an inn for a 
time, receiving visitors and making known their errand. If there is 
difficulty about the house, the lady-worker or workers may think it well 
to go back to head-quarters, returning again later on. When the house 
is got, they come with the native Christian as servant or helper and 
settle down amongst the people. At first the crowds will be very great, 
but a 3 they are seen and known the excitement subsides, and then the 
real work begins, such as daily receiving of women, beginning ^classes 
for them, visiting them at their homes, and studying, with a special time 
set apart to help and instruct the native Christian helper. 
Are there no difficulties ? Yes. 


Living, quite contrary to Chinese custom, as unmarried women away 
from home and parents, our motive may at first be misunder 
stood and evil may be said (this would equally apply to 
unmarried ladies living with a family), but it will only be 
temporary. Where the worker is wholly given up to God, the life 
quickly tells, even amongst the heathen. 

Another difficulty, especially in a new field, might be danger to the 
person, without human protection of father or brother. Health, too, 
might suffer from the strain at first ; perhaps there might be difficulty 
about the food required. For these difficulties, and others that might be 
mentioned, we feel that the end in view and the results gained quite 
justify us in laying down our lives, if need be, for the people of this 
land. We have all come to China prepared to do this, but as a fact we 
know that " by the good hand of our God upon us " many Christian lady 
workers are living in peace and safety in China, even in new fields, doing 
this blessed work. 

The advantages are very great. We know that there are more open 
doors in China than the male workers can take advantage 
of. We know that the people are dying, millions of them 
dying, without having heard the Gospel. 

Christian women are willing and glad to come now and go into these 
untried fields. Their weakness is their strength ; they are more apt in 
everything to lean on God. As women are of no account in China, may 
it not be easier for them to find location and live among the people than 
men? not being important enough to cause trouble. Another advantage 
may be that where a lady worker or workers go to work in the manner 
described above, native effort is stimulated. It is the Christian Chinaman 
who preaches in the streets and gathers the men. At the same time the 
lady worker is capable of teaching him carefully in the Scriptures and 
sets apart certain times for that purpose. She can propagate what she 
has learned of Christ through him ; and is always at hand to give advice 
and help where it is needed ; but it is the Christian Chinaman who acts 
and speaks. The unconverted Chinaman need only see his fellow- 
countryman, not a foreigner at all, and learn from him of Christ, the work 
all the while going on among the women. 

In conclusion I would call your attention, dear friends, to the 
fields where this work has been tried and God has blessed it. 
In several parts of Kiangsi we have stations where lady- Yried* 
workers live and work, with the help of a native pastor, in 
this way, and in some cases these are in new fields, and a church is being 
gathered in. As far as wo know, the work among the women is in no 
way hindered by the lady worker taking time to help the native helper or 
other Christian men, if there are any. The women come in numbers and 
are being converted. In other provinces lady workers are also doing this 
work. Our prayer is for more workers for China, men and women, and 
wo do pray that women who aro willing to come will riot be hindered, fotf 
we believe " the Lord hath need of them." 



Miss A. M. Fielde (A. B. M. U., Swatow). 

WITH less of experience, I should have delineated with firmer hand the 
ideal Chinese Bible woman, and could have written out shorter rules for 
the making of her. Now, I am only certain that nature, grace and train 
ing must have wrought favorably together for her production. If the 
grace be great enough, she will accomplish her purpose though nature 
should have done little for her, and though her training be slight. That 
which is of first importance grace we missionaries do not bestow. 
But we may discriminate wisely concerning the nature, and may greatly 
improve it by training. The suggestions that I offer on these points are 
the result of failures, as well as successes, and of bitter afflictions, as well 
as of surpassing joys in this special work. 

Before Bible women can be trained, they must be chosen, and upon 

wisdom in the selection depends in a great measure the 

eeiection success of subsequent efforts. It seems to me manifestly 

success. inexpedient to take into a training-school any woman who 

may justly be suspected of desiring to get her daily rice 

away from home. Among a sordid and deceptive people, it is doubtless 

wisest to start out from the beginning with the rule that none shall be 

received into the school except upon the invitation of its director. Then, 

without announcement of the fact, the director may, before inviting her 

guests, ascertain that each has a source of support in her own household, 

and that she may at any time return from the school to her former 

environment without a pecuniary loss thereby. 

Troublesome complications are avoided by inviting the women to 
study for a short period only, say three months. The invitation should 
be so given as to make it plain to the student that the sole purpose of 
her going to the school is to increase her knowledge of true doctrine, and 
care should be taken that no idea of permanent occupation of any sort is 
encouraged. Then, if the woman prove to be unworthy, she goes home 
at the end of the set time, because the invitation to stay is not repeated, 
and there is no cause for heart-burning and no scene of dismissal. 
But if the pupil gives promise of future usefulness, the invitation is 
repeated for another three months, and she continues her course of study. 
Although none but Christian women are brought into the training- 
school, I have found it best to begin the course of instruction 
C Etudy. f i Q th samo Wa 7 that I would do if the women wero pagans. 
There are so many remnants of heathen superstitions in the 
minds of the native Christian women, and there- is such great need of 
teaching them how to set before others tho primitive ideas of mono 
theism, that one may well begin at the very beginning with each student, 
assuming that sho knows nothing oE Christian doctrine. By parable, 
illustration, argument, and debate, her accepted, simple creed gains 


May lOfch.] MISS A. M. FIELDE. 245 

larger and firmer place in her understanding, crowds out falsehoods, and 
forms a solid basis for farther knowledge to rest upon. I cannot too 
strongly emphasize this point, for much depends upon the amplitude of 
the primary lessons. When the woman goes out again, whether to her 
own domestic circles or to the sphere of an evangelist, her chief use to 
the church will be in her teaching these same things rn this same wav. 
t have found sheet tracts, in character colloquial, to be the best primers. 
One on "The True God," one on "After Death," and one on "The 
Christ," with the explanations given to each clause, have appeared to be 
all the printed matter necessary for the use of beginners. Considerable 
time should be spent on expositions of the Ten Commandments in their 
widest applications and relationships, with the constant aim of bringing 
the conscience of the student under the dominion of the law. 

In the course of study pursued for many years by my classes, the 
sheet-tracts and the hymn-book are followed by the Life of Christ, a 
version of Bagster s Consolidated Gospels, in character colloquial; and 
as this is a large book, which is to be read understandingly by those who 
have little knowledge of letters, it often takes the student a year to learn 
to read it well, and to tell from memory all the chief events in the history 
of our Lord. The books of Acts, Genesis, and other portions of Scripture, 
with Bible stories and various tracts, follow in order. Elementary 
physiology, biology, geography, and astronomy are taught by lectures. 

From the beginning of her education the student is exercised in tho 
art of speaking clearly, and to the point. At first, some easy tale, or one 
of ./Esop s fables, is orally taught to her, and I have never yet seen a 
Chinese woman who could not, within a few days, learn to stand on her 
feet and in a resonant voice tell a short story, so as to bring out its 
salient points. Much of the teaching is purely oral, and effort is made to 
have it such as the pupil may well imitate in her future work. The 
women are called upon to give original illustrations and to make parables 
out of familiar circumstances. 

During the course of study all important practical questions that 
arise in the school are discussed in the class, and the moral law under 
which they come, and by which they are to be decided, is carefully 
expounded. The association of the women in a household, under the 
direction of a matron, is of great value, on account of its furnishing so 
many opportunities for practical instruction in Christian ethics. 

All of the members of the class who give promise of future usef ul- 
ness as Bible women, go out at times with the missionary 
lady to neighboring villages, and, with her, teach the pagan Trafaiu" 1 
women in their homes. This affords occasion for further 
advice concerning method, manner, and matter, when one is doing evan 
gelistic work. I have not found that it is best to send any woman out to 
work separately until she has been for two years or more in tho training- 
school. During that time, tho real character of the woman is pretty sure 
to become known to her fellow-students and to tho missionary. Even 
after two or three yeara of observation of a woman in training, I have 


found ifc best to send her for the first few months to one of the nearer 
out-stations, where I can easily learn just what she does, and just what 
her influence proves to be. 

For many years the women went out by twos ; but as a local guide 
was always necessary, unless they went continually to the same villages, 
J have of late years chosen a Christian woman at each station, who should 
Accompany the Bible woman sent to that station in her visits to the sur 
rounding villages. These local guides are familiar with the crooked 
paths of their neighborhood, and as most of them have had some instruc 
tion in, the training-school, they are often able to help the Bible woman 
in the actual work which she has to do. These local guides are, while 
employed, paid sixty cash, or about five cents, a day. 

Before sending a Bible woman to any place, I endeavor to visit it 
myself and to have a rough map made of the locality. 
)r From this map a report-book is written, in which is entered 
the names of all the villages, hamlets, or sections- of towns, lying within 
one league from the lodging of the Bible woman. The name of a 
village is written at the top of a page, with a note of its distance under 
neath its name. This book is given to any Bible woman who is sent to 
that station, and on her arrival there she is expected to look it over and 
to lay out her work for the ten weeks she is to stay. When she visits 
any village, she records in the book, on its appropriate page, the number 
of families in that village that were willing to have her sit in their 
house and teach Christian doctrine. She has only to make a horizontal 
mark for each family, and then underneath to make as many vertical 
marks as will indicate the number of times sho has been to that village. 
A woman who cannot write can thus record her itinerations. At the 
end of each quarter the books are all returned to me, and by looking 
them over I can see where each woman has been, and what opportunity 
sho found for promulgating Christianity. Another woman, taking the 
same book to the same place, can also easily see what her predecessors 
did there, and can water the seed that has been planted. In visiting 
that station, I can myself, with the aid of the book, readily inquire after 
the fruit of the labor of the Bible women. 

The number of villages that are visited by any one Bible woman 
during one quarter depends, of course, not only upon her strength and 
zeal, but upon the season and the topography of the country. From ten 
to forty villages are visited by each woman in ten weeks, the average 
number being about twenty. The women spend one week in each quarter 
at their own homes, and two weeks in tho training-school, where they 
confer with tho missionaries and with each other in regard to the general 
interests of the church, and of their special work, and have regular 
Scripture lessons in class. These quarterly conferences, in which there is 
full opportunity for tho discussion of difficulties and the narration of 
experiences, afford an indispensable period of rest from association with 
tho heathen, and furnish refreshment of spirit through renewed inter 
course with their fellow-workers and best friends. 

May 10th.] MISS A. K. PIELDE. 247 

Since the training-school was opened in the American Baptist 
Mission in Swatow, in March, 1873, there have been in all 
147 women who have at different times been students ^iSn 
therein. From among these students there has been, since 
1875, a corps of women constantly doing evangelistic work at the 
country stations, and the number of these women has not at any time 
been less than twelve. Twelve women, at present employed, have all been 
in the work for ten years or more. 

The students in the training-school each receive one dollar -and a 
half a month wherewith to purchase the raw material of food. The 
Bible women, when engaged in work away from their own homes, receive 
two dollars a month, and also the amount necessarily spent in trarelling 
between the training-school and the station to which they are sent. 

When at the out-stations, where rooms are provided for them, they 
are expected to use all the fair weather of week-days in work amono- pagan 
women, and on Sundays to teach the Christian women at the chapels. I 
think that these native female evangelists are honest and faithful in 
their work, and that they do it with as much zeal as most Christiana 
could maintain in the face of the same tremendous obstacles. But the 
results, in increment to the church, have been small. The training-school 
and the work of its graduates, have greatly increased Christian intel 
ligence in the female portion of the church, but there has been during 
many years no marked increase of church-membership that could bo 
traced directly to the labors of these native evangelists. 

As time has passed, I have myself grown doubtful whether it would 
not be better to give the Christian women a Christian education, and 
then let them always return to their own domestic circle, and for the 
spreading of the gospel to rely solely upon the disposition, which every 
woman has, to talk about whatever interests her. Experience has perpe 
tually increased my perception of the evils arising from the use of foreign 
money in the promulgation of Christianity in China ; and 
were I now beginning a similar enterprise in a new field, I US mone f j? eign 
would pay no native for evangelistic work. 

My conviction, however, has deepened, that there is no work which 
women can do in China that will tell for good so effectively as will that of 
the moral and spiritual enlightenment of the mothers and grand-mothers 
of the empire. There are special difficulties in the way of bringing this 
portion of the population into a school, and it is only in a school that they 
can get the sort of training that is needed for making them clear-minded 
and open-hearted Christians. The number of workers in this department 
should be multiplied in proportion to the greatness of the difficulties, so 
that in all missions every Christian woman could be watched over, and 
a time discovered when she could, without neglect of domestic duties, 
undertake a course of study in a training-school. If this were done, I 
believe we might hope for the evangelization of China by natural 
methods, the influence of parents upon children, and of friend upon friend. 
The stronghold of heathenism is in the minds of women, and for the 
capture and possession of this stronghold we cannot too earnestly strive. 



Mrs. Arthur H. -Smith (A. B. C. F. M., P ang-chwang). 

Is the Christian training of the women of the Church in China a work 
which must be mainly accomplished by women, or are women 
necessary for unnecessary for its successful prosecution ? Surely the 
>rk great army of missionary women toiling all over the world 
for their heathen sisters, are not following a mere Will-o -the-Wisp. 
Surely it is a real and a tangible work for women by women which 
nerves the arm of every Woman s Board, which pours shining heaps 
into their treasuries, and which, by its mute appeal, drawa so many 
earnest-hearted women from urgent work in their own lands. In our 
own experience, we have found it impossible to get out of a Chinese 
man the drudgery involved in rousing minds narcotized by centuries 
of neglect. He is not sufficiently patient. He does not profoundly 
believe in women. How should he ? The classic shades of a Woman s 
College never fell across his vision. As Prof. Kundt, the celebrated 
physicist of Berlin, was in his laboratory one day last year, he was 
visited by one of the charming and accomplished educators of Wellesley 
College. As one intelligent question after another dropped from her 
lips, betraying her thorough grasp of the principles of his speciality, he 
threw up both hands and exclaimed, "I am perfectly astonished!" 
(" Ich bin gantz erstaunt !") This is the attitude of an average Chinese 
when he finds that a Christian woman has conquered fate and has learned 
to read. Faithless himself, how is a Chinese man to inspire a Chinese 
woman with any faith in herself ? A prime obstacle to man s work for 
women, is found in the extreme prudishness of the sexes. The most 
winning of our helpers, sent by a missionary lady as her substitute to 
one of her meetings, has sometimes been unable to extract from the shy 
women and children a single word of their carefully prepared lessons. 
Not until a foreign shepherd or a native helper can sit down by a 
Chinese woman on her Jc ang, hold her hand, look into her eyes, and by 
magnetic sympathy turn her heart inside out ; not till they can love her 
.children as mothers love them, will we believe that in molding anew the 
liv<es of Chinese women, the aid of other women can be dispensed with. 
It being then conceded that there is such a work, we will proceed to the 
discussion of our subject, calling your attention first to Seven Great 
Obstacles to the Christian Training of the Women of tie Chinese Church, 
and then to the consideration of the question How these Obstacles 
are to be Overcome. Some of these difficulties may be peculiarly 
characteristic of the part of the wide field occupied by the 

Seven grea. wr it e r but it is believed that most of them are common to 

all China. 


May 10th.] MRS. ARTHUR H. SMITH. 249 

^The first great obstacle to mental training we find in The Tyranny 
of Opinion. In China no one says, " Why should not women learn to 
read ? " but, " Why should they learn ? " Will it bring a girl more to 
eat, more to wear, increase her dowry, or provide for her a rich mother- 
in-law ? If not, of what use can it be ? Thus reasons the head of the 
Louse. He often follows every hour of his wife s time with 
the jealous watch of a sentinel guarding a prisoner. Be- opinion averse 
trothed girls, deep in the new delights of learning, vanish training of 
and are seen no more by yearning missionary eyes. Why ? 
They dare not let it be known to their future mother-in-law that they 
are going in for what she would consider the idle extravagance of 
learning. Among the thousands of women whom we have met, not more 
than ten had learned to read. The daughters of the rich, or of scholars, 
instructed for mere amusement, and the trifling number of those who 
have acquired a slight knowledge of characters in order to chant Bud 
dhist books, or for use in the minor sects, these comprise the fortunate 
few. The broad cue used by ladies in playing bagatelle is said to be a 
concession to the imbecility of women, who otherwise would not be able 
to hit a bail in the centre. Based upon a similar principle is a kind of 
dilution of the Confucian Classics, known as the Four Books for Women. 
As wo hold out the bright and cheerful lamp of education to our Chinese 
sisters, such a warning cry of opposition goes up all around them that 
one might suppose we proffered a lighted bomb. 

The second obstacle to women s education we find in The Pinch of 
Poverty. As the Chinese proverb says, " Even a child may not eat ten 
idle years of food." The mother must work to keep the wolf from the 
door, but why may we not have the little useless children to train ? 
"Because," the mother replies sadly, "I cannot afford to have the 
children study. The boy, though small, can rake fuel for the fire, and 
manure for the field. My wee girl can already spin, mind 
the baby, and wait upon me." If little hands drop their 
small work, older ones must take it up ; and so sharp and cruel is the 
haste with which in this poor family consumption treads upon the heels 
of production, that little jaws must cease to grind, and stomachs to 
crave, if little hands cease to labor. " Well, we will feed your children 
while they study." " That is very kind of you," she says, " but they 
have no decent clothes. Every one will make fun of them if they go 
in such tatters to school." 

Some of the poorest of our Christian widows hire out to work for 
rich families by the season. They dare not miss one day from the 
harvest, or from the cotton-field, for their coveted meeting and lesson, lest 
their places be filled by others and they lose the chance of gleaning at the 
end of the season. We know of doors where the only weapon 
to keep the wolf at bay is the little shining needle of the 
mother. She must have her stent done to-night. You speak 
to her, she answers you without looking up; for, as the 
saying runs, " You raise your head, you lose one stitch ; yon lower your 


head, yon lose another." How fast her needle flies ! though night has 
come, the children are all curled up fast asleep, and it is so piercingly 
cold her hands are numb. It seems a marvel each time she sees to 
thread her needle. Her lamp ! let us rather say her corner of Egyptian 
darkness ! Her eyes are fast giving way under the continual night work 
and the daily smoke. Some melancholy day will see her quite blind. 
Then poverty will hold the family in a still sterner vice. Pray, where is 
lier education to come in ? 

The possible depths of Chinese poverty may be shown by two 

Examples exam P les : ~ one of a family where the wedding of their son 

of poverty, found them too poor to buy a fifteen-cent mat for the Vang 

of the bride. They borrowed one. The new wife, who had 

a comfortable bed-quilt as a part of her dowry, felb guilty to be warm 

while her new mother-in-law shivered under a tattered excuse for a 

comforter. After the rest were asleep, the bride would steal out of the 

other room, put her nice warm covering over her new mother, and go 

back to her own comfortless bed to shiver. In another village, a dispute 

as to who should bear the expense of less than two cents worth of oil an 

evening, has been known to break up a religious meeting. " But the 

people are not all as poor as that," says your new missionary, whom no 

doubts appal, and no facts suppress. Unwittingly she thus brings you 

to the third obstacle, 

The Multiplication of Manual Labor. Rightly to understand Chinese 
life we must turn our backs on the great facts of political economy, and 
move the hands of the world s great clock back to the times of our 
great-grandmothers. We long to give our Chinese sister a Christian 
training. Christian training is instruction, or building up. It is first, as 
a preparation, intellectual. Even a divine Christ must be intellectually 
apprehended to be revered. We must wake up our sister s mind ; but 
that is a work of time, and her time, alas ! has already so many calls 
upon it. " Wby, how is that ? " says the new missionary ; " with such a 
small house, no elaborate cooking, no fussy dress-making and millinery, 
no pillow-shams and no Church fairs, one would think she might have 
oceans of time." We will invite her to come and study with us a month. 

Intense longing and regret flit across her face. Her " Out- 
Mnitipllclty -j i ,1 ii i i , 

of cares side, as she quaintly calls her husband, "needs a blouse." 

" Well, bring the shears, and we will help you. Fie upon 
such a miserable little obstacle as that to blockade the way to the 
kingdom of heaven ! Here is the sewing machine atl threaded ; bring us 
the cloth." "Nay, softly, oh sanguine Occidental ! The cloth is out 
there in Nature s lap, tucked away in the cotton-pods. The woman 
brings it in, four catties of cotton, a great lapful of hard white wads. 
Her skilful fingers and feet are soon flying at the cotton-gin. After four 
hours of hard work, the seeds are disposed of, and tiie gin goes back 
to its corner. Next comes the musical clang of her bow. A whole day 
of patient steady labor is needed to reduce those little hard wads to a 
snowy, fleecy mountain of picked-up cotton. Next comes the cheerful 
hum of her little spinning wheel. She is never idle, seek her when you 

May 10th.] MRS. ARTHTJK H. SMITH. 251 

may. But five days slip by before the thread is all spun. We watch 
and sigh. Next, out comes the clumsy old loom. How monotonous the 
click-clack of its treadle ! How slowly the shuttle goes, though our friend 
is reputed a good weaver ! Five days more have glided away into the 
eternal past, when a piece of cloth, twenty-five feet long, poor, coarse and 
narrow, drops from that antiquated loom. Eleven days and a half out of 
her month gone, and we have only just got to the shears ! Another day 
sees the garment done. 

The new missionary cannot sew for all the Chinese women, furnish 
ing time and foreign thread; but she means to see this one experiment 
through. The woman is a bright one ; her mind is being wasted. We 
will polish it, quicken it, set it fermenting with new ideas ; in shorfc, 
make yeast out of her, with which to leaven a great mass. Then no one 
will begrudge the day s work and the foreign thread. " Come, and 
begin to-morrow," she says, as the woman sews on the last button. 
" Thank you so much, I should be so glad," says the woman, " but I can 
not possibly. My mother-in-law needs a new quilt ; my boy has BO stock 
ings; my two little girls have no wadded drawers, and my father-in-law 
needs a new pair of shoes." " How long does it take you to make him a 
pair ? " " Five days." "And yon make the shoes for the whole family ? " 
" Of course," replies the woman, wondering if the queer new teacher 
supposes that shoes grow. " How many pair will keep all seven of you 
shod for a year?" "About thirty pair." "And how many wadded 
garments do they need ? " " Good years we have each of us two ; that is, 
fourteen in all ; and it takes me a month of steady work, with four or five 
days more, for the bedding, and half a month for the summer clothes." 
" Over two hundred days of clear, solid sewing ! " ejaculates the new- 
missionary, " even if she never had an interruption ! And the cloth for 
all these jackets and drawers, comforters, stockings and shoes, does it all 
lie out there, eleven days away from the shears ? " " Why, yes, where 
else could it be ? " The wind is all out of that missionary s sails. They 
only flap dejectedly. " Time ? " she thinks, " Time ? " Why one person 
ought to be appointed to eat for a Chinese woman, and one to, sleep for 
her, while a third does her breathing ! What a mistake to have an " Out 
side " at all ! one should be all kernel and no shell. Oh ! for the freedom 
of those happy lands where one might at least find an old maid to 
educate ! 

The fourth obstruction to our labors in China is The Social Vortex. 
There, in the middle of the fateful ring, is our Chinese woman, with jusfe 
about as much chance of escape as other travellers in other maelstroms. 
Does the little Chinese girl wish to read ? Her mother cannot spare the 
time. She coaxes her into consenting. Her father does not see tho use. 
She persuades him with difficulty. Her older brother will not have her 
" running after foreigners." He is difficult to entreat, but finally gives a 
grudging consent. But there are also her paternal grandfather and 
grandmother, and an army of uncles and aunts, who must not be offended, 
and who are all but certain to interfere. 


As if this great crowd of thwarters were not enough, there soon 

looms on her horizon a cloud blacker than any other. Its power for 

disaster is all unmeasured. It fills her with a new and deep dismay. It 

is the woman who is to domineer over all her mature life, her dread 

mother-in-law. Cloud, did I say ? It is a whole sky-full of 

mother-in- clouds. That husband of hers, will he not also be equipped 

with grandparents and a whole battalion of relatives who 

must be conciliated ? Besides, in the new life, she will have two homes 

instead of one, and, according to our usage, will constantly vibrate between 

the two ; so that even if allowed to learn a little at one of them, she will 

probably forget most of it while at the other. Imagine the progress of 

even a bright child in a public school at home, if taken out of school 

every other month for a long visit to a neighboring town. 

Later, dear little hindering arms are round her neck, little voices 
clamor in her ear, and she has never a moment of leisure night or day. 
But surely there is one glimpse of blue sky ahead. Since " the wife of 
many years at last herself simmers down into a mother-in-law," even 
according to the most dismal showing this girl will by and by have the 
reins in her own hands and be herself the one whose will is law. True ; 
but if she has several sons, she will also have several daughters-in-law. 
These will seldom all be absent at the same time. The proprieties do not 
permit her to leave them long alone ; so that she is still most effectually 
tied at home. We do occasionally find a woman who is no longer under 
what Confucianism styles " the three subjections of women." Her father, 
her husband, her son, no longer say her nay ; for death has stilled their 
voices forever. She can now do what she will, but even to escape her 
galling bonds, no woman covets an old age of such pathetic loneliness. 

The Intellectual Torpor of the Chinese Woman forms the fifth great 
hindrance to her Christian training. Like the Lady of Shalott, a spell 
seems thrown around her. She cannot reason. Her power of attention 
has never been developed. Her mind seems liko the chaos that rested 
over the world at its creation. She cannot keep two ideas separate ; they 
run together like the pictures in a composite photograph. 
example. 6 Let us take a concrete example. Here are three ignorant 
but docile women. We will make a lesson so simple that 
infancy in arms could not stumble over it. " Our Father which art in 
Heaven," that means three things ; remember, three. First, a Father, 
who loves you. Second, our Father, yours, mine, everybody s. If one 
Father, then we are all brothers and sisters in this world. Third, 
" Which art in Heaven." Heaven, our Father s home, ours, the old 
ancestral home, which is ready and waiting for the good children who 
mind the Father. These He will one day call home. The next day you 
venture a fresh lesson. " Thy will be done." If you really want God s 
will done, you must help. How can you help to make people do it ? In 
three ways : First, pray for people that they may be willing to hear what 
God s will is. Second, preach to them, that they may have something to 
hear. Third, set them a good example, so that your practice may not 

May 10th.] MRS. ARTHUR H. -SMITH. 253 

undo your preaching. After careful and painstaking drill, you^examine 
them on this lesson. " How can yon help people to do God s will ? " 
Number One beams with a new-found intelligence, and says promptly, 
" Father in Heaven." You shake your head. " Number Two ? " Number 
Two knows better and answers triumphantly, "Ancestral home." " No ! 
no ! Now Number Three, be careful ; tliinlc first" Number Three deliber 
ates. She brightens up with a sudden illumination. She has it. How 
queer the others could not think of it when it was so plain ! " Pray to 
your brothers and sisters." 

Mental Torpor is, however, not so grave a hindrance as is the sixth 
embarrassment, which is 

Spiritual Lethargy. The evidences of this lethargy are not far to 
seek. A Chinese woman has no clear idea of an undying spirit, but 
vaguely confuses it with animal life. What shall be said of the spiritual 
perception of a being who believes, not that there is one immortal soul 
within her, her real self, that which shall one day give account of its 
deeds, but that three souls and seven animal spirits frisk around within 
her mortal tenement, like spring lambs in a meadow ! Instead of that 
sweet and solemn thing which life is to the Christian, what a hideous 
nightmare of masquerading must it seem to those who believe in the 
transmigration of souls. 

Again, although the Chinese sacrifice to the dead and report the 
departure of their deceased relatives to the local god, and through him 
to the city god, as if they expected them to do something about it, it is 
far from certain that they have any clear idea of a future life or im 
mortality. We have questioned many a group about the far-off shadowy 
land which had swallowed up their departed. There is but one answer 
to such questions ; " Who knows ? " " When the sacred books have 
been read, the priest s stomach is full. When paper money is burnt, 
the wind blows it away. When one has burned incense, there is left 
only a pile of ashes. When one has sacrificed to the gods, he then 
devours his own sacrifice." In spite of this, their own melancholy and 
pathetic commentary on their own highest forms of devotion, force of 
habit still urges them on. The spiritual torpor is further shown by the 
fact that they have no dawning idea who their gods 
originally were. Nor do they especially care. It does not ^rpor? 1 
seem to worry them to learn that some of the gods are mere 
myths, and never really existed at all. Women who have worshipped 
Buddha for fifty years have received, with no shock of sorrow, the news 
that he, when alive, was only a poor, tired, hungry, dying mortal, like 
the rest of us, and not even their own countryman. So easy-going is 
idolatry that the gods need not bo decently moral, nor even have any 
personality whatever. The Yen Wangs, or Chinese Plntos, who are 
supposed to reacive tho souls of tho dead, were only vicious princes of 
aucicut times. Tho universal popular worship of "Heaven and Earth" 
docs not imply aiay personality on tho part of these objects of worship, 
and it is frequently impossible to interest the Chinese in the question 


whether "heaven and earth" can or cannot hear and answer the prayers 
made to them ; but at the same time the posture in which those prayers 
are offered seems to the worshippers a matter of supreme importance. A 
new comer at our P ang Chuang chapel said that he approved of us 
because we had such good customs. The last prayer after the Sunday 
morning sermon coming about twelve o clock, we all arose and kneft at 
our benches, thus facing the South, and this he took for our regular noon 
worship of the sun ! 

Once more, where the spiritual faculty really exists, worship will 
not descend into mere barter. " I bring you so much incense, paper 
money, bread, wine, and so many pig s heads, and you give me in return 
so many months of affluence and peace." The Chinese stand around their 
gods, a nation of beggars. True, they do sometimes bring thank- 
offerings as well, but often they do not, and what does their formal 
worship know of praise, adoration and real heart-communion ? 

Dearly does the Oriental eye love scenic effect, and Cheir ceremonial 
reverence satisfies that superficial desire. That such poor empty husks 
seem to them all there is of religion is shown by the remark of a heathen 
woman. The missionary ladies were " very nice indeed," she said, but it 
seemed " such a pity they had no religion " I Often it is of no conse 
quence what the ceremony is, how often repeated, or when ; the mere 
form is all. "I have set out my pig s head. To be sure, the gods did 
not eat it, but that is their affair. I have done my part." This endless 
and meaningless routine it is which has induced spiritual paralysis. 

As if there were not already discouragements enough, our way to 
the Chinese heart and conscience is blocked, seventhly, by 

The Gulf Between Races. How broad and deep it lies between our 

young, democratic, aggressive, impatient, independent world, 

and this old, autocratic, conservative, slow-moving China. 

Our food, our clothing, our faces, our education, our language and 

our customs, all seem to make it broader. When all that is within us 

cries out against their standards and their methods ; when all our study 

and work, our living and loving, is set to a key different from the Chinese, 

how are we to escape discord ? 

We are reminded how broad this gulf must seem to the Chinese by 
their constantly recurring question, whether ice also have a sun and a 
moon in our country. Upon telling a Chinese woman that the writer s 
mittens were knit by her husband s mother, the woman s lower jaw 
dropped for a minute, and then she said in a tone of deep amazement, 
" Just to think that she has a mother-in-law too ! " As if, forsooth, we 
dug our husbands up out of a coal-mine, or moulded them out of clay 
and then baked them. 

There is no doubt that, sometimes, what seem to us the very neces 
sities of life widen thin chasm. A woman who once called upon us in 
the dead of winter, looked into tho glowing hard-coal fire, and said bit 
terly to her companion, "Think of all that coal burning at once, and then 
think of the handful of weeds we scrape together by hours of effort, and 

May 10th.] MRS. ARTHUR H. SMITH. 255 

hoard to cook a scanty meal. I mean to go home, lie down and die ! " 
Because our Bible is the main point at which we touch, our Christians 
seem to find it hard to think of us except in connection with religious 
duties. A Foochow missionary was one day humming a tune. A church 
member near, said, " Is that a ballad ? " " No," said his helper, who 
stood by, " he never sings anything but hymns." The missionary smiled ; 
the " hymn " was " Shoo Fly, Don t Bodder Me ! " Take the case of the 
most interesting and the dearest Chinese woman you know. She looks 
at your book-shelves and says timidly, " I suppose these are all about 
the Bible." How can you make her understand that this shelf- full is 
about art, that the nest shelf is scientific works, your dear old school- 
books ; the next, travels and biographies, and the one above, your favorite 
poets ? You glance across them, Skakespeare, Tennyson, Whittier, 
Adelaide Proctor and Mrs. Browning, and then back to your Chinese 
friend. You sigh. It seems as if she had dropped down out of the mid 
dle ages. She, too, feels the gulf and sighs in her turn. The woman who 
reads all these books, and more, who dashes off letters to her friends at 
will, who stands at her husband s side, his companion and confidant, 
having of her own free and unfettered will elected to be his only ; this 
woman seems to her as easy to follow, imitate and have fellowship with, 
as a dweller on some distant star. 

But enough of obstacles. Despair is written on no Christian banner. 
Even Alps have passes over them and tunnels through them. Let us as 
wise engineers set ourselves to solve the problem of our 
Chinese Alps. True, the Tyranny of Opinion forges fetters exist to be 
around Chinese women, but Christianity is slowly but surely 
undoing them. Let us set public opinion right, and then the stronger 
its hold the better. There is a new tribunal slowly beginning to gain 
influence, as the years creep by ; the opinion of the Christian Church. 
A number of men send their wives to our station class and for a mouth 
do the housekeeping themselves. They are not quite sure how the shoe 
came on that other foot, but they must do as the other church-members 
do, and it is getting to be the fashion to have one s wife read. It is more 
and more thought desirable that Christians should be betrothed to 
Christians, and our glad ears are greeted with inquiries by prospective 
mothers-in-law for intelligent brides. Hero and thero a woman who is 
hindered from coming to the mission-school herself, has sent in her stead 
the girl who is one day to come under her mother-in-law wing, with the 
remark that it will make her bride all the more docile and lovable by and 
by to learn of us now. 

While the population is too great for the square ruile, poverty mast 
pinch. In this conservative old world, manual labor must bo multiplied. 
But even in a land of such difficulties, tho will is still bridegroom to the 
way. Many an eager child, in rags and dirt, has set her little catechism 
upon one side, and her spinning. wheel on tho other, and has found that 
tongue need not hinder fingers in the race. Tho clanging bow, tLo 
humming wheel, tho clattering loom, rnsst go on, or oar poor Shantacg 


world wonld be all unclad. But (breathe it not to the jealous mother-in- 
law) many a bright young wife and eager maiden, while in the dim 
light of her underground weaving-cellar, by the aid of a kind Christian 
woman more at leisure than herself, has stored away chapters from the 
catechism, passages from the Gospels, and sweet hymns, and yet has 
come up to the waiting mother-in-law, at dusk, with her stent all done- 
This learner, in her turn, often helps the younger ones of her household 
to what she has so freely received. 

The principles of political economy, though stern and relentless, are 
also impartial, and are sometimes found to favor our work. Labor 
being so cheap, and essential things so few, the cost of living for the 
Chinese is very small, and boarding-schools are absurdly economical. 
We are able in our station boarding-school to provide plentiful food, 
and the fuel to cook it, for about two and a half cents (gold) per day 
for each individual. 

And how about the Social Vortex ? 

Christian light dawns apace. Christian homes are building, where 
men find women struggle toward those fair heights, where 
tewntag. the husband shall "love his wife, even as himself, and the 
wife see that she reverence her husband." It is only against 
the strongest protest that our Christian girls are married off into heathen 
families. For such we can only pray. Every year many a Christian 
family receives a heathen bride. As she steps across the new threshold, 
the Christian mother-in-law puts into her hand, not the wine cup, with 
its idle superstition, but a Bible. Like other brides, she has a whole 
new circle of relatives, but she, fortunate child, has sailed into no vortex 
of conflict and petty persecution ; rather into a very haven of peace. 
The new friends will encourage and help her to learn, and wake up 
within her new ambitions. No one need be set to watch this bride, 
lest some bright day find her with one end of her girdle tied to a 
rafter, and the other round her neck. Such a girl often outstrips her 
older and duller mother-in-law in learning, and thenceforth commands 
respect for her mental qualities, and becomes in turn the one to teach 
and help. 

How to prevent the two homes of the Chinese bride from interfering 
with her Christian training, is a knotty problem. One distracted Shan 
tung missionary, who always found that, just as herculean labor on her 
part had awakened her brightest pupils and started them nicely, they 
invariably went homo to " seo mother," was heard to declare that if sho 
could only banish all the meddling husbands to Manchuria, spirit away 
the girlhood homes to Tonqain, and chloroform tho babies, then, first, 
conld one ascertain what a Chinese woman s mind is like ! Failing this 
somewhat heroic treatment wo may at least console onrsclycs with tho 
thought that a Chinese woman Is net er silent, and that tho little that tho 
bride does know, often kindles an interest in tho truth in her father s 
home, and may bring in a whole new circle of inquirers. 

May 10th.] MRS. AETHUR H. SMITH. 257 

As for the Intellectual Torpor, we will not stop to discuss the chil 
dren of the Church. The laws of heredity being divine, and 
not Chinese, tie girls are found to inherit mental alertness torpor may 
and fine memories, quite as often as their brothers. The ljeovercome - 
sabject of schools for these girls is, however, not within our scope, but 
will be treated by others. But many a neglected mother, under the 
sunshine of missionary encouragement and praise, with the stimulus of 
companionship and emulation, has gradually wakened to a new self 
whom we hardly recognize. Even small achievements are regarded as 
very remarkable by the friends at home who do not know a character. 
The pupil fresh from a month of winter school, has an admiring and 
wide-mouthed audience of friends and neighbors as she displays her 
small lore. She who knows the beatitudes, the commandments and the 
Lord s prayer, is henceforth raised to a pedestal above them. It is a 
charmingly new sensation to have people look up to her. She wants them, 
to look still higher next year. Even the most tiresome of dull women, 
who could not possibly explain " Our Father which art in heaven " 
to any one else, may yet in her heart feel after that Father, wish to 
please Him, and long to be in that home above with His other children. 

As for that Spiritual Coma which is the gravest obstacle of all, what 
shall we do with this body of death ? A sigh, a tear, seem 

more possible to the mummy Pharaoh exhumed to-day than Hfe can 

-L i i ix m rrM - be imparted. 

a spiritual faculty to our Chinese woman. The centuries 

have buried it fathoms deep. A cold and dead idolatry stands guard at 
its tomb. True, but the Lord of life also stands beside that grave. He 
works with us and through us. What is needed is a galvanic shock. We 
are the battery. Along our helpful lips may flow the swift electric 
current of His word, quickening the dead into perfect life. Ours to keep 
the battery in perfect order, the box open, and the current flowing. Not 
through us only, but from Christian Chinese, heart to heart, flash these 
currents that mean spiritual life and health. 

In our winter school, women are gathered from many little villages. 
Some are the only Christians in their small hamlets, and are scoffed at 
and looked down upon when at home. On Sunday morning, in Church, 
they look around on the chapel full of worshippers, and thrill with their 
first real comprehension of " the fellowship of the saints." This Chinese 
woman, who used to kneel on the temple floor, her eyes wide open and 
wandering about, this woman who would stop in the middle of her 
" 0-mi-t o-fo" to laugh at something absurd, this is the woman who now 
turns with the simplicity of a little child to her new found Father. 

Superstition and credulity are replaced by a living faith. A woman 

in our dispensary seeing the missionary approaching to hear 

, , j, , , ., , ., r , n , {T ? T , Examples 

ner lesson, turned her head aside and said softly, " Dear Lord, 

my teacher has come. Don t let me forget my lesson this 
time, help me to remember it all." The same woman, taught to thank 
God for her food, and reminded of the long years during which she had 
taken her mercies without acknowledgment, devoutly raised her head and 


asked % blessing each time she received a drink of water. Dearest of all 
the results of our winter school, we count the quickening of the faith 
talent. One of our last year s pupils said, " It makes one s heart hot to 
go to P ang Chuang. I used to pray once in a while, when I thought 
of it; now I pray every day." Another one found herself, near night 
fall, on a lonely road far from home on a long journey. Her heart was 
full of misgivings. She said, " Oh, Lord, the road is long. I am an 
ignorant woman going to seek my son, and I do not know the way ; but 
the road, and the people, and the big city of Lin Ch ing are all Thine, 
Lord. Please help me not to lose my way, and let some kind good 
woman take me in for the night, so that I need not go to an inn, 
with strange men." A few rods ahead, a gentle white-haired old 
woman, leaning on a staff, noticed her weary air, invited her in for the 
night, and entreated her most hospitably. 

A missionary child, laid on a lingering bed of illness, touched the 
sympathies of the women profoundly. A wide circle prayed daily for her, 
some of them three times a day. When they saw her perfectly recovered 
of hip-disease, and dancing about like other children, they said simply, 
" Of course. How should she not get well with all of us praying 
for her?" 

One of our pupils walked eight miles to ask P ang Chuang prayers 
for a niece who was the victim of Chinese surgery, and whose case seemed 
hopeless. The niece recovered. After our students returned home last 
year, some of them established weekly prayer meetings, which they have 
ever since faithfully continued. Nor is it faith without works. Since 
they left us a year ago, although themselves poor and busy, they have 
gathered in about forty other women and children and have regularly 
taught them. 

But even if all these six great obstacles were surmounted, there still 
yawns before us, black and forbidding 

The Gulf Between Races. We have said that our faces, our food, our 

fuel, onr clothing, our education, our language and our customs widen it. 

Evidently our faces cannot be altered or dispensed with. Even when 

Chinese dress is assumed, our fair skin, blue eyes aud light hair are there 

to belie us. Although the Chinese dress is at times a great convenience, 

and breaks the force of idle curiosity, we do not believe that it in any 

Cannot live 8ense conciliates or wins confidence. As to the question of 

down to food and fuel, we have known no missionary who tried to 

live down to the level of his church members who did not 

early and fatally impair his own health. 

Our education cannot be undone. Language, however, need not be 
a hopeless barrier. If we set ourselves with sturdy resolve and persistent 
industry to acquire the Chinese idiom, even the dullest missionary may 
surely gain a reasonable knowledge of colloquial. Friendly chit-chat, 
and kind and careful attention to the little details of their d aily life 
when we visit, make us comfortable and welcome guests evea in these 
Oriental homes. 

May 10th.] MRS. ARTHUR H. SMITH. 259 

A most efficient aid in making the Chinese feel at ease with us, is a 
scrupulous attention to Chinese politeness, excepting, of course, that 
which involves insincerity or foolish waste of time. The missionary who 
is awkward and embarrassed, too indifferent to ascertain, or too careless 
to remember, what is expected of her in the little details of daily life, and 
in the great crises of weddings, funerals and New Years, has lost a 
gracious opportunity to make herself one of her flock. Small courtesies 
have a charm all their own. 

But all these helps are not enough. The resistless torrent of the 
Niagara river once flowed away to the lake, while the dwellers on either 
hand could only gaze across its forbidding chtism. Then a summer 
breeze stole over it, carrying a little kite. From the kite hung a silken 
thread, to that was attached a twine, a rope. Last of all, was drawn over 
a woven wire cable, capable of resisting a mighty strain. If they had 
stopped with the silken thread, the twine, or the rope, no suspension 
bridge would have gladdened waiting eyes, and knifc the further to the 
nearer shore. Hearty and overflowing love is the one strong cable to 
bridge our gulf ; love that pities poor old worn-out bodies ; the love that 
patiently listens to garrulous accounts of small domestic 
woes, soothing them with ready sympathy; the love that 
shows you how to put yourself in their hard and trying bri g d ^f the 
places ; the love that helps your feeble, aged guest down the 
steps and lifts her on her donkey ; that asks her the easy question at 
meeting ; that places her next you where she can hear best ; that 
remembers a little gift for her poverty-stricken New Year ; that is careful 
to send some dainty to the sick son ; the love that surrounds her like an 
atmosphere ; the love that teaches and helps so graciously, it leaves no 
more burden of obligation than the gentle dew which distils from heaven. 
And when her darkest days come, the days of deep and desolate 
bereavement, when her Chinese friends stand about, comforting her in 
their hollow heathen fashion, repeating over and over, " Don t be sorry ! 
No use to cry ! " then you, who have loved her so long, can pass them all 
by, sit down at her very side, and pour into her ear the deep, tender, 
profound comfort of the Gospel. 

How far apart you and she once seemed ! Love, the divine magnet, 
brings you at last heart to heart.. But though it is possible by thia 
magnetic touch of love to win here and there one, what are these among 
so many ? "What of the great, overpowering, seething multitude whom 
we never reach at all ? Sitting even under that shadow we will still take 
heart. We think of a black night long ago. The Light of the World 
lay quenched in darkness. Jesus Christ, buffeted, abused, despised, 
lacerated, execrated, lay in a criminal s grave. The terror-stricken little 
handful of His own fled in dismay. True, Nature had shivered as Ha 
went, but the great Prophet was dead dead ! And the eleven, what 
were they without Him ? they, who had been nothing till He found and 
inspired them. The hundreds of sin-sick, heart-sore disciples and 
followers, who had clung about Him, were left to the tender mercies of 
the Pharisees. The great, tired world, whose longing gaze was fixed on 

DISCUSSION. [Fourth day, 

this Day-spring from on high, saw it blotted out in utter blackness. But 
see ! those motionless feet move again ; they are departing from that 
silent grave; those still, cold hands leave their dread repose; that great 
Heart throbs onco more with a mighty pulse of love ; that tender voice 
vibrates again with profoundest pity. Above the longing, disappointed 
world, never again to be quenched in night, bursts the light of the bright 
and morning Star, drawing the eyes of the whole universe toward its 
glad radiance. The might that turned ghastly death into triumphant, 
beautiful, eternal life ; the might that transformed night and chaos into 
the peace and glory of sunrise ; the might that made heroes and martyrs 
of that trembling handful of cowardly disciples ; the might that has 
through the ages lifted up, soothed and comforted the great, sorrowful, 
weary world ; this might, this arm of strength, ivories with us. Assuredly 
it shall, at last, set our Chinese sister, enlightened of mind, clean of 
speech, pure of heart and fervent of spirit, before the Great White 
Throne, to praise her divine Rescuer and Redeemer. 


Rev. A. Williamson, L.L.D. (S. U. P. M., Shanghai). I venture 

to think that the importance of woman s work in China is not 

Importance of sufficiently realized by us. First, the women of China, as a 

^ rule, can only le reached lij ivomen. What does that imply ? 

It implies that it is the duty of Christian women to evangelize the 

women of China from the Amoor on the North to Tong-king; 

oS?c e rca a ch. fro . m th0 Eastern ?ea all through the Provinces to Central women. Asia. We men will help them all we can, but we cannot 

do this duty. 

My second remark is, the permanent Christianization of China depends 

on having the women on our side. The women conserve the 

permanent re ligious influences of the family, and we shall never win 

work. China for the Lord till we have gained the women of the 

nation. What can any man any where do if the women of 

the house are against him ? On the women also depends the bringing 

up of the boys and girls, and, in a large measure, the future of the empire. 

My third remark is this, we are commanded to preach the Gospel to 

every creature. Can it be said that we fulfil our duty if half 

Th To^cTy* : the haman race is left out ? We are told we are to preach 

creature." the Gospel to all nations for a witness and then shall the end 

come ; so that not merely the salvation of the souls of the 

women, but the coming of the Lord and the end of all evils depends 

largely on the action of our Christian women. Intemperance, slavery, 

war, impurity, etc., prevail only so long as our Christian sisters leave 

their mission unfulfilled. It is quite reasonable therefore to say that 

women s work in making the Gospel known to their sisters in the East 

the most paramount importance. Much depends on it ; and all 

other Action should be made subservient to this. They should consider 

*t their highest duty and honor to engage in this, work, 

May 10th.] EEV. j. L. NEVIUS, D.D. 261 

The question then comes, how we are to reach the women of China ? 
There is nothing like personal agency, the winning voice, the 

kindly eye, the helping hand ; nothing like living: epistles ; How are tbe 

L i i T ii c IT, f i , women to 

but alas ! our kving epistles are few and literally far between, be reached? 

Is there no other method by which we can reach the women 

of China ? I believe there is, namely, through illustrated books ; and I 

speak from experience, for I find when a beautiful illustrated 

L. i i L c -i AT i i i i j f L t Illustrated 

book is lett in a family, the women take bold of it and give books. 

the men no rest until they explain its meaning. Illustrations 
Lave been found fault with, but we are improving them all the time ; 
and I maintain that this provides an efficient way of reaching the women 
of this land. The women, as a class, cannot read, but in almost every 
family there is one or more who can read ; and by putting these books 
into the families they will not be destroyed, and you make the sons 
and husbands teachers of Christianity for the time being. 

Rev. J- L. Nevius, D.D. (A. P. M., Chefoo.) I think that what 
I say, I say for all the members of my mission associated 

with me in Shantung. We are all a unit on this subject. Speaks for 
TTT , , . . 3 f -ir. .L- f his mission. 

We nave been interested from the first organization of our 

mission there in introducing as much influence from foreign ladies as 
possible. In the stations connected with my work in the interior, I have 
sought from the first to have visits made to the stations by the young 
ladies connected with our mission. In the first few years there was a 
difficulty ; now the way is quite open, and we have large accessions of 
female laborers. I have formulated some views in writing for this 

First, in the evangelization of the world women are women are 
specially fitted to reach and influence women, and many fitted to reach 
ivomen can only be reached ly them. This statement is obvious. 

Second, they can also accomplish much in reaching and influencing 

men both indirectly and directli/, and in some -cases can do it 

-, ,, , 7 / Trr , . v Women can 

better man men. Women s influence is not confined to ivomen. also influence 

A few days ago I saw men in a woman s hospital. In 

Shantung we have found, within the last year, a very interesting station 

started by a woman in the district of P ing-too, a station 

occupied by the Presbyterian church for fifteen years, where mustrated. 

there is very little progress. An earnest, intelligent woman 

went into a country village near to the city, and there she commenced 

her work, quietly and nnobtrusively. A church has been built up and 

the most important persons in it are men. I think there may be other 

cases cited in connection with the Inland Mission. 

Third, there is an urgent and increasing need in China for Christian 
women from the West, qualified and called of God to this special Ur entneed 
work; and the teaching and training of Chinese Christian for lady 
women to help in the work of evangelization is of the greatest eyangpliate. 

Now I am going over the same three points, but putting " men " in 
the place of " women." They are the same statements as before, mutatis 
mutandis. (1) In the evangelization of the world men are ^en can 
specially fitted to reach and influence men, and many mea xeacb men. 
can only be reached by men. 

262 riser SSION. [Fourth day, 

(2) Men can also accomplish much irr reaching and influencing women, 

both indirectly and directly, and in some cases can do it 

better than women. If I had time, I might refer to my own 
personal work in the country. Of the stations with which I had the 
pleasure to be connected some years ago, there were four made up almost 
entirely of ivomen. Those stations have been in existence for ten years, 
and were established entirely by men. There is a fifth station largely 
composed of women- ; it has been entirely constructed by a man. I refer 
to these cases to show that the oft-repeated words that women can only 
be reached by women are not literally true. 

In one case the women have been brought into a church by a father. 

We have a case where a man interested in Christianity went 
T uf "rated 11 * t a village twenty li away and taught his married daughter, 

who established a church in her village. She has been the 
head of the church for the last ten years. Now she is about to be 
transferred to another place to engage in woman s work. In another 
case it was a son and grandson who introduced the Gospel into a town 
where there was a woman of strong will, and she became the head of that 
station. I refer to these cases to illustrate this, that men can also ac 
complish much. 

(3) There is an urgent and increasing need in China for Christian 

men from the West, qualified and called of God to this 
Need for men special work ; and the teaching and training of Chinese 
est Christian men to help in the work of evangelization is of 
the greatest importance. 

Now I come to another point : The work of evangelization is most 
successfully prosecuted by the harmonious co-operation -of both 
^f bothscta 1 sexes in the same work. If the special influence of either 
of workers sex j s wa nting, the fullest and highest development of the 
Christian Church cannot be reached. This is the point I 
wish to bring before you. I fear there has been a kind of divorce 
between men s work and women s work. I think they are one work. 
There are special departments of each, but I do not think it is desirable 
for us to say the men are called to preach to the men, and women to the 
women. I see nothing of that in Scripture. The command of Christ 
to go into all the world was addressed to the Church, irrespective of sex, 
and here are women, called of God s Spirit, coming to preach the Gospel. 
To whom ? To every creature. But man is a creature. Here are men 
who come forth to preach the Gospel. Are women to be excluded ? 
God has set His children in the world in families, and we have found 
through the whole history of the Church that if the Gospel gets a strong 
hold of the man, he will get hold of the women. Men cannot exert those 
same gentle influences that an earnest woman can ; but where the proper 
woman has it in hand wo thank God that, though the work may not be 
done so well, it may be done. When Paul reached Philippi, there he 
found a woman, and God opened the heart of Lydia. She 
PhUipp? was a strong-minded woman, and had been successful iu 
business. I think it may have been largely owing to the 
fact that the principal person in the organization of the Church was a 
woman, that it became one of the purest and strongest Churches in the 
New Testament. Again, wo have a very interesting family 
presented to us in the Scripture, Aquila and Priscilla. 
Have you noticed that there is a peculiar phraseology 
showing that the strong mind and will was in the ^vife rather than the 
husband ? At Corinth "he found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of 

Hay I0th.] HEV. j. HUDSON TAYLOK. 263 

Pontus, by race, lately come from Italy" it does not say "and his wife," 
bat "with his wife Priscilla." Here the husband comes first. We turn 
to Romans xvi. 3, and we read " Salute Priscilla and Aqnila my fellow- 
workers in Christ Jesus." Here the woman comes to the front, and I 
believe she was the principal evangelist in that family. I suppose it 
happened in this way, that when Apollos came to Ephesus, Aquila 
said : " What a grand man that fellow from Alexandria is ; how elegant 
and cultured ; but we must teach him more about Jesus Christ ; " and 
Priscilla said : " Y"ou invite him to our house to dinner, and we will see 
what we can do." I believe that the grand work of Apollos came 
largely from that woman. So it goes on : men working for women 
and women for men ; and women s influence and men s influence are 
together, as the warp and woof in the whole texture of the Church. 
" What God hath joined together let not man put asunder. 

In conclusion, I wish to call attention to the last point in Miss 
Fielde s paper ; and she presented this subject- very prominently to the 
last Conference. While she emphasizes the great importance of teaching 
and training women, she says : "As time has passed, I have myself grown 
doubtful whether it would not be better to give the Christian women a 
Christian education, and then let them always return to their own 
domestic circle, and for the spreading of the Gospel to rely solely upon the 
disposition, which every woman has, to talk about whatever interests 
her. Experience has perpetually increased my perception of the evila 
arising from the nse of foreign money in the promulgation of Christianity 
in China ; and were I now beginning a similar enterprise in .a new field, 
I would pay no native forevangelistic work." 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, (C. I. M.) I have listened with great 
interest to the remarks of Dr. N"evius, and agree with them. We must 
put a little emphasis on the first propositions he read to ns, 
because it is not generally so fully recognized as it is in this lady workers 
Conference that we have in China enormous need for jgweaiz&l 
additional lady workers. I have found iu England, and to 
no small extent in the United States and Canada, that there is a feeling 
that India needs women, but that there is not the same need in China. 
The need may not be quite as great, but while men have done much for 
women in China, there are also very many women that men can never 
reach. Many ladies of the upper classes will never be reached by mala 
evangelists ; and these are the very classes in which our men have least 
access to the brothers and fathers. It is the more important therefore 
that we should have lady workers who can get into those circles. It will 
be well for it to go out from this Conference that we have great need and 
remarkable openings for women s work for women, and that indirectly the 
men are also benefited by this work. I think very few would have any 
sympathy with the woman who would not preach the Gospel to the 
women because the brothers or husbands happened to be present : still, 
the main object of a lady worker is to meet her own sex. The issue oi 
women s work has greatly delighted and somewhat astonish- 
ed me: and it is a very serious question in my mind for women, 
whether those provinces and cities in China which are 
utterly closed to male evangelists may not prove open to our sisters. 
Wo have seen this in some cases. * There is not the same fear that lady 
missionaries are political agents of the British, government, and they have 

264 DISCUSSION. [Fourtn day, 

been allowed to go to places and to work where a male missionary would 
have found no residence whatever. In some of these difficult districts, 
if we desire to secure residence, I believe it will be found that the door 
can be opened by experienced lady workers going alone. We know 
how frequently they receive invitations to go and stay with families ; 
and these visits establish a different feeling towards the male mission 
aries who may subsequently follow them. In one city we 
Aniihistra- labored for some years, but could not get near to the 
argument. people. Two single ladies went there, and visited in the 
homes of the people, and the change of feeling was very 
remarkable. In Lan-chau Fu in KAN-SUH, Mr. Parker secured a residence 
outside the city, but one of our single sisters went there, and she 
succeeded in renting a house within the city. 

Key. Y, J. Allen, D.D., LL.D. (A. S. M. E. M. Shanghai). The 

ladies have spoken of their work and its influence, but there is an influ 
ence going^ abroad from their presence and work of which perhaps they 

are not aware. The public sentiment among the Chinese is 
C views of changing vastly with regard to female education. We have 
the Chinese thought hitherto, from the fact that so few are educated, 
a educ f atTon? tnat ^ 9 Chinese were opposed to female education. I find 

from recent articles published in the Chinese newspapers 
that they claim not to be indifferent to it. They have simply allowed 
it to fall into desuetude. They now feel disposed to be ashamed of the 
fact, the presence of educated and intelligent women from the West 
puts them to shame, and they are beginning to create a sentiment in 
favor of female education. I would like the ladies to know that they 
are not working unobserved, and their labors are not without results. 
There is another fact that enhances this work. China is not the 
China of thirty years ago. It is changing very rapidly, particularly 
in its sentiment with, regard to many things that we have forced 011 

its consideration. We kuow that its education is being 

Opinions of increased by the intercourse between China and foreign 

ChiueBe! countries, and by its sons going abroad to countries where 

they mingle with our people on an equality. They have told 
me they would prefer to stay permanently in England or America because 
of the social advantages they enjoy; and their opinions with regard 
to the status of women there are favorable. When I set about establish 
ing the Anglo-Chinese College, two things were impressed on me. 
Some of the gentlemen who camo to enter thei-r sous said they had 

daughters also. In one case, the man said ho had no sons, 
Chinese wish but daughters, and ho enquired, "Have you a school at 
their daughters . which I can educate my daughters?" In the absence 

of a Protestant school, he had thought of sending them 
to the Roman Catholic institutions. The Roman Catholics to-day are 
prospering on account of our indifference. Wo have not made provision 
to take in the growing demands around us. In view of this, our mission 
is preparing an institution for these girls of the higher classes ; and 
Miss Haygood is to take charge of it. The other day Wong-tao, ono 
of the ablest men in China, said in the Shun-pao that the education of 

the Chinese had been neglected, but it was now about to 
thoughtful ko revived, and he endorsed the movement that the higher 

classes should be able to get an education and pay for it. 

When I first started the Anglo-Chinese College, I was obliged 

May 10th.] EEV. j. EDKINS, D.D., AND EEV. D. HILL. 265 

to have lady teachers ; but the Chinese young men were rather shy of 
them. My daughter, who talked Chinese, took the first class, and it was 
not long before a great many of them wished to go to her. Now we have 
not the least trouble from the fact that ladies teach in the 

ft 11 A ^1 j ii Desire for 

College. Again, there is an increasing desire among the educated 
Chinese, especially those having education in Western 
languages, to have educated wives. 

Rev. J. EdkinS, D.D. I fully agree that girls, who have gone 

through a preliminary course of training, may become very 

useful in teaching boys. This is confirmed by Dr. Allen, ^Gkistnay be 

Not only Christian women coming from Europe are qualified ing boys. 

to teach Chinese boys, but girls who have been well trained 

in mission institutions in China, may also undertake this work with 

young pupils. I think this would remove certain difficulties which 

might occasionally be met with in finding schoolmasters. 

Then it often happens that a catechist, whose duty it is to itinerate 
round country stations in some locality, becomes indolent. 
In that case, I would say, send a Bible woman who has gone ^Ynd f^t 
through a training in a missionary school, accompanied by catechist. 
another Christian woman, into the country stations where he 
labors, and the result will probably be a great success in stirring up fresh 
interest in religious things. 

We have every reason to be hopeful with regard to women s work 

in China. I have heard some persons express surprise that -, 

i u i -IT i it. i j j Femals educa- 

the Chraese should be willing to have their girls educated. tionisap- 

They take it for granted that female education is not p Q2J|J n 
approved in China. This is, however, a mistake. I had a 
conversation with Dr. Williams on this subject in Peking, and he agreed 
that gids education has always been considered in China as highly 
suitable. The long succession of eminent literary women illustrates this 
statement. With regard to foot-binding, I agree with the 
statement of Miss Noyes, that, after all, the abandonment of 
foot-binding is a mere matter of time. It will disappear with the spread 
of information. Let it be made known among the Chinese that foot-bind 
ing is no older than the tenth century, and eight centuries is but a short 
time in a country like this. I would also suggest that the evil results 
coming from it, as testified to by medical men, and checking as it does in 
many ways habits ,of active industry and healthy locomotion, should be 
made widely known in works, serial or otherwise, in which information of 
this kind would find a suitable place. 

Rev. D, Hill (E. W. M., Wn-chang). The subject we have to 
consider is deeply interesting to us all, but there is one 
department of it which has not been referred to to-day. I The education 
refer to the education of Eurasian girls. Tho need is patent J girla. 
to all. The supply of that need by the Protestant mission 
ary societies has been but meagre. Something has been done since the last 
Conference, but very lftlle ; and consequently many of these Eurasians 
have passed into tho hands of the Roman Catholics. But that docs not 
relievo us from oar obligation. Institutions have been opened in 

266 DISCUSSION. [Fourth day, 

Shanghai, Hongkong and Hankow. Of the two former I cannot speak 

particularly. I will venture to say a word or two about the 

Th ec?o a oi^ OW Hankow school for girls which was opened some years ago by 

the Rev. Arnold Foster. It is indeed a home and not merely 

a school for the children. Hitherto, few applications for admission have 

been made, although there are many Eurasian girls at the ports. May I, 

therefore, solicit the interest and aid of our friends residing in- tha^ ports 

on behalf of this school ? 

Rev. H. C. Hodges, M.A. (Chaplain of the Cathedral, Shanghai), The 
Shanghai Home for Girls has been established about a year, 
hom^forgiris. We have rented a house iu the Markham Road, and it is con 
ducted by two sisters from Mrs. Meredith s Home in London. 
We have also another Eurasian Home for boy boarders and day-scholars, 
conducted by two female teachers. Through the kindness of the owner 
of that property, we shall soon be iu a position to build an institution 
there large enough to have both Homes on one foundation. The great 
difficulty here is that we cannot get hold of the Eurasian girls. The 
parents are unwilling to part with them. It is all the more terrible 
because they sell them for immoral purposes. I trust we shall see our way 
to employ native missionaries to seek out these children. Those whom 
we take in free of charge are handed over to ns absolutely, and we have 
practically the control of them. The school at present contains fifteen 
inmates. Some of them pay a certain sum a month ; the others are free. 
In the new school we shall accommodate more. We shall be glad if 
any of you can rescue these Eurasian children and put them into our 
care. They may prove hereafter to be missionaries. 

Rev. C. W. Mateer, D.D., LL D. (A. P. M, Tung-chow). What I 

have to say -on this subject I propose to address to the men on behalf 
horta ^ tte women - J wisQ to ex h rfc vou > mv brethren, to en- 
tion 3 toth a e courage your wives to engage actively in missionary work. 
men Some women have so much force of character and such a 

taste for the work, that they will do it in any case. Others are diffident 
and distrustful of their own abilities, and need to be encouraged and 
stimulated. Very much depends on your attitude in this matter. Women 
sometimes fail to do such work, simply because their husbands do not 
believe in their abilities, nor give them a fair chance to try. I venture 
therefore to ask that you will give them a helping hand, 
^drwlvcf Encourage them at the first to learn